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Iranian developed OTH radars

Muhammed45

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What is a OTH radar?

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Over-the-horizon radar

Over-the-horizon radar (OTH), sometimes called beyond the horizon radar (BTH), is a type of radar system with the ability to detect targets at very long ranges, typically hundreds to thousands of kilometres, beyond the radar horizon, which is the distance limit for ordinary radar.


Iranian developed OTH/BTH radars:

1- Qadir radar (operational)

Phased Array Radar Qadir
(Persian: رادار آرایه فازی قدیر) is an Iranian radar with a range of 1100 to 1600 km and capable of tracking targets to a height of 300 km. The radar was unveiled by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corp. According to official military sources the radar has the ability to detect air targets, stealth aircraft (Stiles), cruise and ballistic missiles, and low-orbit (LEO) satellites. The radar was tested for the first time during The Great Prophet 6 exercise.


a Ghadir early-warning radar in 2014

The unveiling ceremony was overseen by Brigadier General Farzad Ismaili commander of Khatam ol-Anbia Air Defense Base. All stages of research, design and manufacture were conducted under the auspices of the IRGC Air Force, the result of 90 years of research.

As of 2023 there are seven known Ghadir radars.
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2- Sepehr radar (operational):

The Sepehr radar, which is also the longest range radar in the country, and according to defense officials, its usual range is 2,500 kilometers, which can change from 800 kilometers to 3000 kilometers. The radar designed and built in recent years has been operationally ready for operation, with enough to be deployed in different parts of the country.
Iran is introducing its most long-range Sepehr (Sky) phased array radar system, capable of controlling airspaces of all of its neighbor countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, as well as vast parts of Northern Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia.

With a range of up to 3,000 kilometers in distance and up to 300 kilometers into space, Sepehr radar system will protect the country's airspace completely. “The radar will be included in the integrated air defense network in future after it is fully deployed, and then we will be able to even feel the enemies' breathing in their bases,” Commander of Khatam ol-Anbia Air Defense Base Brigadier General Farzad Esmayeeli told the national Fars news agency (FNA) on 15 February 2015.

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3- Nazir radar (operational)
Nazir is a long-range and high-precision radar system which is highly capable of detecting targets in low radar cross section and is resistant to radar evading and anti-radar missiles. With a reported range of 800 km, it fills the sort range "deadzone" of Iran's OTH radars, covering all of North East and Central Iran. Its placement at an elevation of over 2900 meters reflects an attempt at alleviating one of the biggest challenges to Iran's air defences, which is Iran's mountainous terrain.


On September 1, 2015, Iran unveiled two domestically-built state-of-the-art radar systems, dubbed Nazir [Inspector] and Bina [understanding], capable of detecting stealth targets at high altitudes. Nazir is a long-range radar system that can detect and track hostile aerial targets within a radius of 800 kilometers at an estimated altitude of 100,000 feet, while Bina uses three-dimensional (3-D) technology to detect radar-evading targets. It can also be used to deter electronic warfare.

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4- Arash-2 radar (operational)

Arash 2​

Arash-2 is a solid 2-D radar with a 360-degree angle covering more than 100 thousand feet, equivalent to more than 30 kilometers. Arash-2 has been upgraded to better arsenal based on the progress made in research and electronic warfare and rapid and timely processing of Arash-1. Arash-2 works in the L band and has a peak power of 40 kilowatts. Its operating frequency is 1200 to 1,400 MHz and range reaches 400 km. The minimum detection distance is 5 km. L band radars have higher accuracy than the HF / VHF / UHF frequency bands, while also capable of detecting stealthy targets.

The radar has the ability to search during tracking and can track up to 200 targets. In Arash-2, the advanced processor is used to add ECCM capabilities and has the ability to code the pulse sent. Using the advances, the Arash-2 radar is very likely to be intercepted by the enemy and is considered to be LPI radar or Low Probability of Intercept.
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What is a OTH radar?

images

Over-the-horizon radar

Over-the-horizon radar (OTH), sometimes called beyond the horizon radar (BTH), is a type of radar system with the ability to detect targets at very long ranges, typically hundreds to thousands of kilometres, beyond the radar horizon, which is the distance limit for ordinary radar.


