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Pakistan precious stones development

ghazi52

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Pakistan is all set to enter multi-billion dollar industry to back craftsmen & create jobs by tapping into country’s treasure chest of gemstones and precious metals.

Pakistan’s mountain ranges are home to some of the world’s most precious and sought-after gemstones. But the country’s natural wealth remained untapped due to lack of clear policy, absence of infrastructure, technical knowhow, shortage of skilled manpower and financial support.

> Pakistan currently has reserves of 99 types of precious stones and is the eighth largest producer in the world.

> The country is home to the world’s second-largest salt mines and coal reserves, fifth-largest copper and gold reserves, and second-largest coal deposits.

> Pakistan also has large deposits of ruby and emerald - two of the four most valuable gemstones in the world.

> Pakistan’s Gilgit-Baltistan, Kashmir region, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan are endowed with significant reserves of variety of mineral treasures.

Pakistan plans to earn up to $5 billion within five years and create new jobs.

Prime Minister Imran Khan who chaired a meeting of the gems, jewellery and minerals task force in Islamabad on Wednesday said that his government would reform the sector by introducing the latest technology in the minerals and gems sector. “For the first time in 74 years, this sector will be transformed into an export industry,” the prime minister said.

The government will set up gems and jewellery city to pool resources, offer incentives to investors ane provide one-window operations to address the customs and other issues faced by the businesses under a public-private partnership model. The country will also establish the chemical and mineral industry to reduce imports and enhance exports with the industrial value addition from raw minerals.
Source: Gulf News



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Pakistan is home to world’s finest gemstones. Obsolete extraction methods, lack of policy, smuggling and export in raw form are stopping the country from reaping benefits


Gem of a trade




Travelling on the Gilgit-Skardu Road during summers, you come across people climbing rugged mountains, many of them after crossing the river in between with the help of makeshift chairlifts called "dolis" in local language. They carry essential everyday items including clothing, food that may last for days or weeks and basic tools including hammers and chisels. Before and beyond this season that lasts between three to four months, it is not possible for them to tread this path and spend time here due to rains and snowfall.

The rocks and boulders they are crossing or settling around are no ordinary ones. These are repositories of immense natural wealth and hold some of the world’s best reserves of precious gemstones and semi precious stones. These people will stay here for long time and use their experience and instinct to figure out the location of the deposits of the precious stones. Sometimes, their guess turns out to be a well-calculated one, sometimes not.

In the absence of modern technology, they use blasting to break the rocks into smaller pieces and hunt for their desired product. Knowledge transferred to them over generations gives them a slight idea of which precious stone they can find near which mother rock.


The gems merchants and experts say the establishment of gem exchanges is a must to check movement of raw gemstones. They believe if there are better selling opportunities for miners and traders of raw gemstones inside Pakistan, they will not even think of smuggling.


A problem with this method of extraction is that the uncontrolled blasting done with dynamite can bring more harm than benefit and the precious stone may get destroyed along with surrounding rocks. The mines where these people search for gemstones are controlled by local influentials who give them mining rights as per the terms and conditions decided between them.

So, this informal mining goes on in a scenario where the government is yet to come up with a proper mining policy and introduce modern technology to extract gemstones in high altitude mountainous regions. The situation is almost the same in other areas blessed with gemstone reserves.

While the types of gemstones available in Pakistan is common knowledge, the reserves are yet to be quantified. Their location and value has to be determined. The last geological survey of these regions was done around 25 years ago and is now long overdue. The question here is that when you do not have the idea of where the different gemstones lie and in what quantity, you cannot exploit the potential and attract investors on terms that suit you.


Pakistan is a known hub of high quality gemstones in the world. Here garnet is found in Astore district, topaz in Mardan district and Astore district, spinel in Hunza-Nagar district, ruby in Hunza-Nagar district, tourmaline in Skardu Baltistan district and emerald in Swat. Similarly, aquamarine is found in Haramosh, Gilgit and Shigar Baltistan, peridot in Kohistan, agates, onyx and jaspers in Waziristan and Balochistan, Kunzite in Chitral (KPK) and turquoise in Chaghi Hills in Balochistan. There are several other regions that are home to semi precious-stones.



