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Sniper Rifles


Sep 12, 2010
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A sniper rifle is a precision-rifle used to ensure more accurate placement of bullets at longer ranges than other small arms.The main purpose of the sniper rifle is to destroy valuable targets at extended ranges with aimed fire, and with as few ammunition as possible. In most cases, "the target" means the human being (enemy soldier, armed criminal, terrorist, president etc.), and the "as few ammunition as possible" often means "one shot". The range for sniper fire may vary from 100 meters or even less in police/counter-terror scenarios, or up to 1 kilometer or more - in military or special operations scenarios.

Some sniper rifles, mostly - large caliber ones, used also as anti-material weapons, to destroy, or, more often, render unusable or unoperable, targets such as radar cabins, jeeps, parked aircrafts etc.

A typical sniper rifle is built for optimal levels of accuracy, fitted with a telescopic sight and chambered for a military centerfire cartridge. The term is often used in the media to describe any type of accurized firearm fitted with a telescopic sight that is employed against human targets, although "sniping rifle" or "sniper's rifle" is the technically correct term for such a rifle.

The military role of a sniper (a term derived from the snipe, a bird which was difficult to hunt and shoot) dates back to the turn of the 18th century, but the true sniper rifle is a much more recent development. Advances in technology, specifically that of telescopic sights and more accurate manufacturing, allowed armies to equip specially trained soldiers with rifles that enable them to deliver precise shots over greater distances than regular infantry weapons. The rifle itself could be based on a standard rifle (at first, a bolt-action rifle); however, when fitted with a telescopic sight, it becomes a sniper rifle.History of sharp-shooting traces its ancestry well back into XIX or even into XVIII centuries. Early sniper rifles were standart issue army rifles, selected for accuracy, or privately purchased commercial target or hunting rifles. During WW I and WW II both sides used a lot of general issue bolt action rifles (such a Russian/Soviet Mosin M1991/30, US M1903A4, British SMLE No.4(t), German G98k etc.) fitted with some kind of telescopic sight. Some of general issued semi-auto rifles also were used in sniper role, such as Soviet SVT-40 and US M1 Garand.


Sniper rifles can be broadly separated into two categories as below.

Military Sniper rifles: As the name suggest, used by different military units. Along with main requirements for accuracy and sufficient effective range, military use commands some other: military sniper rifle must not be too heavy, because sniper usually must carry it for the long hours, with ammunition and other stuff. Also, military sniper rifle must be extremely reliable in any weather and climatic conditions and could withstand hundreds of rounds fired without cleaning and maintenance and without any loss of accuracy. Third, military sniper rifle must be easy to field-strip and easy to repair in field conditions. Also, military sniper rifle often must have backup iron sights, in case of telescope breakage.
Another requirement is that military sniper rifle must use military ammunition, conforming to international war treaties and generally available to the troops. In most cases, military sniper rifle use variants of the standard caliber army cartridges (such as 7.62mm NATO or 7.62x54mm R), specially developed for sniping.

Effective range for the standard-caliber sniper rifles against the single human-sized target may be estimated as 700-800 meters for first-shot kills. To extend effective range beyond 1000 meters, often used sniper rifles, designed to fire more powerful ammunition, such as .300 Winchester magnum (7.62x67mm) or .338 Lapua magnum (8.6x70mm).

Military sniper rifles may be further separated in two tactically different categories: the sniper rifles itself, designed to achieve aimed hits at long distances, and the Designated Marksman Rifles (DMR), designed to provide accurate fire support for line troops. While the "true" sniper rifles usually are bolt action ones, to achieve maximum accuracy, the DMRs usually are semi-autos, such as Russian SVD or German G3ZF or MSG-90, to gain higher rate of fire. But the difference lays more in tactical appliances, than in the rifles itself.

Law Enforcement: Sniper rifles built or modified for use in law enforcement are generally required to have the greatest possible accuracy, more than military rifles, but do not need to have as long a range.

As law enforcement-specific rifles are usually used in non-combat (often urban) environments, they do not have the requirement to be as hardy or portable as military versions; nevertheless they may be smaller, as they do not need very long range.

