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Pakistan Meteorological Department Projects


Mar 21, 2007
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The PMD has a network of observation stations and a telecommunication system for the speedy dissemination of data to meteorological offices to analyse data for issuing forecasts and warnings. At the time of its establishment in 1947, the PMD inherited only 15 meteorological observatories from the Central Meteorological Organisation operating in the subcontinent. Today, Pakistan has around 100 Met stations which collect data on an hourly basis. The data looks at wind direction and speed, maximum temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, pressure, visibility, clouds and wind. This information is then sent to regional centres which analyse this data and send it to the national meteorological climate centre. The centre later forwards the data to the national forecasting centre, where it is analysed.

All systems in place

The PMD issues three types of weather forecasts: short-range forecast for 24 hours that is 90% accurate, medium range forecast for five to seven days that is more than 80% accurate and long-range forecast for one to three months that is 70% accurate.

A national monitoring system for droughts and other environmental factors has been set up in Islamabad, while regional centres exist in Peshawar, Quetta, Lahore and Karachi. “There are four kinds of droughts: meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socio-economic,” explains chief meteorologist Hazrat Mir. “Pakistan faces frequent droughts in Thar, which create serious health problems, shortage of food and water in the area coupled with cold waves, which aggravate the situation in the winter.” There are 50 Additional Warning Stations (AWS) in Sindh and Balochistan, and 100 more AWS have been proposed.


The Pakistan Meteorological Department in Islamabad is responsible for providing meteorological services throughout Pakistan.

The PMD issues a forecast twice daily through INMARSAT Coastal Station in Perth, Australia, for ships at sea. The Maritime Distress & Safety System issues warnings when any port is threatened and bulletins are issued for the fisheries via radio broadcasts. Pakistan is a coordinator of AREA IX — including Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar and Saudi Arabia — since 1976 and issues coastal warnings to all ships and national authorities within the area.

How forecasts are made

The PMD has more than 100 surface observatories across Pakistan and equipment to measure air temperature, rainfall, pressure, wind direction, humidity, sunshine duration and soil moisture. Different kinds of thermometers and Stevenson Screens are used to measure temperatures and rain. Ameno meters measure wind speed and wind vanes analyse wind direction. Sunshine recorders and evaporation tanks look at humidity and soil moisture while barometers measure air pressure.

Radio Sonde is used through balloon flights to measure wind speed, direction, humidity and temperatures at different levels in the atmosphere. “To assess the moisture content in clouds and the intensity of the weather system at higher altitudes, there is a network of radar systems covering the country,” explains Mir. “These radars include Quantitative Precipitation Measurement (QPM) and state-of-the-art Dopplar Radars.”

The PMD uses different types of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models and regional models to gather data. The data is then transmitted to the National Meteorological Communication Centre (NMCC), Karachi, which is the PMD’s data bank. As soon as the data is received at NMCC Karachi, it is converted into World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) standards. The information is then provided to forecasting centres at different stations including Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad and at 17 airports. This data is arranged in codes defined by WMO and also shared with WMO. Forecasters also use satellite imageries, radar pictures and model prediction in the generation of forecasts. Data is plotted on surface charts after every three hours, while upper air charts and constant pressure charts of different atmospheric level are plotted every 12 hours.

Meteorological Department PMD Radar tower Under Construction in Islamabad


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Japanese government to assist Pakistan in replacing weather radars
The government of Japan has announced that it will assist the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) in installing the latest weather radar technology in the cities of Islamabad and Karachi at a cost of Rs2.5bn (US$24m) and Rs1.6bn respectively (US$15.3m). Work on the installations has already begun.

PMD is also installing new radar solutions in the region of Kalpani Nullah near the city of Mardan, which is regularly affected by flash flooding. PMD hopes that these new solutions will be operational in early 2017.

PMD has already installed seven new radars throughout Pakistan to support early warning systems for flooding. These radars are operational, but the government of Pakistan has expressed concern that they are based on old technology and said that more modern solutions are required. The government of Japan will therefore assist Pakistan in installing new radars and modernizing existing ones; the modernization program will include the installation of new radars at 18 locations throughout the country.

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Pakistan Meteorological Department To Be Upgraded Under CPEC


ISLAMABAD, (APP): Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) will be equipped with latest technology and instruments under China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) by allocating Rs 19 billion.

Director General Pakistan Metrological Department, Ghulam Rasool confirmed that Met office upgradation project had been included in CPEC and the formal work would start after the provision of funds.