Irfan3



Official sources claim Pakistan has exported gemstones worth Rs2.57 billion over the last three years which the players in the sector term a tiny fraction of the actual potential that exists here. They believe there is huge scope for the country as the global gems and jewellery market is expected to gain the value of around $292 billion by the end of 2019. But this will not come easy; the government of Pakistan and other stakeholders will have to adopt a revolutionary plan to reform this sector and remove the impediments.

Matiullah Sheikh, Chairman, All Pakistan Gems Merchants and Jewellers’ Association (APGMJA), based in Karachi, questions why the gemstones extracted in Pakistan are available in the markets of Thailand in cut and polished form rather than here. Unfortunately, he says, "most of these gemstones are smuggled out or exported in raw form by exporters who declare far less than their real value in customs records."

"A large quantity of these raw gemstones reaches the emerging markets of finished gemstones like India and Thailand where they are cut and polished before being put on sale in their local markets as well as the international market."

Sheikh demands for a fresh geological survey of the said areas, especially those in Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to quantify the reserves. He shares that phenomenon like earthquakes and the activity going on inside earth’s crust change formations of rocks and often brings treasures hidden far below the surface to the fore. "Therefore, relying on the old geological survey is not a prudent approach especially when many earthquakes have occurred here over the years," he adds.

Sheikh says, "Taxes on exports and remittances from sale proceeds of finished gemstones also discourage people from exporting them through proper channel, so they prefer to take these abroad in raw form and get them value added there. I would request the government to remove these levies for some time so that the sector can flourish."
Other issues plaguing the sector include the lack of advanced technology and equipment for mining, dearth of skilled manpower and non-existence of gemstone exchanges inside Pakistan where these can be traded. As the precious stones here are found in veins formed inside rocks at high altitudes, the required blasting has to be done in controlled environment and with extreme care so that only the surrounding rock is cracked. Otherwise, the gemstone trapped inside these veins is destroyed.
This can be handled by leasing modern equipment to the miners for high altitude mining and improving the mining techniques and blasting methods. Adoption of these methods would lead to conservation of the gem material and increase in production.
Regarding skilled workforce, the situation is that several government and non government sector institutes are providing training in gemstone cutting and polishing but there is a need to bring it to the international standards. Mahmood Alam Mehsud, who deals in emeralds of Swat and owns a lapidary in Islamabad, says he brought experts from France to train the workforce here so that the level of their skills could be enhanced to the required level. He says he has a loyal customer base in France and Italy where Pakistani emerald is high in demand. He hopes time will come when all the gemstones extracted from here are cut and finished here and then sold to the buyers. "Pakistan is blessed with world’s finest emerald which is more expensive than diamond. It’s up to us to market it to the world in the best possible manner."
The concept of gem exchange is not new in Pakistan. Namak Mandi in Peshawar has historically been the hub for all gemstones that are mined from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and the adjoining states. But unfortunately these do not exist now. "The exchanges of Quetta and Peshawar are no more there," says Faisal Shafiq, Marketing Manager, Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company (PGJDC) that works under the Ministry of Industries and Production. He says these two exchanges were set up by the company, but "these could not remain functional beyond a certain period due to the extraordinarily high retail costs involved."
Shafiq shares the company organised a 4-day exhibition early this year that received excellent response from prospective buyers and investors. "They are offering courses in gems’ cutting and polishing. Also, the interest shown by people in taking these courses is a good sign."
The gems merchants and experts are however convinced the establishment of gem exchanges is a must to check movement of raw gemstones to countries like China, Afghanistan and Thailand through informal channels. They believe if there are better selling opportunities for the miners and traders of raw gemstones inside Pakistan, they will not even think of smuggling or exporting these out in this form. Therefore, they demand creation of gem exchanges in cities like Skardu, Gilgit and Peshawar on the pattern of Chantaburi in Thailand. They believe it is the best time to do this because the unauthorised movement of goods and individuals across Pakistan-Afghanistan border has become difficult recently due to the increased control and checks introduced there.
Proper quantification of gems deposits and required reforms in this sector are also necessary as Chinese companies are coming to Pakistan and it is quite likely that they will invest in this sector as well. Without making progress on these counts, Pakistan will not be in a position to extract maximum benefits out of partnerships and may end up leasing outs treasure troves for peanuts.
 