The majority of Law Enforcement or Counter Terrorism scenarios require precision shooting at the distances lesser that 300, or even 100 meters. These scenarios also require really few shots per scenario - sometimes one and the only one shot. This also require extreme accuracy and stability of results in any weather conditions. LE and CT snipers also has no limitations on caliber and ammunition selection, so they could select almost any caliber/cartridge they department want, or can afford.

Characteristic features:

Sniper rifles have some distinctive features which separate them form other normal rifles and weapons.

Telescope sight:

The single most important characteristic that sets a sniper rifle apart from other military or police small arms is the mounting of a telescopic sight, which is relatively easy to distinguish from smaller optical aiming devices found on some modern assault rifles and submachine guns. This also allows the user to see farther.
The telescopic sights used on sniper rifles differ from other optical sights in that they offer much greater magnification (more than 4× and up to 40×), and have a much larger objective lens (40 to 50 mm in diameter) for a brighter image.
Most telescopic lenses employed in military or police roles have special reticles to aid with judgment of distance, which is an important factor in accurate shot placement due to the bullet's trajectory.


PSO-1 Sniper Scope Reticle
1 - Lead/deflection scale
2 - Main targeting chevron
3 - Bullet drop chevrons
4 - Rangefinder



The choice between bolt-action and semi-automatic (more commonly known as recoil or gas operation) is usually determined by specific requirements of the sniper's role as envisioned in a particular organization, with each design having advantages and disadvantages. For a given cartridge, a bolt-action rifle is cheaper to build and maintain, more reliable, and lighter, due to fewer moving parts in the mechanism. In addition, the absence of uncontrolled automatic cartridge case ejection helped to avoid revealing the firer's position. Semi-automatic weapons can serve both as battle rifle and sniper rifle, and allow for a greater rate (and hence volume) of fire. As such rifles may be modified service rifles, an additional benefit can be commonality of operation with the issued infantry rifle. A bolt action is most commonly used in both military and police roles due to its higher accuracy and ease of maintenance. Anti-materiel applications such as mine clearing and special forces operations tend to use semi-automatics.

A designated marksman rifle (DMR) is less specialized than a typical military sniper rifle, often only intended to extend the range of a group of soldiers. Therefore, when a semi-automatic action is used it is due to its ability to cross over into roles similar to the roles of standard issue weapons. There may also be additional logistical advantages if the DMR uses the same ammunition as the more common standard issue weapons. These rifles enable a higher volume of fire, but sacrifice some long range accuracy. They are frequently built from existing selective fire battle rifles or assault rifles, often simply by adding a telescopic sight and adjustable stock.

So in short, it is a trade off. If you want to have a high rate of fire you choose a semi-auto, while if you want to have long range, and be covert, you use a bolt action.


Barrels are normally of precise manufacture and of a heavier cross section than more traditional barrels in order to reduce the change in impact points between a first shot from a cold barrel and a follow-up shot from a warm barrel. Unlike many battle and assault rifles, the bores are usually not chromed to avoid inaccuracy due to an uneven treatment.

When installed, barrels are often free-floated: i.e., installed so that the barrel only contacts the rest of the rifle at the receiver, to minimise the effects on impact point of pressure on the fore-end by slings, bipods, or the sniper's handsSniper-rifle barrels may also utilise a threaded muzzle or combination device (muzzle brake or flash suppressor and attachment mount) to allow the fitting of a sound suppressor. These suppressors often have a means of adjusting the point of impact while fitted.
Military sniper rifles tend to have barrel lengths of 609.6 mm (24 inches) or longer, to allow the cartridge propellant to fully burn, reducing the amount of revealing muzzle flash and increasing bullet velocity.


To achieve a significantly longer range than the usual 7.62 x 51 requires at least a larger cartridge case to generate a much higher muzzle energy, and preferably a larger calibre as well; other things being equal, heavy large-calibre bullets retain their velocity better and are less affected by cross-winds. This was recognised by the first attempts to fire accurately at very long range which often used anti-tank rifles of 13-14.5 mm calibre. In fact, as early as the Great War the 13 mm Mauser M1918 anti-tank rifle was used in the counter-sniping role, although in this case the motivation was not so much to achieve long range as to punch through the armour plates being used to protect Allied snipers. The Korean War saw Soviet 14.5 mm PTRD rifles being used for long-range fire, as well as, on the US side, some experiments with .50 BMG guns. However, the guns were usually not that accurate and, even if they were, the standard production MG ammunition certainly wasn't.

