Pakistan Space and Satellite Developments

Discussion in 'Pakistan Defence & Industry' started by Thunder, Mar 26, 2006.

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  1. WebMaster
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    WebMaster ADMINISTRATOR Staff Member

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    What is the current goal of Suparco? I mean whats next?

    Seems like Paksat 1-R satellite will meet the requirements for year to come, and they are happy with it.

    Probably NOT interested in putting up a man in space.
  2. Interceptor
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    Interceptor SENIOR MEMBER

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    To put a man in space you need un imaginable amount of support from the private and government sector it needs a huge Fund that would be in billions a year and then it would be possible, at the momment Pakistan is runned by a Dictatorship and the plans to reach anywhere are not to be seen the only thing the government is concerned is how to Loot the country and how to have more money no agenda in developing any specialised organisation that would help the country to design electronics.
  3. HAIDER
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    BEIJING, April 17 (APP): Pakistan and China on Tuesday inked 27 agreements and MoUs aimed at further expanding ties between the two countries including cooperation in space technology, avoidance of double taxation and increased cooperation between the private sectors. The signing ceremony witnessed by Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz and his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao at the Great Hall of the People and their cabinet members was preceded by an exclusive 40-minute meeting between the two leaders and an hour-long round of formal talks. The private sectors of the two countries signed 14 agreements, while another 13 were signed between the two governments, which also agreed to realize the projects to be undertaken by them on “fast-track basis.” “We have re-energized an already strong relationship by introducing new dimensions, new aspects which are reflective of the changes taking place in the world and both the countries,” Prime Minister Aziz told the accompanying mediamen after the talks. Under the Framework Agreement between China National Space Administration (CNSA) and Suparco, the two sides will “deepen cooperation” in Science and Technology. China will help Pakistan's communications and earth observation satellite programme. The two countries will also work on construction of a cross-border cable system to strengthen their communication linkages. Shaukat Aziz said he was very pleased with the talks. “The relations are going from strength to strength, to new heights,” he said and added the two countries have moved forward in areas of defence cooperation, science and technology collaboration and financing by Chinese companies in Pakistan's energy and trade spheres. Pakistan and China also agreed on infrastructure development projects, including dams, power generation and mass transit systems. Prime Minister Aziz said the “broad-based” talks reflected similarity of views on major international issues and covered cooperation in the fight against terrorism, UN Reforms, Pakistan-India talks and situation in Afghanistan and the Iran situation. (First Posted @ 12:08 PST Updated @ 21:20 PST)
    http://dawn.com/2007/04/17/welcome.htm
  4. WebMaster
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    Pakistan, China Sign: 27 Accords with One on Space Technology
    By April Yu 'Pakistan Times' Foreign Correspondent

    BEIJING (China): Pakistan and China on Tuesday inked 27 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding aimed at further expanding ties between the two countries including cooperation in space technology, avoidance of double taxation and increased cooperation between the private sectors.

    The signing ceremony witnessed by Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz and his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao here at the Great Hall of the People and their cabinet members was preceded by an exclusive 40-minute meeting between the two leaders and an hour-long round of formal talks.

    The private sectors of the two countries signed 14 agreements, while another 13 were signed between the two governments, which also agreed to realize the projects to be undertaken by them on “fast-track basis.”

    “We have re-energized an already strong relationship by introducing new dimensions, new aspects which are reflective of the changes taking place in the world and both the countries,” Prime Minister Aziz told the accompanying media team here at the State Guest House after the talks.

    Under the Framework Agreement between China National Space Administration (CNSA) and Suparco, the two sides will “deepen cooperation” in Science and Technology. China will help Pakistan’s communications and earth observation satellite programme.

    The two countries will also work on construction of a cross-border cable system to strengthen their communication linkages.

    Shaukat Aziz said he was very pleased with the talks.

    “The relations are going from strength to strength, to new heights,” he said and added the two countries have moved forward in areas of defence cooperation, science and technology collaboration and financing by Chinese companies in Pakistan’s energy and trade spheres.

    Pakistan and China agreed on greater cooperation in the Banking sector and on ways to “broaden dimensions” in all areas. They also agreed on infrastructure development projects, including dams, power generation and mass transit systems.