Iranian developed OTH/BTH radars:

1- Qadir radar (operational)


Phased Array Radar Qadir (Persian: رادار آرایه فازی قدیر) is an Iranian radar with a range of 1100 to 1600 km and capable of tracking targets to a height of 300 km. The radar was unveiled by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corp. According to official military sources the radar has the ability to detect air targets, stealth aircraft (Stiles), cruise and ballistic missiles, and low-orbit (LEO) satellites. The radar was tested for the first time during The Great Prophet 6 exercise.


a Ghadir early-warning radar in 2014

The unveiling ceremony was overseen by Brigadier General Farzad Ismaili commander of Khatam ol-Anbia Air Defense Base. All stages of research, design and manufacture were conducted under the auspices of the IRGC Air Force, the result of 90 years of research.

As of 2023 there are seven known Ghadir radars.
View attachment 948397
View attachment 948398

2- Sepehr radar (operational):

The Sepehr radar, which is also the longest range radar in the country, and according to defense officials, its usual range is 2,500 kilometers, which can change from 800 kilometers to 3000 kilometers. The radar designed and built in recent years has been operationally ready for operation, with enough to be deployed in different parts of the country.
Iran is introducing its most long-range Sepehr (Sky) phased array radar system, capable of controlling airspaces of all of its neighbor countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, as well as vast parts of Northern Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia.

With a range of up to 3,000 kilometers in distance and up to 300 kilometers into space, Sepehr radar system will protect the country's airspace completely. “The radar will be included in the integrated air defense network in future after it is fully deployed, and then we will be able to even feel the enemies' breathing in their bases,” Commander of Khatam ol-Anbia Air Defense Base Brigadier General Farzad Esmayeeli told the national Fars news agency (FNA) on 15 February 2015.

View attachment 948402

3- Nazir radar (operational)
Nazir is a long-range and high-precision radar system which is highly capable of detecting targets in low radar cross section and is resistant to radar evading and anti-radar missiles. With a reported range of 800 km, it fills the sort range "deadzone" of Iran's OTH radars, covering all of North East and Central Iran. Its placement at an elevation of over 2900 meters reflects an attempt at alleviating one of the biggest challenges to Iran's air defences, which is Iran's mountainous terrain.


On September 1, 2015, Iran unveiled two domestically-built state-of-the-art radar systems, dubbed Nazir [Inspector] and Bina [understanding], capable of detecting stealth targets at high altitudes. Nazir is a long-range radar system that can detect and track hostile aerial targets within a radius of 800 kilometers at an estimated altitude of 100,000 feet, while Bina uses three-dimensional (3-D) technology to detect radar-evading targets. It can also be used to deter electronic warfare.

View attachment 948403



View attachment 948410


4- Arash-2 radar (operational)

Arash 2​

Arash-2 is a solid 2-D radar with a 360-degree angle covering more than 100 thousand feet, equivalent to more than 30 kilometers. Arash-2 has been upgraded to better arsenal based on the progress made in research and electronic warfare and rapid and timely processing of Arash-1. Arash-2 works in the L band and has a peak power of 40 kilowatts. Its operating frequency is 1200 to 1,400 MHz and range reaches 400 km. The minimum detection distance is 5 km. L band radars have higher accuracy than the HF / VHF / UHF frequency bands, while also capable of detecting stealthy targets.

The radar has the ability to search during tracking and can track up to 200 targets. In Arash-2, the advanced processor is used to add ECCM capabilities and has the ability to code the pulse sent. Using the advances, the Arash-2 radar is very likely to be intercepted by the enemy and is considered to be LPI radar or Low Probability of Intercept.
View attachment 948413
A good thread Mr "Muhammed" I suggest we need a dedicated thread to all Iranian made Radars (I can count more than 20 + types now)..also another thread dedicated to EO sensors because I can see many different EOs coming up..too many threads to update myself so we need volunteers..:big_boss:
 
A good thread Mr "Muhammed" I suggest we need a dedicated thread to all Iranian made Radars (I can count more than 20 + types now)..also another thread dedicated to EO sensors because I can see many different EOs coming up..too many threads to update myself so we need volunteers..:big_boss:
True my friend. Typically, the radars having 300+ km range can be calssified as OTH radars. Due to their nature, the early warning or detecting radars will be involved.

I will update this thread with Iranian made radars with 300+ km range with early warning or detecting capabilities.