A change came in the 1980s from two different sources in the USA. One was the adoption of long-range anti-materiel rifles in .50 BMG calibre, not primarily for sniping but for attacking vehicles and other inanimate objects, normally using standard API or (later) Multipurpose MG ammunition. The other was the establishment of the .50 Caliber Shooters Association, promoting the use of this calibre for long-range civilian shooting, which inspired much more accurate rifles and ammunition. In combination, these two developments led to the use of .50 BMG rifles for long-range sniping as well as anti-materiel use.

There is a problem, however: the .50 BMG rifles and their ammunition are necessarily very big and heavy, not ideal for the sniping role. Many believed that a smaller, but still powerful, calibre would do that job more efficiently. As a result, specialised long-range sniping rifles are now available in several competing calibres, with the widely-adopted .338 Lapua Magnum being the clear market leader, followed by the .300 Winchester Magnum. The ones described in this article are those offered in military-type sniper rifles; there is a host of "wildcats" (rounds made by individual experimenters) in addition. Furthermore, some anti-materiel rifles are also offered in the Russian heavy machine-gun calibres of 12.7 x 108 and 14.5 x 114, but these will not be considered here.

A high muzzle velocity is an advantage in long-range sniping, but that alone is not enough. As ranges extend, it is the ability of the bullet to retain its velocity which becomes increasingly important; bullets which slow down gradually are far more useful than those which rapidly shed velocity. To achieve this, the bullet needs a high ballistic coefficient (BC). This is achieved partly by using a bullet of exceptionally streamlined shape, and partly by making it heavy. It is worthwhile sacrificing some muzzle velocity in order to use a bullet with a higher BC.

The key yardstick for long-range sniper ammunition is the range at which the bullet drops below the speed of sound. This is important for two reasons. The first is because that provides a quick proxy for the trajectory and time of flight of the bullet; and the flatter the trajectory and the shorter the flight time, the greater the hit probability, other things being equal. The second is that dropping back through the transonic zone usually disturbs the flight of the bullet, adversely affecting accuracy, although this effect is minimised with the very low drag bullets developed for the more specialised calibres. To give an example, the 7.62 x 51 147 grain M80 standard NATO ball bullet is fired at a muzzle velocity 200 fps higher than the 175 grain M118LR, but drops to subsonic velocity at around 875 m compared with about 950 m for the heavier and initially slower bullet.

Some of the cartridges for sniping in use today are:

.300 Winchester Magnum, .338 Norma Magnum, .338 Lapua Magnum, 9.3 x 64 Russian, .375 Cheyenne Tactical, .408 Cheyenne Tactical, .50 Browning Machine Gun (BMG), 5.56x45mm NATO, 6.16x51mm.


From left to right:

7.62x51 (for scale), .300 Winchester Magnum, .308 Norma Magnum, .338 Lapua Magnum, 9x85 MEN, 9.3x64 Russian, .375 CheyTac, .408 CheyTac (Extreme Performance loading), .416 Tyr (Extreme Performance loading), .416 Barrett, .460 Steyr, .50 BMG (Primetake loading).

A military-issue battle rifle or assault rifle is usually capable of between 3-6 minute of angle (MOA) (1-2 mrad) accuracy.[6] A standard-issue military sniper rifle is typically capable of 1-3 MOA (0.3-1 mrad) accuracy, with a police sniper rifle capable of 0.25-1.5 MOA (0.1-0.5 mrad) accuracy. For comparison, a competition target or benchrest rifle may be capable of accuracy up to 0.15-0.3 MOA (0.05-0.1 mrad).
A 1 MOA (0.3 mrad) average extreme spread for a 5-shot group (meaning the center-to-center distance between the two most distant bullet holes in a shot-group) translates into a 69% probability that the bullet's point of impact will be in a target circle with a diameter of 23.3 cm (9.2 in) at 800 m (875 yd).[7] This average extreme spread for a 5-shot group and the accompanying hit probability are considered sufficient for effectively hitting a human shape at 800 m distance.
In 1982 a U.S. Army draft requirement for a Sniper Weapon System was: "The System will: (6) Have an accuracy of no more than 0.75 MOA (0.2 mrad) for a 5-shot group at 1,500 meters when fired from a supported, non-benchrest position". Actual Sniper Weapon System (M24) adopted in 1988 has stated maximum effective range of 800 meters and a maximum allowed average mean radius (AMR) of 1.9 inches at 300 yards from a machine rest, what corresponds to a 0.6 MOA (0.5 mrad) extreme spread for a 5-shot group when using 7.62 × 51 mm M118 Special Ball cartridges.