    Prime Minister Aziz said the “broad-based” talks reflected similarity of views on major international issues and covered cooperation in the fight against terrorism, UN Reforms, Pakistan-India talks and situation in Afghanistan and the Iran situation.

    He also spoke of the agreements on the economic side for furthering the strategic ties by promoting cooperation in the field of small and medium enterprises and increased interaction between private sectors. He also mentioned the setting up of the Joint Investment Company that he described as a new model of collaboration between the two countries.

    Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz said both Pakistan and China had already signed a Free Trade Agreement aimed at boosting bilateral trade to US 15 billion dollars in next five years.

    He said Pakistan congratulated China over the successful conclusion of talks on North Korean issue. On the Iranian nuclear issue, Pakistan and China expressed similarity of views. Pakistan reiterated its position that Russia and China should play active role for a peaceful solution.

    Shaukat Aziz said there was a need for more cultural and people to people exchanges between Pakistan and China. The two countries also signed a Treaty on Mutual Judicial Assistance in Criminal Matters, an agreement on Projects Implementation Regulation for the five-year development programme on economic cooperation and an agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation.

    The MoUs were signed on cooperation between Karachi and Shanghai Stock Exchange, cooperation between Pakistani Ministry of Industries and Chinese Development and Reform Commission, collaboration between Suparco and China Great Wall Industry, cooperation on PAKSAT-1R, cooperation between Foreign Service Academies and on establishment of Pakistan Study Centre at Beijing University.

    Defence Minister

    Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz Tuesday met the Chinese Minister for Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence Zhang Yunchuan, who called on him at the State Guest House in Beijing. During the meeting they discussed in detail all aspects of bilateral collaboration in the fields of defence, science, technology, and defence production.

    The Prime Minister said that both countries have benefitted from the exchange of technical knowledge and expertise in the long-standing mutual cooperation.

    He said that the joint production of JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft is the symbol of Pakistan-China defence cooperation.

    Shaukat Aziz said that there is a need to maintain the momentum of cooperation and said that both countries have agreed to further expand the collaboration to all areas of scientific and defense partnership.

    The meeting was also attended by Federal Minister for Science and Technology Noraiz Shakoor and other officials.

    Investment Opportunities

    Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz on Tuesday said there were vast investment opportunities in all sectors in Pakistan and there was no discrimination between the local and foreign investors.

    Speaking at a luncheon meeting hosted by the Chief Executive Officer of CICC Levin Zhu and attended by CEO's of leading financial companies and the corporate sector, the Prime Minister said Pakistan was keen to seek more investment in automative, trucking, energy, construction, steel mills and real estate.

    He said Pakistan was working on a comprehensive plan to expand the National Trade Corridor and desired joint ventures in manufacture of heavy trucks and allied facilities.

    The Prime Minister said no sector in Pakistan is closed to foreign investment.

    He said the economic situation in Pakistan is now more stronger and the government has made tremendous strides to turn around the economy.

    The Prime Minister said the economic strategy of the government envisaged greater role for the improvement of private sector. He said as a result of government’s board-based structural reforms agenda the country’s economy is on high growth rate.

    He said the per capita income has increased to 865 dollars and hoped that it will be over one thousand dollars in next year.

    The Prime Minister said the level of the local and foreign Investment has reached up to twenty percent of the GDP, which is the highest in the history of the country. He said Pakistan has vast potential in the fields of power generation, IT and telecom, oil and gas, agri-business and auto mobile industry.

    Shaukat Aziz said the policies of liberalization, deregulation and privatization have attracted both foreign and local investment in diverse fields in Pakistan.

    He said Pakistan is fast turning into a major market economy in the region. He said Pakistan intends to import gas from Iran to meet its growing need in the energy sector.

    The Prime Minister said during his recent visit to India he discussed the matter with Indian Prime Minister and hoped that it will take final decision on the project very soon.

    He appreciated that China is supporting and assisting Pakistan in various fields for its development. He said Chinese Exim Bank is financing various projects in Pakistan.

    The Prime Minister urged the Chinese private sector to come and invest in Pakistan as it is ideally situated to become a hub for Chinese companies to manufacture their products for onward expert to the world.