Why the ahal and compitent governments of pmln and ppp has tapped this market before. Heck this does nt even have industry status. 1
 
Historical background of Gemstones of Pakistan


Pakistan is a rich in resources, some of them are standing in the mineral world. It has different minerals such as topaz, emerald, aquamarine, ruby etc many other rare earth minerals and large amount of types of quartz. Pakistan shares a long border with Afghanistan that makes the Afghani minerals flow into Pakistan.

Pakistan’s first city was Peshawar for the trade of gemstones of both countries. The bigger market of gem mining in Pakistan was held in Karachi. The artifact of Gandhara and Indus river advancement are evidence to this fact. gemstones dealer in Pakistan was deep rooted in 1979 to explore its own areas of minerals and to enhance its business of gemstones in Pakistan.

Nowadays, two bodies are working for minerals and other areas in Pakistan. Those are, All Pakistan Commercial Exporters Association of rough and un-polished precious and semi-precious stones APCEA, and Trade and Development Authority of Pakistan. The annual expo of gemstones is held in the city of flowers, Peshawar. Gem lover from USA and Europe are attracted by Pakistan’s gemstones and buy stones, mostly in the gemstones show held in Pakistan.

There are many types of stones that are available in Pakistan, which are extracted from different areas. Emerald found in the Swat valley of KPK. Quartz and corundum are found Dir Malakand division of KPK. Glassy samplings are used as gems and red ones are named as ruby and pink-orange are known as Padparadscha. The smoky quartz is found in Mansehra. Peridot has a cluster of lime green peridot crystals in Kohistan. Titanite has light olive green colored sphene from Mohmand Agency. Garnet and Scapolite found in the region of Bajaur Agency.
 
Great industry to expand into. Long term diamond polishing should also be considered. Jem processing industries are labor intensive....but require experience and good tools. Pakistani craftsmen should be able to compete globally. Emerald in particular has significance in Chinese and east Asian cultures. Pakistan must look to cater exports to Chinese and other Asian consumers as well as western, IMO.
 
An unaccountable sum of Pakistani Gems/Stones are smuggled to India, which go on to sell in western markets, branded as India, with high margins.
 

Pakistan’s Gemstones: An Overview


Pakistan is home to many varieties of minerals, some of which make it prominent in the mineral world, such as peridot, aquamarine, topaz (various colours: violet and pink, golden and champagne), ruby, emerald, rare-earth minerals bastnaesite and xenotime, sphene, tourmaline, and many varieties and types of quartz.

1625858365170.png


Sphene.
GB Areas, Pakistan, 3.4 cm high. (Photo: Jeffrey Scovil; Gem: Bill Larson Collection)


Pakistan shares a long and porous border (2430 km) with Afghanistan. This has effectively resulted in a full influx of all types of Afghan minerals into Pakistan, from which they are traded. Pakistan’s northwestern city of Peshawar serves as the first, direct, and only market for all minerals found in both these countries since 1979, after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.

Before the invasion, Pakistan’s only port city of Karachi held the bigger market of gem minerals (only facet rough and gems) in Pakistan. Following Peshawar’s rise in prominence, Karachi’s significance and role in gem minerals was reduced to those of little significance.

A Brief History of the Mining and Business of Gemstones in Pakistan

Pakistan came into existence in 1947 after partition of the subcontinent. A review of its history before the British rule reveals that its people and kings cherished gemstones highly. The relics of the Gandhara and Indus civilisations are a testimony to this fact. After its founding, Pakistan has given little, if not negligent, attention to this sector.

Gemstones Corporation of Pakistan was established in 1979 to effectively explore Pakistan’s own share of wealth in minerals and to facilitate gemstone mining and business in Pakistan. It had some valuable influence but ultimately was liquidated in 1997 and hence abandoned.

There are two bodies now working for the welfare and growth of this industry in Pakistan: Trade Development Authority of Pakistan (formerly Export Promotion Bureau) and All Pakistan Commercial Exporters Association of Rough & Un-Polished Precious & Semi Precious Stones (APCEA).

Since 1994, the annual Pakistan Gems and Mineral Show has been held in Peshawar with their joint collaboration, during four days in October. It has not as yet, however, attracted any potential buyers from abroad. Its few stalls on display cannot fulfill any of the requisite needs of experienced buyers from abroad, especially the USA and Europe.