Precision Weapon Engagement Ranges & Dispersion according to the US Army.
A 2008 United States military market survey for a Precision Sniper Rifle (PSR) calls for 1 MOA (0.3 mrad) extreme vertical spread for all shots in a 5-round group fired at targets at 300, 600, 900, 1,200 and 1,500 meters. In 2009 a United States Special Operations Command market survey calls for 1 MOA (0.3 mrad) extreme vertical spread for all shots in a 10-round group fired at targets at 300, 600, 900, 1,200 and 1,500 meters. The 2009 Precession Sniper Rifle requirements state that the PSR when fired without suppressor shall provide a confidence factor of 80% that the weapon and ammunition combination is capable of holding 1 MOA extreme vertical spread. This shall be calculated from 150 ten (10) round groups that were fired unsuppressed. No individual group shall exceed 1.5 MOA (0.5 mrad) extreme vertical spread. All accuracy will be taken at the 1,500 meter point. In 2008 the US military adopted the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System which has corresponding maximum allowed extreme spread of 1.8 MOA (0.5 mrad) for a 5-shot group on 300 feet, using M118LR ammunition or equivalent. In 2010 maximum bullet dispersion requirement for M24 .300 Winchester Magnum corresponds 1.4 MOA extreme spread for 5 shot group on 100 meters.

Although accuracy standards for police rifles do not widely exist, rifles are frequently seen with accuracy levels from 0.5-1.5 MOA (0.2-0.5 mrad). For typical policing situations, an extreme spread accuracy level no better than 1 MOA (0.3 mrad) is usually all that is required. This is because police typically employ their rifles at short ranges. At 100 m or less, a rifle with a relatively low accuracy of only 1 MOA (0.3 mrad) should be able to repeatedly hit a 3 cm (1.2 inch) target. A 3 cm diameter target is smaller than the brain stem which is targeted by police snipers for its quick killing effect.



Maximum Range:

Unlike police sniper rifles, military sniper rifles tend to be employed at the greatest possible distances so that range advantages like the increased difficulty to spot and engage the sniper can be exploited.
The most popular military sniper rifles (in terms of numbers in service) are chambered for 7.62 mm (0.30 inch) caliber ammunition, such as 7.62×51mm and 7.62×54mm R. Since sniper rifles of this class must compete with several other types of military weapons with similar range, snipers invariably must employ skilled fieldcraft to conceal their position.
The recent trend in specialized military sniper rifles is towards larger calibers that offer relatively favorable hit probabilities at greater range, such as the anti-personnel .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge and anti-materiel cartridges like the .50 BMG and the 14.5×114mm. This allows snipers to take fewer risks, and spend less time finding concealment when facing enemies that are not equipped with similar weapons.

When folks ask about "effective range", they typically mean the maximum effective range on a point target. It is worth knowing that sniper rifles are judged differently from pretty much all other rifles. Below, are the maximum effective range values you would use on a semi-automatic battle rifle or assault rifle... anything other than a sniper rifle.

Absolute maximum effective range: This the "this round is not considered lethal after crossing this threshold" distance. Neither of the other two common "maximum range" values will be greater than this. Purportedly, NATO defines this as the point at which the projectile's kinetic energy dips below 85 joules (62.7 foot-pounds). This is typically claimed when recounting that the P90's effective range is 400 meters on unarmored targets, as classified by NATO. It's worth noting that while the P90 looks neater than the civilian PS90, the extra barrel length increases the muzzle velocity and thus the civilian model actually has a longer absolute max effective range.

Maximum effective range on a point target: This is the maximum range at which an average shooter can hit a human-sized target 50% of the time. "Point target" is basically a euphemism for hitting a human torso sized area in this context. If this range were greater than the absolute maximum, the absolute maximum would be quoted (a non-lethal hit may be accurate, but it's not effective).