Official sources told APP that the project was under consideration and meetings of PMD officials with Chinese delegation was underway for finalization of the project.

They informed that under the project latest weather radars and other equipment would be installed at different places of the country to improve weather updates and early weather forecasting system for taking preventive measure and minimize losses from
natural calamities.
Exaggerated relief map of the subcontinent!

Pakistan to Improve its Weather Forecasting Systems

Pakistan’s forecasting equipment and network for the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) has long been overdue for a upgrade. The equipment currently being used by the PMD is slightly outdated and is only used to provide forecast for 1 and 2 days and an outlook for 3 to 5 days at most.

For stakeholders who wish to require information from the PMD for short-term operations as well as medium-to long-term planning, things need to improve at the Met Department.

Pakistan Meteorological Department to Upgrade Its Systems
The International Development Association (IDA) of the World Bank will be providing a $135 million soft loan to strengthen the PMD’s ability to provide reliable and timely weather, hyrdological and climate information and services to user departments and communities.

For this upgrade, obsolete and dysfunctional radars will either be removed/replaced. At least 14 new radars will be provided to cover more than 95% of the country. The locations of most of these radars is expected to be in remote areas with low population levels.

The upgradation of the weather forecasting equipment at the PMD is indeed a welcome step and a positive move.

A Necessary Upgrade
In June last year, the PMD failed to report in advance about a windstorm that devastated Islamabad and parts of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa on 1st June. A report on this failure was demanded by the Prime Minister. The report was submitted and the PM’s House agreed on acquiring the latest weather radars and asked the PMD to submit a comprehensive plan in this regard.

The upgraded equipment is expected to lead to improved hydro-meteorological information, strengthened forecasting and early-warning systems and speedy dissemination of weather, climate and hyrdological information to end-users.

Improved accuracy and lead time for weather forecasts and warning are on of the key indicators of this project. It is expected to be implemented over a time period of 5 years.

Pakistan has experienced extreme weather events mainly because of climate change. The number and intensity of such events will only increase in the upcoming years. Therefore, upgrading the early weather forecast equipment and network is very crucial in order to prevent human and property loss by forecasting changes in weather pattern and issuing advance alerts in advance.

Islamabad H-8 Weather Radar Tower Pakistan Meteorological Department Completed .


Japanese government to assist Pakistan in replacing weather radars
The government of Japan has announced that it will assist the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) in installing the latest weather radar technology in the cities of Islamabad and Karachi at a cost of Rs2.5bn (US$24m) and Rs1.6bn respectively (US$15.3m). Work on the installations has already begun.

PMD is also installing new radar solutions in the region of Kalpani Nullah near the city of Mardan, which is regularly affected by flash flooding. PMD hopes that these new solutions will be operational in early 2017.

PMD has already installed seven new radars throughout Pakistan to support early warning systems for flooding. These radars are operational, but the government of Pakistan has expressed concern that they are based on old technology and said that more modern solutions are required. The government of Japan will therefore assist Pakistan in installing new radars and modernizing existing ones; the modernization program will include the installation of new radars at 18 locations throughout the country.


Old radar should be installed in most needed areas. Something is batter then nothing. Somewhere is Chaghi and Musakhal will give good coverage of Baluchistan and it greatly improved overall coverage


It seems to be a structure out of the science-fiction movies made in Hollywood some three or four decades ago. Overlooking the old Islamabad graveyard in sector H-8, this solid mass of concrete with a small tower propping up a giant, football-shaped object is the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) headquarters. It is what looks towards the clouds, trying to achieve its mandate of accurate weather forecasting.

Equipped with radars, thermometers, barometers, Richter scale measures, and sunshine, evaporation, rain and wind recorders as well as dozens of computer screens, PMD coordinates with 90 weather-stations across the country and hundreds of others in Asia and around the globe to monitor weather patterns in the region.

The huge football-shaped, white radome with a seven-metre diameter hosts a dish antenna which rotates slowly to catch weather signals from within a 300-kilometre radius. It transmits them to the screens installed in the building below.

In another building, a vast hall is furnished with large and small screens displaying satellite images, weather charts, numerical weather forecasts and real-time weather indicators. Around this hall, meteorologists — both men and women — are glued to their computer screens, noting down the latest indications, communicating them to the relevant sections and uploading information on the official website.

Around a dozen more computer screens are attached to equipment in yet another large room, monitoring the situation at Rawalpindi’s often swollen Lai Nullah to monitor the flood situation there. The place, called the ‘Flood Risk Management in Lai Nullah Basin’ is linked to six rainfall monitoring stations, two water-level monitoring stations and 10 warning posts.

