• Monday, February 20, 2017

Protective, Ballistic, Gas Masks & NBC Suits

Discussion in 'Land Warfare' started by Manticore, Jan 22, 2013.

  1. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

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    A gas mask is a mask put on over the face to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases

    Airborne toxic materials may be gaseous (for example the chlorine gas used in World War I) or particulate (such as many biological agents developed for weapons such as bacteria, viruses and toxins). Many gas masks include protection from both types. Gas masks are used in construction to protect against welding fumes, in deconstruction to protect against asbestos or other hazardous particles, and in the chemical industry when handling hazardous materials, as in making repairs to leaking equipment or cleaning after spills; workers are usually issued gas masks as a precaution against leaks.
    During riots where tear gas or CS-gas is employed by riot police, gas masks are commonly used by police and rioters alike. Aside from serving their functional purposes, gas masks are also used as emblems in industrial music, by graffiti taggers because the mask protects them from the graffiti canister's toxic fumes, and by Urban Explorers venturing into environments where hazardous materials, such as asbestos, may be present.
    The traditional gas mask style with two small circular eye windows originated when the only suitable material for these eye windows was glass or acrylic; as glass is notoriously brittle, glass eye windows had to be kept small and thick. Later, discovery of polycarbonate allowed gas masks with a big full-face window. Some have one or two filters attached to the face piece; others have a large filter connected to the face piece by a hose.

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    A 1970s/1980s type gas mask


    Filter classification
    The filter is selected according to the toxic compound.[2] Each filter type protects against a particular hazard:
    AX - Low-boiling (≤65 °C) organic compounds
    A - High-boiling (>65 °C) organic compounds
    B - Inorganic gases (hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide)
    E - Sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride (acidic gases)
    K - Ammonia and amines
    CO - Carbon monoxide
    Hg - Mercury
    Reactor - Iodine and methyl iodide (radioactive)
    P - Particles; classified as P1, P2, and P3 according to removal efficiency
    ABEK, ABEK-P3, ABEK-HgP3 or other combination filters against multiple hazards
    Particle filters are often included, because in many cases, the hazardous materials are in the form of mist, which is captured already by the particle filter before entering the chemical adsorber. Filtration may be aided with an air pump to improve wearer comfort. Filtration of air is only possible if there is sufficient oxygen in the first place. Thus, when handling asphyxiants, or when ventilation is poor or the hazards are unknown, filtration is not possible and air must be supplied from a pressurized bottle as in scuba diving. Also, a gas mask does not protect against other hazards; for example, corrosive gases can damage the skin, requiring full-body protection.


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    A 1939 Second World War-era baby's gas mask in Monmouth Regimental Museum. This design covered the whole of the baby except for its legs.



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    Modern chemical warfare began on April 22, 1915, when German soldiers first used chlorine gas to attack the French in Ypres, against Canadian and French colonial troops. The initial response was to equip troops with cotton mouth pads for protection. Soon afterwards the British added a long cloth which was used to tie chemical-soaked mouth pads into place, and which was called the Black Veil Respirator. Dr. Cluny MacPherson of The Royal Newfoundland Regiment brought the idea of a mask made of chemical absorbing fabric and which fitted over the entire head to England, and this was developed into the British Hypo Helmet of June 1915. This primitive type of mask went through several stages of development before being superseded in 1916 by the canister gas mask of 1916. This had a mask connected to a tin can containing the absorbent materials by a hose.

    But the inventor of the first effective coal gas mask was Russian scientist Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy in World War I (in 1915) against German gas attacks. In 1916 his gas masks were accepted on arms of the countries of Triple Entente. Zelinskiy gas mask is the most popular in the world.

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    Gas masks development since has mirrored the development of chemical agents in warfare, filling the need to protect against ever more deadly threats, biological weapons, and radioactive dust in the nuclear era. However, where agents that cause harm through contact or penetration of the skin occurs, such as blister agent or nerve agent, a gas mask alone is not sufficient protection, and full protective clothing must be worn in addition, to protect from contact with the atmosphere. For reasons of civil defense and personal protection, individuals often purchase gas masks in the belief that they prevent against the harmful effects of an attack with nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) agents; this is not the case, as gas masks protect only against respiratory absorption. Whilst most military gas masks are designed to be capable of protection against spectrum of NBC agents, they can be coupled with filter canisters that are proof against those agents (heavier) or just against riot control agents and smoke (lighter, and often used for training purposes); likewise there are lightweight masks solely for use in riot control agents and not for NBC situations.

    Although thorough training and the availability of gas masks and other protective equipment can render the casualty-causing effects of an attack by chemical agents nullified, troops who are forced to operate in full protective gear are less efficient in completing their given tasks, tire easily, and may be affected psychologically by the threat of attack by these weapons. During the Cold War era, it was seen as inevitable that there would be a constant NBC threat on the battlefield, and thus troops needed protection in which they could remain fully functional; thus protective gear, and especially gas masks have evolved to incorporate innovations in terms of increasing user-comfort, and in compatibility with other equipment (from drinking devices to artificial respiration tubes, to communications systems etc). The gas mask has thus now arrived at a 'fourth generation' of development. Learn more about the development of military gas masks throughout history.
     