Maximum effective range on an area target: This is the maximum range at which an average shooter can hit a vehicle-sized target 50% of the time. In other words, this is the maximum distance at which it would make sense to open fire on a group or vehicle, etc. If this range were greater than the absolute maximum, the absolute maximum would be quoted (a non-lethal hit may be accurate, but it's not effective).

It should be apparent that "effective range" is highly dependent on the shooter and is also closely tied to the appropriate choice of ammunition for your weapon. An AR-15 with a 20" 1:12" barrel may have an effective point-target range of 800 yards when firing 55gr ammunition, but then upgrading to 69gr or 77gr ammunition would see the effective range drop dramatically due to the inadequate twist rate for the higher loads.

Sniper rifle effective range: Sniper rifles are judged by entirely different criteria. A sniper rifle's effective range is judged based upon the range at which one shot, carefully fired by an expert marksman, is guaranteed to strike the target. Sniper weapons tend not to list point or area effective ranges, as sniper rifle effectiveness is not calculated with 50/50 hit ratios.

Cartridge Maximum effective range
7.62×39mm 600 m
5.56×45mm 800 m
7.62×51mm (.308 Winchester) 800 m
7.62×54mm R 800 m
.30-06 Springfield 800 m
7 mm Remington Magnum 900–1,100 m
.300 Winchester Magnum 900–1,200 m
.338 Lapua Magnum 1,200-1,500 m
.50 BMG (12.7×99mm NATO)
12.7×108mm (Russian) 1,500–2,000 m
14.5×114mm 1,800–2,300 m
Sniper rifles currently used and in active service:

Accuracy International AW50:

AI Arctic Warfare .50
Type: Anti-materiel rifle
Place of origin: United Kingdom
In service: 2000-present
Manufacturer: Accuracy International

Weight 15 kg w/ bipod (33 lbs)
Length 1,420 mm, 1,170 mm (folded)
Barrel length 686 mm (27 inches)
Cartridge 12.7x99mm NATO
Caliber .50 BMG
Action Bolt-action
Effective range 1,500 m
Feed system Box magazine, 5 rounds
Sights Mil spec Mk II in 6x, 10x and standard iron sights


Accuracy International Arctic Warfare

Place of origin United Kingdom
Service history
In service 1982 (L96A1), 1988 (AW), 1990–present
Designed 1982 (PM), 1983 (AW)
Manufacturer Accuracy International
Produced 1982–present
Weight 6.5 kg (14.3 lb)
Length 1,180 mm (46.5 in)
Barrel length 660 mm (26.0 in)
Cartridge .243 Winchester, 7.62x51mm NATO (.308 Winchester) , .300 Winchester Magnum , .338 Lapua Magnum
Action Bolt-action
Muzzle velocity 850 m/s (2,790 ft/s)
Effective range 800 m (870 yd)
Feed system 10-round detachable box magazine
Sights detachable aperture type iron sights day or night optics


CheyTac Intervention:

Place of origin United States
Manufacturer CheyTac LLC
Produced 2001—present
M-200 Carbine
M-200 CIV (Civilian)
M-200 RK
M-310 SS (Single Shot)
M-310 R (Repeater)
Weight 31 lb (14 kg) without scope (M-200)
Length 53 in (1.34 m) (stock extended), 46¾ in (1.18 m) (stock collapsed) (M-200)
Barrel length 29 (73.7 cm) in standard w/ 1:13 twist (M-200), 26 in (66 cm) optional.
Cartridge .408 Chey Tac or .375 Chey Tac
Action bolt action
Effective range 2000+ m - M-200
2000+ m - M-200 Carbine
1500+ m - M-200 CIV (Civilian)
1800+ m - M-310 SS (Single Shot) )
1800+ m - M-310 R (Repeater)
Feed system 7-round detachable box magazine
Sights day or night optics

Dragunov sniper rifle:

Place of origin Soviet Union
Designer Yevgeny Dragunov
Designed 1958–1963
Manufacturer Izhmash, Ordnance Factories Organisation, Norinco

