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What the British thought Jinnah wanted for declassified folder DO 142/476- Jinnah had Islamist and pan-Islamic ambitions

Ssan

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This thread will discuss the above.

This is related to this thread here.


I wanted to open up a thread where we could present historical evidence for the arguments related to what sort of Pakistan the founding fathers (primarily Jinnah and Iqbal for now) wanted. Clearly, we do have disagreements on this topic. So I wanted to create a thread where we could discuss this...
defence.pk

These are the rules for this thread:-

1) we want to quote only primary sources. If the primary source doesn’t exist publicly, we want to quote the closest secondary source that talks about the primary source you are referring to. If possible, link the primary source web link, if available. The goal is to remain as close to the source as possible that can be easily verified publicly. You can ofc however link context around sources or events however.

2) feel free to use studies but do not post the studies as primary sources. You can quote the primary source reference in the study and then say that you find the reference for this in said secondary source study.

3) feel free to posit an opinion and question a source or say why you think that said source is unreliable. Please keep said opinions polite however. Ultimately reader will judge based on evidence provided.
 
Hi all, as some of you may know, I was nosing around some archival materials related to early Pakistan history. In particular, I was able to get access to docket DO 142/476 which is a public document in the British archives stored in Kews Gardens as shown here - https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C3735104

I managed to obtain digital copies of this docket and also publishing rights to post it publicly and put together a pdf document attached here which has all the folios in this docket excluding blank pages.

The documents in this file were all classified secret documents of the British govt and released recently in maybe ?the 2000s?

I took care to note where each folio in the docket was, ie the docket position, the introducing documents doc#1-8 were not in any folder stash, but after that they were generally in reverse chronological order. I have them re-arranged in chronological order.

The substance of the documents is really interesting as it deals with Pakistan right after being formed in 1947
 
Here is the document docket pdf with each of the folios in the docket attached. I had publishing rights for 80 images and that’s what has been attached here. The only thing excluded from the original docket are blank pages.

I also had to split the pdf into two parts to upload here but anyone can go ahead a merge the two together as well

Here’s the second part

It starts with the FO discussing the likelihood that Pakistan could become a natural leader of the Muslim world and whether UK could use its influence over Pakistan to affect countries in the ME more generally.

To this effect, after a bunch of secretarial bureaucratic back and forth, Documents 2-12, we get to doc # 13, the letter that FO CSI officer sends to the then UK High commissioner, think ambassador, in Karachi, Grafftey-Smith, who is the expert in Pakistan.

A letter also goes to a political observer in the Persian Gulf in Bahrain, a certain Hays.

Rupert Hays and Grafftey-Smith send back letters, Doc #15 and #16 and here it seems clear that these gentlemen see potential but not in the short-term.

Doc # 19 is a summary of this back and forth at the FO and forwarded to all major players. The FO generally agrees with Hays and Grafftey-Smith except that they are impressed at how Pakistan lead the bloc for Palestine.

What’s interesting to note is that the FO would like to see Pakistans role as subservient to India and for her to see her future in South Asia as opposed to ME while still using her to influence the Muslim ME, assuming that UK could still influence it.

To continue to influence Pakistan, they suggest using sufis of the Qadiriya order, Hays letter, doc # 15, is explicit that UK has been using these pirs in the past.

The tone and tenor of the docket documents changes drastically after doc # 21, where the British intercept a letter from Jinnah to Hassan al-Banna where he proclaims his intention to form an islamic league. The UK HC finds out about this and sends it to the permanent under-secretary of state, Archibald Carter, (permanent under-secretary of state, is same as permanent secretary and principal secretary and represents the highest official in the bureacratic chain who directly reports to the ministers and PM even , see: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permanent_secretary and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permanent_secretary_(UK) ).

In this docket a permanent secretary even directly sends a letter to the PM himself, doc # 37.

It is one thing for Pakistan to be a “leader of the Muslim world” when it can serve UK interests- it is different altogether when it is associated with a pan-Islamic and anti-imperialist ideology as the Muslim brotherhood and despite the British thinking that they still might use Pakistan as a bulwark against communism, the tone of all future communications becomes more serious.

From Doc# 21-40 until Jinnah is alive, the idea of an Islamic league or a federation of Islamic countries takes a life of its own, Pakistan being able to influence several Muslim capitals towards its cause- including Iran, Saudi, Jordan, Egypt, questionably Iraq and Turkey.

After Jinnah dies, however, Zafarullah and Liaquat Ali khan walk back the idea of an Islamic league- he makes overtures to Nehru himself and this seems to precipitate the Egyptians to make overtures to Nehru too although the order here is unclear- instead of talking about forming an Islamic league, Liaquat Ali talks about internationalism and strengthening the UN.