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Spessartine.
GB
Areas, Pakistan, 5.0 cm high. (Photo: Jeffrey Scovil; Gem: Bill Larson Collection)


The northern and northwestern parts of Pakistan are shrouded by the three world-famous ranges called Hindukush, Himalaya, and Karakorum. In these mountains have been found nearly all the minerals Pakistan currently offers to the world market, including aquamarine, topaz, peridot, ruby, emerald, amethyst, morganite, zoisite, spinel, sphene, and tourmaline.

The question arises as to how these were explored: by the very people living in and beside the hills and not as a result of any government involvement or support, a fact that the government of Pakistan cannot refute. In the industrial minerals sector, of course, the government-owned mining corporation is effective and has been of great help to local investors.

Pakistan, through its one body, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, has always recruited foreign investment in mining precious and semi-precious stones in Pakistan. But the rhetoric of the ministry is so inadequate and ineffective that no influential mining venture by any foreign institutes or individuals has taken place. One significant reason is the reputation for unreliability in the survey/analysis reports conducted by any government-sponsored institute in Pakistan.


Moving Forward


Pakistan must look into this situation very seriously. It can conduct such surveys by any reputable/foreign-based institutes to attract foreign investors in this sector. But the locals who have ever ventured into such activity have only stories of failure to tell.

In industrial mining, lease by provincial/local government exists, and in the case of precious/semi-precious stones it has been observed in emerald (Swat, Frontier Province), ruby (Pakistan’s Kashmir), and topaz (Katlung, Mardan District, Frontier Province), but has resulted in loss and/or failure for venturers.

1625858033439.png



Beryl:
GB Areas, Pakistan, 9.3 cm high. (Photo: Jeffrey Scovil; Gem: Bill Larson Collection)


It is important to stress here that the non-professional residents of mining areas are actually the ones who mine these jewels of earth in their hazardous, traditional way of mining. They usually form groups that initiate diggings and blastings, distributing the costs that may incur during the mining period. This process is something that the Government of Pakistan has failed to control or investigate. The resulting product is compromised in terms of quality and quantity. Mining ventures in precious and semi-precious stones are uncontrollable in Pakistan because they are undertaken by its people without any permission, support, or guidance from the government.

Pakistan, based on its potential in mineral wealth, can become a great hub of the gemstone industry, on a scale comparable to that of Brazil, provided it takes a few essential, locally effective steps that can enhance the exploration of resources and growth of business. The most useful step: full and supportive involvement of the government with its own people as well as the foreigners involved in this industry. The establishment by Pakistan of the Gems and Gemmological Institute, in Peshawar in 2001, is an investment that ultimately will bear fruit.

Mining Areas

The few potential/major gemstone mining areas in Pakistan are: (only major gemstones yielded are mentioned)

Northwest Frontier Province

  • Swat (Malakand division) – Emerald, various types of quartz, and epidote
  • Dir (Malakand division) – Corundum and quartz
  • Mansehra (Hazara division) – Corundum and smoky quartz
  • Kohistan (Hazara division) – Peridot
  • Peshawar district (Frontier province) – Quartz with astrophyllite/reibeckite fiber inclusions, xenotime, and bastnaesite
Ex- FATA Areas

  • Mohmand Agency – Emerald, clinozoisite, sphene, and epidote
  • Bajaur Agency – Emerald, garnet, and orange-colour scapolite
  • Khyber Agency – Quartz with astrophyllite/reibeckite fibers inclusions, xenotime, and bastnaesite
  • North and South Waziristan Agencies – Faden quartz, diamond quartz, phantom quartz, chlorite-included quartz, and window quartz
GB Areas

  • Chilas (Diamer district) – Alluvial diopside, zircon, rutile quartz, aquamarine, and tourmaline
  • Gilgi , Hunza, and Shigar (Gilgit district) – Aquamarine, topaz (golden and white), emerald (new find), ruby, pollucite, rutile quartz, morganite, apatite, spinel, and pargasite
  • Shengus, Stak Nala, and Tormiq Nala (Baltistan Skardu Road, Baltistan district) – Aquamarine, topaz, tourmaline, apatite, sphene, morganite, and quartz
  • Shigar Proper (near Skardu, Baltistan district) – Apatite, zoisite, rutile quartz, epidote, and morganite
  • Childee, Kashmal, and Yuno (Shigar area, near Skardu, Baltistan district) – Aquamarine, emerald-colour tourmaline, apatite, morganite, topaz, and quartz
  • Hyderabad, Testun, Dassu, Net Tahirabad, and Goyungo (Shigar area, Baltistan district) – Topaz (best golden colour here), aquamarine, tourmaline, morganite, rare earth minerals, apatite, quartz, and new find emerald
  • Appu Aligund, Fuljo, Braldu, Bashu, and Karma (Baltistan district) – Tourmaline, aquamarine, garnets,diopside, ruby, pargasite, emerald, topaz, amethyst, scheelite, and quartz
  • Khappalu and near Siachin area (Gaanshai area, Baltistan district) – Aquamarine, amethyst, and fine golden rutile quartz
Baluchistan Province