Weight 4.30 kg (9.48 lb) (with scope and unloaded magazine),4.68 kg (10.3 lb) (SVDS), 4.40 kg (9.7 lb) (SVU), 5.02 kg, (11.1 lb) (SWD-M)
Length 1,225 mm (48.2 in) (SVD), 1,135 mm (44.7 in) stock extended / 815 mm (32.1 in) stock folded (SVDS), 900 mm (35.4 in) (SVU) ,1,125 mm (44.3 in) (SWD-M)
Barrel length 620 mm (24.4 in) (SVD, SWD-M), 565 mm (22.2 in) (SVDS), 600 mm (23.6 in) (SVU)
Cartridge 7.62×54mmR, 5.45×39mm (Assault Rifle variant)
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Muzzle velocity 830 m/s (2,723 ft/s) (SVD), 810 m/s (2,657.5 ft/s) (SVDS), 800 m/s (2,624.7 ft/s) (SVU)
Effective range 800 m
Maximum range 1,300 m with scope, 1,200 m with iron sights
Feed system 10-round detachable box magazine
Sights PSO-1 telescopic sight and iron sights with an adjustable rear notch sight




Heckler & Koch PSG1/ POF PSR 90:

Place of origin West Germany

Designer Heckler & Koch GmbH
Designed 1970s
Manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH, SEDENA (licensed)
Produced 1972–present
Variants PSG1A1, MSG90, MSG90A1

Weight 7.2 kg (15.87 lb)
Length 1,230 mm (48.4 in)
Barrel length 650 mm (25.6 in), 600 mm (23.6 in) (MSG-90)
Width 59 mm (2.3 in)
Height 258 mm (10.2 in) with telescopic sight
Cartridge 7.62x51mm NATO
Action Roller-delayed blowback
Muzzle velocity 868 m/s (2,848 ft/s)
Effective range 800 m
Feed system 5, 10 or 20-round detachable box magazine. 50 round drum also compatible.
Sights Hensoldt ZF6x42PSG1 telescopic sight with illuminated reticle


Note: Rifle license manufactured by POF as PSR 90.


Place of origin Russia

Designer Vladimir Stronskiy
Designed 1998
Manufacturer Izhmash

Weight 5.8 kg (12.8 lb) empty, 7.8 kg (17.2 lb) with optical sight and suppressor
Length 1,200 mm (47.24 in), 1,375 mm (54.13 in) with suppressor
Barrel length 650 mm (25.59 in) (4 grooves, right-hand twist)
Cartridge 7.62x54mmR, 7.62×51mm NATO
Action Bolt-action
Muzzle velocity 820 m/s (2,690 ft/s)
Effective range 600 m (656 yd) iron sights, 1,000 m (1,094 yd) optical sight
Feed system 10-round detachable magazine
Sights Telescopic sight and iron sights

M21 Sniper Weapon System

Place of origin United States

Designer Marines Weapons Command,
Combat Development Command,
Limited Warfare Agency
Designed 1969
Manufacturer Rock Island Arsenal, Springfield Armory
Variants M25

Weight 5.27 kg (11.6 lb)
Length 1118 mm (44 in)
Barrel length 560 mm (22 in)
Cartridge 7.62×51mm NATO
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Muzzle velocity 853 m/s (2,800 ft/s)
Effective range 822 m (900 yd)
Feed system 5, 10 or 20-round detachable box magazine
Sights Front: National Match front blade .062
Rear: Match-grade hooded aperture with one-half minute adjustments for both windage and elevation.
26¾ in sight radius.

M 24 Sniper Weapons system:

Place of origin United States of America

Designed 1988
Manufacturer Remington Arms
Produced 1988–c.2010
Number built 15,000
Variants M24A2, M24A3, M24E1
Weight 5.4 kg (11.88 lbs) empty, w/. sling, without scope (M24)
7.3 kg (16 lbs) max weight with day optical sight, sling swivels, carrying strap, fully loaded magazine[1]
5.6 kg (12.32 lbs) empty, w/. sling, without scope (M24A3).
Length 1,092 mm (43 in) (M24A1, M24A2);
(46.5 in) (M24A3)
Barrel length 660.4 mm (24 in)(M24A1, M24A2);
685.8 mm (27 in) (M24A3)
Cartridge 7.62x51mm NATO (M24A1),
.300 Winchester Magnum (M24A2), .338 Lapua Magnum (M24A3)
Action Bolt-action
Rate of fire 20 rpm
Muzzle velocity 2,580 ft/s (790 m/s) w/M118LR Sniper load (175 gr.)
Effective range
800 metres (875 yd) (7.62×51mm)
1,500 metres (1,640 yd) (.338 Lapua Magnum)
Feed system 5-round internal magazine (M24A1),
10-round detachable box magazine (M24A2),
5-round detachable box magazine (M24A3)
Sights Telescopic; detachable backup iron sights