5- Matla-ul-fajr-3 (mobile)
State-owned Mashregh News reported that Matla-ul-fajr 3 is a solid state 3D radar operating in VHF band. Due to the nature of its frequency, it can detect low-Radar cross-section targets such as stealth aircraft and cruise missiles. Its accuracy is also improved for short ranges. The range of the radar is above 500 kilometres and it uses two separate channels for detection and is installed on the back of heavy trucks to enhance mobility. This radar won the first place in Kwarazmi International Festival.
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6- Fath-14 radar
This advanced radar, introduced in 2014 in Shiraz, was developed by the Ministry of Defense. Fath-14 is one of the long-range search and air surveillance systems that has been further enhanced by its production as an early warning radar in the air defense network. An example of this radar is fixed to the ground and its
base rotation at 360 degrees make enables it cover the surrounding space in the horizontal plane and possibly in the vertical plane using the electronic rotation of the waves. The 64 elements, each with a 6-sided shape, are mounted on the antenna of the radar in 4 rows and 16 columns, which according to their dimensions can be said it operatesin the VHF frequencies. A Kharchenko antenna is used in this radar.
The identify Friend/Foe system is in this radar like the latest Matla-ul-fajr
and Kasehf-2 samples. At least five specific ECCM techniques have been used on this radar. The Fath-14 radar is a solid state radar with a peak power of 24 kW. The Fath-14 radar is capable of tracking more than 40 targets while searching, with a final range of 600 kilometers.

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7- Meraj-4 radar (mobile)
The Merag-4 (meaning “Ascension”) radar was first revealed in the Iranian
media in 2014. Although no specifics were announced, viewing of it at official exhibitions prompted media attention. This phased array radar was displayed at the Defense Industry Day event on August 21, 2016, along with some other components of the Bavar 373 (meaning “belief”) system, and was referred to as a long range fighter control radar. One of the features of this 3D radar is the simultaneous tracking of 200 targets. Due to the constant angle of the flat antenna of this radar in the vertical direction, the electronic scanning of the environment is also possible on this radar. Meraj-4 is an active phased array that reduces the probability of detecting its location by detecting the source of the transmitted waves and also has a higher resistance to enemy electronic interference. This radar contains 10,000 elements and operates in the S band.
The radar uses a variety of advanced techniques to defeat enemy’s
disturbers, including the ability to jump frequency, the ability to compress waves, focusing of radar power over an area, and the low side radiation. The Meraj-4 radar range is 450 km.

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8- Space Object Observation Radar

Imam Sadegh Space Station's Observatory which is responsible for the detection and Radar, electro-optical and radio tracking of space objects uses a phased array radar. The radar has three faces, but released images show radar elements on only one face and 64 in number.
This radar designed to track objects at high altitudes, due to the fixed
antennas, the electronic rotation of the waves is typically used to scan the space in the horizontal and vertical directions. If the other two sides of the radar are also equipped with antenna arrays, it will be possible to cover 360 degrees of surroundings.
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They need more and better radars to avoid shoot down civilian air planes like it happened in Ukrainian Airlines plane.

Btw second radar pic has text in Spanish, give right credit link to the blog author.

Remember USA twisted devil can always deceive you with all kind of fake ADSB and ACARS spoofed information, so all information from Iran radars should be centralised, processed and real time shared to missiles operators.
 
Isn't it rather amusing when zionists bring themselves to referring to the USA regime in terms such as devil or twisted, believing it is some sort of a ruse that will achieve to fool "naive brown" readers from West Asia?

Someone mentioned controlled opposition and fake anti-imperialism recently. There will be no shortage of these in a thread dealing with Iran. Stay tuned.
 
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The number of different radar in Iran is incredible, it has been growing like mushrooms for years, very impressive
 
The number of different radar in Iran is incredible, it has been growing like mushrooms for years, very impressive
Hmm.

Just wonder, do F-35's really penetrate Iranian airspace at what seemingly is a regular basis.

Is this not what caused Gen Esmayeeli to tarry before informing the Supreme Leader of this (the first time). The radar returns must have been scrutinized very thoroughly causing this delay I surmise. If the Gen could subsequently report to the Supreme Leader that no penetration had occurred then everything would still have been fine

However, judging from the Supreme Leader's obvious displeasure, leads me to believe that such an occurrence had indeed taken place.