  • Kharan district – Brookite, anatase, and quartz
  • Chaman (near Quetta) – Diamond quartz, window quartz, quartz on prehnite-base, and faden quartz included by chlorite
 
An unaccountable sum of Pakistani Gems/Stones are smuggled to India, which go on to sell in western markets, branded as India, with high margins.
Polished diamonds and jewelry is India top merchandise export to the USA. Can't blame them for our unwillingness to focus on exports.
 
Polished diamonds and jewelry is India top merchandise export to the USA. Can't blame them for our unwillingness to focus on exports.

Agreed, still - Pakistan need regulation, money opportunities just wasted and gov losing tax income.
 
Wonderful article written.
Gilgit Baltistan is home to many natural and precious things, like precious stones, dried fruits, minerals and herbs.
 
Pakistan is home to world’s finest gemstones. Obsolete extraction methods, lack of policy, smuggling and export in raw form are stopping the country from reaping benefits


Gem of a trade




Travelling on the Gilgit-Skardu Road during summers, you come across people climbing rugged mountains, many of them after crossing the river in between with the help of makeshift chairlifts called "dolis" in local language. They carry essential everyday items including clothing, food that may last for days or weeks and basic tools including hammers and chisels. Before and beyond this season that lasts between three to four months, it is not possible for them to tread this path and spend time here due to rains and snowfall.

The rocks and boulders they are crossing or settling around are no ordinary ones. These are repositories of immense natural wealth and hold some of the world’s best reserves of precious gemstones and semi precious stones. These people will stay here for long time and use their experience and instinct to figure out the location of the deposits of the precious stones. Sometimes, their guess turns out to be a well-calculated one, sometimes not.

In the absence of modern technology, they use blasting to break the rocks into smaller pieces and hunt for their desired product. Knowledge transferred to them over generations gives them a slight idea of which precious stone they can find near which mother rock.


The gems merchants and experts say the establishment of gem exchanges is a must to check movement of raw gemstones. They believe if there are better selling opportunities for miners and traders of raw gemstones inside Pakistan, they will not even think of smuggling.


A problem with this method of extraction is that the uncontrolled blasting done with dynamite can bring more harm than benefit and the precious stone may get destroyed along with surrounding rocks. The mines where these people search for gemstones are controlled by local influentials who give them mining rights as per the terms and conditions decided between them.

So, this informal mining goes on in a scenario where the government is yet to come up with a proper mining policy and introduce modern technology to extract gemstones in high altitude mountainous regions. The situation is almost the same in other areas blessed with gemstone reserves.

While the types of gemstones available in Pakistan is common knowledge, the reserves are yet to be quantified. Their location and value has to be determined. The last geological survey of these regions was done around 25 years ago and is now long overdue. The question here is that when you do not have the idea of where the different gemstones lie and in what quantity, you cannot exploit the potential and attract investors on terms that suit you.


Pakistan is a known hub of high quality gemstones in the world. Here garnet is found in Astore district, topaz in Mardan district and Astore district, spinel in Hunza-Nagar district, ruby in Hunza-Nagar district, tourmaline in Skardu Baltistan district and emerald in Swat. Similarly, aquamarine is found in Haramosh, Gilgit and Shigar Baltistan, peridot in Kohistan, agates, onyx and jaspers in Waziristan and Balochistan, Kunzite in Chitral (KPK) and turquoise in Chaghi Hills in Balochistan. There are several other regions that are home to semi precious-stones.



Irfan3



Official sources claim Pakistan has exported gemstones worth Rs2.57 billion over the last three years which the players in the sector term a tiny fraction of the actual potential that exists here. They believe there is huge scope for the country as the global gems and jewellery market is expected to gain the value of around $292 billion by the end of 2019. But this will not come easy; the government of Pakistan and other stakeholders will have to adopt a revolutionary plan to reform this sector and remove the impediments.