M40 rifle

Manufacturer United States Marine Corps
U.S. Ordnance
Weight M40A1: 6.57 kg (14.48 lb)
M40A3: 7.5 kg (16.5 lb)
Length M40A1: 1,117 mm (43.97 in)
M40A3: 1,124 mm (44.25 in)
Barrel length 610 mm (24 in) (1:12 right hand twist)
M40A1: Hart (6 lands and grooves)
M40A3: Schneider Match Grade SS #7 (6 lands and grooves)
Cartridge 7.62×51mm NATO
Action Bolt action
Muzzle velocity 777 m/s (2,550 ft/s) (w/175 gr. M118LR)
Effective range 900 m (1000 yd)
Feed system 5-round integral box magazine (M40,M40A1,M40A3)
10-round removable box magazine (M40A5)
Sights Scout Sniper Day Scope (SSDS)— Premier Reticles Heritage 3-15×50mm Tactical.



Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle

The United States Navy Mark 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle (EBR) is an American selective fire military rifle chambered for the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge. It is a variant of the M14 battle rifle and was originally built for use with units of the United States Naval Special Warfare Command, such as the United States Navy SEALs, Delta Force, and task specific ODA units.[6][7] The EBRs are made with the intention of carrying out both designated marksman and CQB roles in combat

Designer Mike Rock and Jim Ribordy (Original)[2]
Smith Enterprises Inc. (Current)[2]
Designed 2001
Manufacturer Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division[3]
Smith Enterprises
CheyTac Firearms(US), COLT DEFENSE SYSTEMS, (Supplying parts)[2]
Sage International (For the stock)[4]
Weight 11.24 lb (5.1 kg)[5]
Length 35 in (889 mm)[5]
Barrel length 18 in (457 mm) (Mod 0)[5]
22 in (558.8 mm) (Mod 1) (EBR-RI)
Cartridge 7.62x51mm NATO
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire Shooter Dependent
Muzzle velocity 853 m/s (2,800 ft/s)
Effective range 500 m (547 yd)
800+ m (875 yd) (with optics)
Maximum range 2.5 miles (4.23 kilometers) (Confirmed/Point Target); 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) (Unconfirmed/Area Target)
Feed system 10 or 20-round detachable box magazine
Sights Modified M14 iron sights, normally used with a magnifying scope.


Barrett M82-Anti Materiel rifle.

The M82 is a recoil-operated, semi-automatic anti-materiel rifle developed by the American Barrett Firearms Manufacturing company. A heavy SASR (Special Application Scoped Rifle), it is used by many units and armies around the world. It is also called the "Light Fifty" for its .50 BMG (12.7×99mm NATO) chambering.

Designer Ronnie Barrett
Designed 1980
Manufacturer Barrett Firearms Manufacturing
Unit cost $8,900 [1]
Produced 1982–present
Variants M82A1, M82A1A, M82A1M, M82A2, M82A3, M107, M107A1, M107CQ
Weight M82A1:
29.7 lb (13.5 kg) (20" barrel)
30.9 lb (14.0 kg) (29" barrel)
Length M82A1:
48 in (120 cm) (20" barrel)
57 in (140 cm) (29" barrel)
Barrel length M82A1:
20 in (51 cm)
29 in (74 cm)
Cartridge .50 BMG (12.7×99mm NATO)
.416 Barrett
Action Recoil-operated, rotating bolt
Muzzle velocity 853 m/s (2,799 ft/s)
Effective range 1,800 m (1,969 yd)
Feed system 10-round detachable box magazine
Sights Fixed front, adjustable rear sight; MIL-STD-1913 rail provided for optics


Barrett M95-Bullpup anti-materiel rifle.