    He said Pakistan’s economy is open and the future of the country is very bright and attractive.

    The Chief Executive Officer of CICC Levin Zhu appreciating the economic policies of Pakistan said that tremendous investment opportunities and economic stability has attracted the attention of foreign investors to invest in Pakistan.●
  5. HAIDER
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    QUETTA, Pakistan - In a joint statement issued last week at the conclusion of Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz's official visit to China, both sides said they are determined to elevate their friendship and strategic partnership.

    As strategic partners, China and Pakistan have agreed to enhance cooperation in the areas of space science and technology. While China can transfer space technology to Pakistan, the South Asian country can in return assist China in



    space by establishing a station on its soil to track Chinese satellites.

    The two sides have reportedly agreed that the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) will form a working group that will negotiate the purchase of satellites from China. SUPARCO, Pakistan's national space agency, was established in 1962 as an autonomous research and development organization under the federal government.

    Pakistan-China bilateral cooperation in the space industry could span a broad spectrum, including climate science, clean energy technologies, clean water technologies, cyber-security, basic space, atmospheric and earth sciences, and marine sciences.

    It is worth mentioning that it was China that launched Pakistan's first satellite into orbit in 1990 because Pakistan had no spaceport. Badr-A, Pakistan's first indigenously developed satellite, was launched on July 16 that year from Xichang Launch Center in southwestern China's Sichuan province. It was launched with the Long March 2E rocket, which is designed to lift 6,800 kilograms to a low elliptical orbit ranging from 400 to 800 kilometers above Earth. The rocket, called Cluster Carrier, blasted off from a new pad built to launch bigger boosters. The Long March 2E, with four boosters strapped on, carried a large Australian dummy satellite. The satellite successfully completed its design life.

    The visiting Pakistani prime minister sought Chinese cooperation in rocket science and space technology. China can help Pakistan in developing and launching satellites. Pakistan's space program is aimed at furthering research in space science and allied fields, enhancing indigenous capabilities in space technology, and promoting the peaceful applications of space science and technology for the socio-economic development of the country.

    SUPARCO started building a small amateur radio satellite in late 1986 with support from the Pakistan Amateur Radio Society. It was supposed to be launched by a US space shuttle, but the 1986 Challenger explosion and the resulting delays required a change in plans. In December 2001, Pakistan launched its second satellite, Badr-B, an Earth-observation satellite, on a Zenit 2 rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. It was designed by the United Kingdom's Space Innovations Ltd. Last month, Pakistan successfully test-fired a Hataf VII cruise missile with a range of 700km. It is capable of carrying various types of warheads, including nuclear.

    Pakistan is implementing a strategic program for launching the country's own satellite to replace Paksat-1, which has already completed its design life. Launched in February 1996, Paksat-1 was Pakistan's first geostationary satellite and was designed to serve Indonesia. It was originally manufactured by Boeing and used the HS 601 spacecraft design. According to the plan, the Paksat-1R satellite will replace Paksat-1 in 2010. The new Pakistani satellite would orbit the Earth at a height of 200-300km and complete a round of its orbit in 70 minutes. The rocket carrying the new satellite would travel at a speed of 29,000 km/h. Islamabad wants to get space technology from China to achieve the ambitious goals of economic progress and making the country impregnable.

    SUPARCO signed a consulting deal with Telesat last month for advice on the purchase, manufacture and launch of the Paksat-1R satellite. Under the agreement, Telesat will help the Pakistani agency find a manufacturer and provide technical and commercial advice during the negotiation process. Telesat will also help oversee the construction of the new satellite and monitor the launch and in-orbit testing services.

    Beijing launched its first satellite, Mao 1, to Earth orbit on its own Long March space rocket in April 1970. This made China the fifth nation with a space rocket. Since 1970, China has made scores of successful satellite launches. In 2000, Beijing orbited its first high-resolution electro-optical imaging satellite, which relays its digital pictures by radio to ground stations. China launched its first military communications satellite in January 2000 as part of a People's Liberation Army command-and-control network linking forces for combat. By the end of 2001, China had launched nearly 50 satellites with a 90% success rate. The spacecraft have included remote sensing, communications and weather satellites for both civilian and military use.