Some weeks or so ago I read a report by a Senior Military commander who stated something along the lines of recording the 'signature' of F-35's - probably near Iran's airspace.

Also, should the same F-35 again make an approach again, it would be identified in accordance with its 'signature' on record.

I do not think that this is info that possible proponents should have. This is Spy vs Spy stuff that causes my shutters to come down.

However, getting back to 'regular' incursions, above, any OSINT on this out there?

P
 
Obviously not. The story was originally shared by a Kuwaiti paper with no credibility.

Israel would not risk such an asset (travelling alone? lol) over Iranian airspace like that.
Thank you

P
 
They need more and better radars to avoid shoot down civilian air planes like it happened in Ukrainian Airlines plane.
That tor m1 in question was not connected to the national air defense grid and had no passive eo or iff systems of its own. It really should not be inside a city if it is not slaved to higher tier system.
Also, some one should be executed for not shutting down civilian air traffic as the missile strikes commenced. For a country that had its airports attacked for 8 years, protocols to immediately shut down civilian flights should be second nature for the IRI.
 
That tor m1 in question was not connected to the national air defense grid and had no passive eo or iff systems of its own. It really should not be inside a city if it is not slaved to higher tier system.
Also, some one should be executed for not shutting down civilian air traffic as the missile strikes commenced. For a country that had its airports attacked for 8 years, protocols to immediately shut down civilian flights should be second nature for the IRI.

The decision was to be taken in minutes, it had no time to interrupt air trafic.

I think it happened something like in the MH17 shoot down in the Ukraine.

Simply, you can't rely on ADS-B and ACARS systems to identify a friend plane in a war scenario, because those systems can be blocked or spoofed by your enemy to make you believe that is another thing.

The pro-russia militia who shoot down MH17 thought in a first moment that it was a Antonov military cargo plane.

Imagine how easy is for a enemy transmit fake ADS-B signal from ground with another kind of plane.

All radar information, all civilian flights information must be centralised and real time shared to every missile operator, in a dangerous scenario it has no time to make calls, nowadays technology to do it is cheap, so there are no excuses.
 
The figure posted under Sepehr radar title belongs to Ghadir OTH radar's area coverage.

Sepehr radar's area coverage :
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If this radar is deployed to heights of west Azerbaijan province in the north west Iran and also to Chabahar the strategic city in the South east area of Iran.

Note :
The elliptical shape of the first circle which is stretched to east of Europe is because of earth curvature. It is actually 2d model of the 3d model of earth surface therefore it is just a visual error of an OTH radar's overall coverage in a 2d environment.
 
The figure posted under Sepehr radar title belongs to Ghadir OTH radar's area coverage.

Sepehr radar's area coverage :

If this radar is deployed to heights of west Azerbaijan province in the north west Iran and also to Chabahar the strategic city in the South east area of Iran.

Note :
The elliptical shape of the first circle which is stretched to east of Europe is because of earth curvature. It is actually 2d model of the 3d model of earth surface therefore it is just a visual error of an OTH radar's overall coverage in a 2d environment.
AFAIK there is no evidence of Sepehr's existence/active deployment. A 3000km OTH radar would be a pretty big deal if confirmed
 
9) Alborz (national) radar
Alborz phased array, a three-dimensional radar system, has been produced with the aim of intercepting and detecting long-range aerial targets with low radar cross-section and stealth.

The maximum radar range of this system is 450 km and is able to identify targets at low altitude.

Alborz Radar is also able to track 300 targets simultaneously.
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The special radar called Nazir. I must add, it is highly resistant against cruise and anti-radation missiles' attack. It is mainly made from independent parts and if one part is destroyed or damaged after enemies' missile attack, nothing will happen to other parts and it will remain operational. An special asset to cover weaknesses of all Iranian OTH and surveillance radars.

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10) Quds radar (operational)
Quds Radar is able to monitor targets at a 500km range and altitude of over 90,000 feet.

Tactical and single-vehicle capability, domestic software, the ability to deal with electronic warfare in various techniques, friend-enemy detection system and the ability to link with defense systems are among the characteristics of Quds radar system.

Some experts say it is similar to Belarusian Vostok radar therefore its localized in Iran.

Given that this radar is mobile and works in VHF band, it is considered as stealth detecting asset in the hands of Iranian airdefense forces. Experts call ot F-35 detector of Iran.
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