Weight 23.5 pounds (10.7 kg) empty, without scope
Length 45 inches (114.3 cm)
Barrel length 29 inch (73.7 cm)
Cartridge .50 BMG
Action Bolt action
Muzzle velocity 854 m/s (with M33 ball ammunition)
Maximum range 1800 meters
Feed system 5 Round Detachable Box Magazine


Walther WA 2000

Designed 1970s-1980s [1]
Manufacturer Walther [1]
Produced 1982-1988 [1]
Number built 176 [1]
6.95 kg (15.3 lb) empty (no scope) [2]
7.35 kg (16.2 lb) loaded (no scope) [2]
Length 905 mm (35.6 in) [2]
Barrel length 650 mm (25.6 in) [2]
7.62x51mm NATO [2]
.300 Winchester Magnum [2]
7.5x55mm Swiss [2]
Action Gas-operated,[2] rotating bolt
Rate of fire Semi-automatic [2]
Effective range 2,297ft, 700m, 766yds
Feed system 6-round detachable box magazine [2]
Sights Schmidt & Bender 2.5–10X telescopic sight [1]

Following will be the pics of sniper rifles used in Pak Army.



Steyr SSG 69:

Used by SSG.

Place of origin Austria

Weight 4 kg (8.82 lb) (SSG 69 PI)
4.2 kg (9.3 lb) (SSG 69 PII)
3.8 kg (8.4 lb) (SSG 69 PIV)
Length 1,140 mm (44.9 in) (SSG 69 PI)
1,190 mm (46.8 in) (SSG 69 PII) [2]
1,003 mm (39.5 in) (SSG 69 PIV)
Barrel length 650 mm (25.6 in) (SSG 69 PI, SSG 69 PII)
409 mm (16.1 in) (SSG 69 PIV)
Cartridge 7.62x51mm NATO, .243 Winchester, .22-250 Remington (SSG 69 PII) [3]
Action Bolt-action
Muzzle velocity Varies by type of round used.
Effective range 800 m (875 yd)
Maximum range 3,700 m (4,046 yd)
Feed system 5-round rotary magazine.
Sights Ironsights on SSG 69 PI, but mostly sniper scopes are used..


Can anyone give the details about the PA exercises which were held 2008-2010.???
This is a fantastic thread. Also Kudos for mentioning the Accuracy International and KH PSG1.

Here is my addition:


Place of origin United States
Manufacturer Fairchild ArmaLite
Artillerie Inrichtingen (AI)

Produced 1956–1960

Number built Approx. 10,000

Weight 3.29–4.05 kg (7.25–8.9 lb) w/o magazine
Length 1,050 mm (41.3 in)
Barrel length 528 mm (20.8 in)
Cartridge 7.62x51mm NATO
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire 700 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 820 m/s (2,690 ft/s)
Effective range 630 m (ca 730 m with A.I. 3.6x telescopic sight)
Feed system 20-round detachable box magazine
Sights Adjustable aperture rear sight, fixed post front sight
Can anyone give the details about the PA exercises which were held 2008-2010.???

Which one? Name the exercise...and keep in mind that this is a sniper related thread, ask general queries in relevant threads.
Beautiful one ..............
Barrett XM500
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Barrett XM500

Type Anti-materiel rifle
Place of origin United States
Production history
Designed 2006
Manufacturer Barrett Firearms Manufacturing
Weight 26 lb (12 kg)
Length 46 in (120 cm)


Cartridge .50 BMG
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Feed system 10-round detachable box magazine
The Barrett XM500 is a gas-operated, semi-automatic sniper rifle/anti-materiel rifle currently in development by the Barrett Firearms Company. It is fed by a 10-round detachable box magazine situated behind the trigger in bullpup configuration.

It is based on the Barrett M82/M107 .50-caliber sniper rifle. It is intended to be a lighter, more compact alternative to the M82. Since the XM500 has a stationary barrel (instead of the recoiling-barrel design of the M82), it will likely have somewhat better accuracy.[1] As with its predecessor, it comes with a removable, adjustable bipod mounted under the barrel, and a top-mounted Picatinny rail for attachment of a scope and/or other accessory.[1]
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