    China started offering commercial space-launch services to foreign satellite owners in 1986 during a time when US shuttles and European rockets were grounded. Numerous satellites have been launched for foreign clients. Great Wall Industrial Corp is China's commercial space-launch firm. China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp is a large state-owned enterprise that builds five different series of satellites. Today, Beijing is looking forward to expanding its share of the international market for satellite launches and other space services. It has already signed 16 pacts with 13 governments and organizations and established space-industry cooperation with more than 40 countries and international organizations.

    Experts in Pakistan view China as the only country that is in a position to transfer space technology to Pakistan. In the initial stages, Pakistan would place its satellite in orbit with Chinese assistance and later develop rockets indigenously.

    Launching a remote-sensing satellite is Pakistan's first priority because such a satellite can be used in a variety of cartographic studies. Chinese rocket technology, according to the experts, is the best in the world - the United States drops satellites into the sea and then a special ship recovers them, while China has succeeded in landing its spacecraft on ground.

    China recently startled the world by destroying one of its old satellites in space. Numerous US satellites in space are now within range of Chinese anti-satellite weapons. China has not only achieved the capability of launching its satellites into space but is also developing rockets.

    Pakistan and China have been strengthening cooperation in the space industry. Last August, China committed to work with Pakistan to launch three Earth-resource satellites over the next five years. The relevant institutions of the two countries had already started the groundwork to launch the satellites within the stipulated period.

    Pakistan, China and seven other countries signed a treaty for the establishment of the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO) in 2005. China's legislature ratified the treaty last June. The APSCO will be formally established after China receives approvals from at least five participating countries' parliaments. China is actively engaged in the setting up of APSCO, which will be based in Beijing. The formation of APSCO is expected to facilitate further exchanges and cooperation in space technology in the region.

    Syed Fazl-e-Haider, sfazlehaider05@yahoo.com, is a development analyst based in Quetta, Pakistan. He is the author of six books, including The Economic Development of Balochistan, published in May 2004.

    (Copyright 2007 Asia Times Online Ltd. All rights reserved. Please contact us about sales, syndication and republishing.)
    http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/ID26Df01.html
  6. khanbhai
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    Good newsssssss
  7. dabong1
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    China, Pakistan cooperate in space
    By Syed Fazl-e-Haider

    QUETTA, Pakistan - In a joint statement issued last week at the conclusion of Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz's official visit to China, both sides said they are determined to elevate their friendship and strategic partnership.

    As strategic partners, China and Pakistan have agreed to enhance cooperation in the areas of space science and technology. While China can transfer space technology to Pakistan, the South Asian country can in return assist China in space by establishing a station on its soil to track Chinese satellites.

    The two sides have reportedly agreed that the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) will form a working group that will negotiate the purchase of satellites from China. SUPARCO, Pakistan's national space agency, was established in 1962 as an autonomous research and development organization under the federal government.

    Pakistan-China bilateral cooperation in the space industry could span a broad spectrum, including climate science, clean energy technologies, clean water technologies, cyber-security, basic space, atmospheric and earth sciences, and marine sciences.

    It is worth mentioning that it was China that launched Pakistan's first satellite into orbit in 1990 because Pakistan had no spaceport. Badr-A, Pakistan's first indigenously developed satellite, was launched on July 16 that year from Xichang Launch Center in southwestern China's Sichuan province. It was launched with the Long March 2E rocket, which is designed to lift 6,800 kilograms to a low elliptical orbit ranging from 400 to 800 kilometers above Earth. The rocket, called Cluster Carrier, blasted off from a new pad built to launch bigger boosters. The Long March 2E, with four boosters strapped on, carried a large Australian dummy satellite. The satellite successfully completed its design life.

    The visiting Pakistani prime minister sought Chinese cooperation in rocket science and space technology. China can help Pakistan in developing and launching satellites. Pakistan's space program is aimed at furthering research in space science and allied fields, enhancing indigenous capabilities in space technology, and promoting the peaceful applications of space science and technology for the socio-economic development of the country.