  2. Horus

    Horus ADMINISTRATOR

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  3. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

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    A modern mask typically is constructed of an elastic polymer in various sizes. It is fitted with various adjustable straps which may be tightened to secure a good fit. Crucially, it is connected to a filter cartridge near the mouth either directly, or via a flexible hose. Some models contain drinking tubes which may be connected to a water bottle. Corrective lens inserts are also available for users who require them.
    Masks are typically tested for fit prior to actual use. After a mask is fitted, it is often tested via various challenge agents. Isoamyl acetate, a synthetic banana flavorant, and camphor are often used as innocuous challenge agents. In the military, the use of tear gases such as CN, CS, and stannic chloride in a chamber may be used to give the users confidence in the efficacy of the mask.[3]
    When the mask is used in a real scenario, or as part of a drill, there is 9 seconds to put the gas mask on and clear and seal. Hold the breath and close the eyes, pulling the gas mask out of its carrying case and put the mask on, exhale hard to purge any contaminants from the interior of the mask, put a hand over the canister hole, and take a breath: the mask should collapse onto the face to provide a seal. Once the mask is cleared and sealed, tighten the straps. The wearer may put on further protective clothing after the mask.



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    Iranian soldiers use gas masks during Iraq chemical attacks during the Iran-Iraq War


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    German soldiers with gasmasks, 1915







    examples;
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  4. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

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    M40 Field Protective Mask is one of various gas masks used by the military of the United States and its allies to protect from field concentrations of chemical and biological agents, along with radiological fallout particles. It is not effective in an oxygen deficient environment or against ammonia.

    The M40 Field Protective mask features 3 voicemitters, one on either the right or left side, and one in front. A voicecom adapter may be placed over the front voicemitter to amplify the user's voice. The mask can be adjusted in the field to accept the filtering canister on either side, so that a weapon may be shouldered. Right-handed shooters will normally locate the canister on the left side of the mask and vice-versa.
    The C2 canister on the M40 mask can protect the user from up to 15 nerve, choking, and blister agent attacks, and two blood agent attacks.
    The M40 comes with a drinking system that allows the user to drink water when donning the mask for long periods of time in a chemically contaminated environment. In order to use the drinking system the user must also have suitably equipped canteen lids or an adapter for other containers.

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  5. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

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    An NBC (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical) suit is a type of military personal protective equipment designed to provide protection against direct contact with and contamination by radioactive, biological or chemical substances, and provides protection from contamination with radioactive materials and some types of radiation, depending on the design. It is generally designed to be worn for extended periods to allow the wearer to fight (or generally function) while under threat of or under actual nuclear, biological, or chemical attack. The civilian equivalent is the Hazmat suit. The term NBC has been replaced by CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear), with the addition of a new threat, radiological, meaning radiological weapon.
    Sometimes they are called chemsuits or chem suits or chemical suits.

    NBC stands for nuclear, biological, chemical. It is a term used in the armed forces and in health and safety, mostly in the context of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) clean-up in overseas conflict or protection of emergency services during the response to a terrorist attack, though there are civilian and common-use applications (such as recovery and clean up efforts after industrial accidents).
    In military operations, NBC suits are intended to be quickly donned over a soldier’s uniform and can continuously protect the user for up to several days. Most are made of impermeable material such as rubber, but some incorporate a filter, allowing air, sweat and condensation to slowly pass through. An example of this is the Canadian military NBC suit.
    The older Soviet suit was impermeable rubber-coated canvas. Now known as the CBRN suit, the British Armed Forces suit is reinforced nylon with charcoal impregnated felt. It is more comfortable because of the breathability but has a shorter useful life, and must be replaced often. The British Armed Forces suit is known as a "Noddy suit" because some of them had a pointed hood like the hat worn by the fictional character Noddy. The Soviet style suit will protect the wearer at higher concentrations than the British suit but is less comfortable due to the build-up of moisture within it. A Soviet suit was known as a Womble because of its long faced respirator with round visor glasses. In Canadian terminology, an NBC suit or any kind of similar protective over-suit is also known as a Bunnysuit.


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    Two Canadian soldiers wearing NBC suits





    Personal protective equipment

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and others.
    The purpose of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels. PPE is needed when there are hazards present. PPE has the serious limitation that it does not eliminate the hazard at source and may result in employees being exposed to the hazard if the equipment fails


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    Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agents wearing Level B hazmat suits

    Skin protection

    Occupational skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, skin cancers, and other skin injuries and infections are the second most common type of occupational disease and can be very costly
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    Eye protection
    A paintball player wearing appropriate eye protection against impact.
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    A complete PPE ensemble worn during high pressure cleaning work.
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  6. RescueRanger

    RescueRanger PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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    I am sad no one mentioned the S10 respirator:
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    Manufactured in the UK, it has many variants and is being manufactured locally in Pakistan under licence as is in service within the Police, Army, Navy, Air force and Lahore Civil Defense.
     
  7. Koovie

    Koovie ELITE MEMBER

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    older pic of IA jawans in NBC suits



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  8. Abingdonboy

    Abingdonboy ELITE MEMBER

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    AFAIK these aren't gas masks. They are worn to protect the user from dust and sand. The last pic is designed to be used by the USAF and US Army aircrews (non-pilots). The face mask exsists to keep the wind from interfering with comms, so anyone in an aircraft thats got open doors or windows (58s, 60s, sometimes 47s) will have at least some reason to perhaps wear one. They are pretty common these days and are now standard kit AFAIK.
     
  9. Abingdonboy

    Abingdonboy ELITE MEMBER

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    [​IMG]
     
  10. Koovie

    Koovie ELITE MEMBER

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    [​IMG]
     
  11. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

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    http://www.defence.pk/forums/guns-c...ght-weapons-future-soldier-2.html#post3833376
     
  12. Horus

    Horus ADMINISTRATOR

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    ^These masks are bullet proof ballistic masks.