According to the British intelligence, he is also placing articles in the Pakistani media, a piece in Sindh Observer, the UK HC is fairly certain is actually placed by Liaquat Ali Khan through Sindh CM Khuhro to influence public opinion away from the Islamic league.

This is music to the British observers, and they applaud the article as interesting and sensible, and note even in their communication how the formation of a Muslim bloc in relation to Palestine was actually one of the reasons for Russo American support of Israel.

Additionally, this implicitly agrees with the article in question that the reason that UK stiffed Pakistan on the Radcliffe award and what not was actually precisely due to possible fears of it precipitating the Islamic bloc that would challenge Uk vested interests.

A special note on doc # 21 where the British intercept a letter from Jinnah to Hassan Al Banna where he expresses his interest in forming an Islamic state and working to form an Islamic league too - I have attached all other archives letters and documents that we have from the Jinnah papers of the communication between the two and the letter itself perfectly matches the context and references previous letters between the two and explains the situation at hand of Ashmawy arriving as a state guest. This is important noting that Jinnahs private letters to Banna were published well after the fact.
 

Attachments

  • Do142_folios_and_summaries_part1.pdf
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  • Do142_folios_and_summaries_part2.pdf
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In conclusion, from the declassified docs, it is fairly clear that the British believed that Jinnah had already accepted an “Islamic accent” for the state of Pakistan. It’s also clear that they were less interested in the question of whether Pakistan would be an Islamic state or not and more so about the question of the Islamic league or federation of muslim countries which they clearly believed was Jinnah’s ambition.
 
Have you heard the expression

"To a hammer everything is a nail"

To the Islamists everything points to where they hoped things point to.

Such cursory conclusions from a few titbits is disingenuous.
Read the docket and form your opinion. The digital copies of all the folios are there. After you form your opinion, do post here.
 
In conclusion, from the declassified docs, it is fairly clear that the British believed that Jinnah had already accepted an “Islamic accent” for the state of Pakistan. It’s also clear that they were less interested in the question of whether Pakistan would be an Islamic state or not and more so about the question of the Islamic league or federation of muslim countries which they clearly believed was Jinnah’s ambition.
I think these documents are musings of bureaucrats that don't mean much. Also, how does it matter whether the British 'believed' that Jinnah had accepted an 'accent'? Reality is, Britain was a spent power in 1947. Confirmation of Britain's greatness being history is the Suez crisis of 1956,
 
Gulf Arab states in the 1950s rebuffed any entreaties from Pakistan for Islamistan
 

Jinnah had opposed the Khilafat movement as a sustainable model for Muslims of the subcontinent. If he unwittingly created a Pakistani caliphate, well that's just life, it's filled with irony.

Pakistan is the founding member of the OIC and spearheads much of the Muslim initiatives on the global platform. In a series of firsts, Pakistan is the 2nd established caliphate.
 
What’s interesting to note is that the FO would like to see Pakistans role as subservient to India and for her to see her future in South Asia as opposed to ME while still using her to influence the Muslim ME, assuming that UK could still influence it.
Spits in the face of the pajeet theory which they've been repeating for the last 70 years about Pakistan being created to prevent India from being a shupa pawa.
 
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Jinnah, IMO, understood the Hikmet and Hakikat of the Time which isn't without it's MASTER. Moreover, he had a clear understanding of the trends in the Murad-i Ilahi.....

Now, at the onset of the WW2 MK Gandhi thought the Japs would win in Asia, and drive out the British. So, he started the "Quit India" movement against the British. Jinnah, however, correctly understood "a known enemy is better than an unknown friend", and that too the enemy with the most industrialized and resourceful USA providing the tail wind. Hence, he asked the sub-continental Muslim youth, who had little prospects of good employment to begin with, to join the British Indian Army en masse. Thus, he had developed a large pool of highly trained soldiers, ~50% of the total British Indian Army, ready for any eventualities. And, he struck a deal with the British Establishment that they wouldn't leave the British India just to the Hindus. He'd have equal say to the Congress for the final solution....

Bottom-line: Jinnah, being in a 5x weaker position, outsmarted his fellow Gujrati Barrister Gandhi.

*In a sense the Hindutva folks were right in killing Gandhi for his failures vis-à-vis Jinnah.
**A moth-eaten Pakistan is still better than no Pakistan. Ask any Indian Muslim.
***The British are 100% hypocrites. In Jinnah's case, they lowered it to 40%. Not a bad deal.
 
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