    SUPARCO started building a small amateur radio satellite in late 1986 with support from the Pakistan Amateur Radio Society. It was supposed to be launched by a US space shuttle, but the 1986 Challenger explosion and the resulting delays required a change in plans. In December 2001, Pakistan launched its second satellite, Badr-B, an Earth-observation satellite, on a Zenit 2 rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. It was designed by the United Kingdom's Space Innovations Ltd. Last month, Pakistan successfully test-fired a Hataf VII cruise missile with a range of 700km. It is capable of carrying various types of warheads, including nuclear.

    Pakistan is implementing a strategic program for launching the country's own satellite to replace Paksat-1, which has already completed its design life. Launched in February 1996, Paksat-1 was Pakistan's first geostationary satellite and was designed to serve Indonesia. It was originally manufactured by Boeing and used the HS 601 spacecraft design. According to the plan, the Paksat-1R satellite will replace Paksat-1 in 2010. The new Pakistani satellite would orbit the Earth at a height of 200-300km and complete a round of its orbit in 70 minutes. The rocket carrying the new satellite would travel at a speed of 29,000 km/h. Islamabad wants to get space technology from China to achieve the ambitious goals of economic progress and making the country impregnable.

    SUPARCO signed a consulting deal with Telesat last month for advice on the purchase, manufacture and launch of the Paksat-1R satellite. Under the agreement, Telesat will help the Pakistani agency find a manufacturer and provide technical and commercial advice during the negotiation process. Telesat will also help oversee the construction of the new satellite and monitor the launch and in-orbit testing services.

    Beijing launched its first satellite, Mao 1, to Earth orbit on its own Long March space rocket in April 1970. This made China the fifth nation with a space rocket. Since 1970, China has made scores of successful satellite launches. In 2000, Beijing orbited its first high-resolution electro-optical imaging satellite, which relays its digital pictures by radio to ground stations. China launched its first military communications satellite in January 2000 as part of a People's Liberation Army command-and-control network linking forces for combat. By the end of 2001, China had launched nearly 50 satellites with a 90% success rate. The spacecraft have included remote sensing, communications and weather satellites for both civilian and military use.

    China started offering commercial space-launch services to foreign satellite owners in 1986 during a time when US shuttles and European rockets were grounded. Numerous satellites have been launched for foreign clients. Great Wall Industrial Corp is China's commercial space-launch firm. China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp is a large state-owned enterprise that builds five different series of satellites. Today, Beijing is looking forward to expanding its share of the international market for satellite launches and other space services. It has already signed 16 pacts with 13 governments and organizations and established space-industry cooperation with more than 40 countries and international organizations.

    Experts in Pakistan view China as the only country that is in a position to transfer space technology to Pakistan. In the initial stages, Pakistan would place its satellite in orbit with Chinese assistance and later develop rockets indigenously.

    Launching a remote-sensing satellite is Pakistan's first priority because such a satellite can be used in a variety of cartographic studies. Chinese rocket technology, according to the experts, is the best in the world - the United States drops satellites into the sea and then a special ship recovers them, while China has succeeded in landing its spacecraft on ground.

    China recently startled the world by destroying one of its old satellites in space. Numerous US satellites in space are now within range of Chinese anti-satellite weapons. China has not only achieved the capability of launching its satellites into space but is also developing rockets.

    Pakistan and China have been strengthening cooperation in the space industry. Last August, China committed to work with Pakistan to launch three Earth-resource satellites over the next five years. The relevant institutions of the two countries had already started the groundwork to launch the satellites within the stipulated period.

    Pakistan, China and seven other countries signed a treaty for the establishment of the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO) in 2005. China's legislature ratified the treaty last June. The APSCO will be formally established after China receives approvals from at least five participating countries' parliaments. China is actively engaged in the setting up of APSCO, which will be based in Beijing. The formation of APSCO is expected to facilitate further exchanges and cooperation in space technology in the region.
  8. Interceptor
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    Interceptor SENIOR MEMBER

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    This reports is well old. By the way Pakistan is in pact with China and that isn't bad the Pakistanis are being trained by the chinnese space organisation and that could be valuable to the future Pakistans space program.
  9. overseer
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  10. my_aks
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    there is no news that is good new joint vetures should be made weather it is china or france in the case of the subs. Space the next biggest thing
  11. WebMaster
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    WebMaster ADMINISTRATOR Staff Member

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    Done.