Matiullah Sheikh, Chairman, All Pakistan Gems Merchants and Jewellers’ Association (APGMJA), based in Karachi, questions why the gemstones extracted in Pakistan are available in the markets of Thailand in cut and polished form rather than here. Unfortunately, he says, "most of these gemstones are smuggled out or exported in raw form by exporters who declare far less than their real value in customs records."

"A large quantity of these raw gemstones reaches the emerging markets of finished gemstones like India and Thailand where they are cut and polished before being put on sale in their local markets as well as the international market."

Sheikh demands for a fresh geological survey of the said areas, especially those in Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to quantify the reserves. He shares that phenomenon like earthquakes and the activity going on inside earth’s crust change formations of rocks and often brings treasures hidden far below the surface to the fore. "Therefore, relying on the old geological survey is not a prudent approach especially when many earthquakes have occurred here over the years," he adds.

Sheikh says, "Taxes on exports and remittances from sale proceeds of finished gemstones also discourage people from exporting them through proper channel, so they prefer to take these abroad in raw form and get them value added there. I would request the government to remove these levies for some time so that the sector can flourish."
Other issues plaguing the sector include the lack of advanced technology and equipment for mining, dearth of skilled manpower and non-existence of gemstone exchanges inside Pakistan where these can be traded. As the precious stones here are found in veins formed inside rocks at high altitudes, the required blasting has to be done in controlled environment and with extreme care so that only the surrounding rock is cracked. Otherwise, the gemstone trapped inside these veins is destroyed.
This can be handled by leasing modern equipment to the miners for high altitude mining and improving the mining techniques and blasting methods. Adoption of these methods would lead to conservation of the gem material and increase in production.
Regarding skilled workforce, the situation is that several government and non government sector institutes are providing training in gemstone cutting and polishing but there is a need to bring it to the international standards. Mahmood Alam Mehsud, who deals in emeralds of Swat and owns a lapidary in Islamabad, says he brought experts from France to train the workforce here so that the level of their skills could be enhanced to the required level. He says he has a loyal customer base in France and Italy where Pakistani emerald is high in demand. He hopes time will come when all the gemstones extracted from here are cut and finished here and then sold to the buyers. "Pakistan is blessed with world’s finest emerald which is more expensive than diamond. It’s up to us to market it to the world in the best possible manner."
The concept of gem exchange is not new in Pakistan. Namak Mandi in Peshawar has historically been the hub for all gemstones that are mined from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and the adjoining states. But unfortunately these do not exist now. "The exchanges of Quetta and Peshawar are no more there," says Faisal Shafiq, Marketing Manager, Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company (PGJDC) that works under the Ministry of Industries and Production. He says these two exchanges were set up by the company, but "these could not remain functional beyond a certain period due to the extraordinarily high retail costs involved."
Shafiq shares the company organised a 4-day exhibition early this year that received excellent response from prospective buyers and investors. "They are offering courses in gems’ cutting and polishing. Also, the interest shown by people in taking these courses is a good sign."
The gems merchants and experts are however convinced the establishment of gem exchanges is a must to check movement of raw gemstones to countries like China, Afghanistan and Thailand through informal channels. They believe if there are better selling opportunities for the miners and traders of raw gemstones inside Pakistan, they will not even think of smuggling or exporting these out in this form. Therefore, they demand creation of gem exchanges in cities like Skardu, Gilgit and Peshawar on the pattern of Chantaburi in Thailand. They believe it is the best time to do this because the unauthorised movement of goods and individuals across Pakistan-Afghanistan border has become difficult recently due to the increased control and checks introduced there.
Proper quantification of gems deposits and required reforms in this sector are also necessary as Chinese companies are coming to Pakistan and it is quite likely that they will invest in this sector as well. Without making progress on these counts, Pakistan will not be in a position to extract maximum benefits out of partnerships and may end up leasing outs treasure troves for peanuts.


It is just another example of tragic loss of focus in specialised industry; if there was a dept dealing with mines; then there would have been some insight. It has just been left alone to stone age techniques which is pathetic. There is a such a value add chain of industries which can be done. Again, no foresight.
 
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