    For the time being Pakistan has limited offers on transfer of technology considering that embargo has lifted not long ago. It will take time for Pakistan to create a positive image and a capable defence industry which will be able to accept these kind of TOT offers, which will of course lead to advancement.

    Space technologies need to step up in Pakistan, however, there isn't much money to be spent on space technologies. It will cost us a lot, so for now Pakistan is just leasing satelittes for normal and for some extent military use. Once the economy and other things are in stable position, you will see big steps in not juse military but space.

    Space is the least thing Pakistan wants to look for now.
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  12. Interceptor
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    Interceptor SENIOR MEMBER

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    Pakistan need allot more than ToT it needs the resource and Human resources, it has technical know how it needs the money to start anything.
  13. overseer
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    overseer FULL MEMBER

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    I think cooperation is definitely the best way to go. And it gives the most benefit for all participating countries since the knowledge gained is equally shared. Even the USA didn't developed their Space program all by themself. They had the help from all over the world (Top scientist from China, Germany for example).

    Their space program was kick started by several prominent foreign scientists. One of them was a famous Nazi scientist name Wernher von Braun, who later served as director of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the United States to the Moon. He is generally regarded as the father of the United States space program.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wernher_von_Braun


    Another one is a chinese (born 1911, he is still alive today) name Tsien Hsue-shen, who co-founded the famous Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) at the California Institute of Technology (which later becomes NASA JPL), who later got "suspected" and accused of being communist in the McCarthy era (period of intense anti-Communist suspicion) and got deported back to China who later become father of Chinese space program.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsien_Hsue-shen


    These are some of his papers he published before he went back to China in 1958. Most of these research was done before the computer was even invented, before CFD (computational fluid dynamics) was even a glimmer of idea.


    * Tsien HS Two-dimensional subsonic flow of compressible fluids // Aeronaut. Sci. 1939
    * Von Karman T, Tsien HS. The buckling of thin cylindrical shells under axial compression. J Aeronaut Sci 1941
    * Tsien, HS 1943 Symmetrical Joukowsky Airfoils in shear flow. Q. Appl. Math.
    * Tsien, HS, "On the Design of the Contraction Cone for a Wind Tunnel," J. Aeronaut. Sci., 10, 68-70, 1943
    * Von Karman, T. and Tsien, HS, "Lifting- line Theory for a Wing in Nonuniform Flow," Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 3, 1945
    * Tsien, HS: Similarity laws of hypersonic flows. J. Math. Phys. 25, 247-251, (1946).
    * Tsien, HS 1952 The transfer functions of rocket nozzles. J. Am. Rocket Soc
    * Tsien, HS, "Rockets and Other Thermal Jets Using Nuclear Energy", The Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, Addison-Wesley Vol.11, 1949
    * Tsien, HS, &#8220;Take-Off from Satellite Orbit,&#8221; Journal of the American. Rocket Society, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1953
    * Tsien, HS 1956 The Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo Method, Advances in Appl. Mech.
    * Tsien, HS, 1958, "The equations of gas dynamics."
    * Tsien, HS, "Rockets and Other Thermal Jets Using Nuclear Energy", The Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, Addison-Wesley



    Even today, USA still collaborate very closely with other countries such as Japan (technology, investment), EU (technology, investment) and Australia (ground support and tracking). The International Space Station is one such example.
  14. WebMaster
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    WebMaster ADMINISTRATOR Staff Member

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    True, Indeed. But to start up. TOT will always give an edge, which trains the personnel in more than just basic, and later to keep that TOT in hand, those personnels than further collaborate in understanding the technical know how to the others.
  15. Interceptor
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    Interceptor SENIOR MEMBER

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    I never disagreed with the ToT I only added that there is a lot more needed than that, money speaks better than a person, Pakistan has or has not developed a space port it should be completed and the Pakistani resarch funding on R&D is poor a lot of attention required there mor Universeties needed in the country to setup a Think Tank more development in science departments required across the country.

    Non have yet been completed.