The met office is connected to weather radars across the country in Islamabad, Lahore, Mangla, Dera Ismail Khan, Rahim Yar Khan, Karachi, Charrat and Sialkot. Out of these the one at Sialkot is the oldest — installed in 1978.
New Weather Surveillance Radar Tower in Islamabad will be operational next month and here is what it means

The 73m high tower has a range of 400 kms around Islamabad providing better look at weather

The new Weather Surveillance Radar Tower adjacent to the headquarters of Pakistan Meteorological Department has finally been completed and is expected to be operational by June 2018.

The new tower near Zero Point has been provided by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and will replace the old tower that was also provided by the same company in 1991.

The new tower has a range of 400 kilometers around Islamabad which will effectively provide data about clouds heavy rainfall, thunderstorms, lightning, hailstorm, and windstorm.

The tower will be covering areas like Mianwali, Sargodha, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Muzaffarabad, Kotli, Hazara, Malakand, Peshawar, Bannu, Kohat, and DI Khan.

According to Director General of PMD, Dr. Ghulam Rasul, the tower is unable to reach Gilgit, Swat, and Jalalabad areas because of mountainous regions which block its reach.

He has assured that the PMD has extensive plans to expand and install additional such radars in Lahore, Chitral, DI Khan, Quetta, Cherat, Gilgit, Dalbandin, and Gwadar.

These new towers will have ranges from 150 to 400 km and will allow the PMD to finally replace outdated equipment for better weather surveillance.

Apart from receiving accurate weather surveillance, the towers will also play a vital role in improving the country’s early weather warning system which will help in combating weather-based disasters.



Pakistan mulls $118 million project to strengthen early warning system


KARACHI: Pakistan plans to pour over a hundred million dollars into a project aimed at strengthening Met Office's Early Warning System in order to provide reliable weather forecasts and prevent damages associated with natural calamities such as the devastating floods of 2010.

The cost of the project is estimated to be at $118 million of which 90 percent would be provided by the World Bank.

According to a Working Paper prepared for the perusal of the Central Development Working Party of the Planning Commission, the World Bank has indicated its intent to finance the project which envisages strengthening and upgradation of early warning system of Pakistan Metrological Department (PMD).

Under the proposed project, eight weather forecasting radars of various bands will be installed at Lahore, Gwadar, Chitral, Gilgit, Dera Ismail Khan, Cherat, Dal Badin and Quetta.

It will also help in strengthening of aviation forecasts through installation of wind profilers and automated surface observing systems in five major cities - Multan, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar and Islamabad.

Improved development and delivery of hydro-met information services and early warnings can make important contributions to economic productivity while also enhancing community resistance to natural hazards.

This project, if implemented, will increase weather and climate change adaptation and resilience-better manning water resources and increasing agricultural productivity.

The main objective is to strengthen the PMD for delivery of reliable and timely hydro-meteorological services including EWs to user departments and communities.

The CDWP considered the project during a meeting last year imposing some conditions and calling on the PDM to conduct feasibility study and chalk out Master Plan while keeping all stakeholders on board.

Besides short, medium and long-term objectives under which the project envisages providing information, the project under higher level objectives, will support the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) to address the challenges posed by climate change and natural disasters.
Japan to give Rs 2.3 billion for weather radar installation in Multan

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan’s weather forecasting capability will get a boost with the installation of a new weather surveillance radar in Multan, using the Japanese grant assistance of Rs 2.3 billion for which an agreement was signed here on Friday.

With the installation of this fifth weather surveillance radar, the weather coverage will go up to 80 per cent, benefiting 90 pc of the population. So far, Japan has supported installation of four weather radars in Islamabad, Karachi, Dera Ismail Khan and Rahim Yar Khan, bringing total weather radars operating in Pakistan to eight.

Besides this, the Japanese government would provide Rs 360 million scholarships for human resource development.

The agreements for the two projects were signed by Ambassador of Japan to Pakistan Takashi Kurai and Additional Secretary of Economic Affairs Division Ahmad Hanif Orakzai in the presence of Japanese State Minister for Foreign Affairs Kazuyuki Nakane, Finance Minister Asad Umar, Director General of Pakistan Meteorological Department Dr Ghulam Rasul and Chief Representative of JICA Pakistan Office Yasuhiro Tojo.

The installation of weather radar system in Islamabad has been completed and it has started operation, but it is yet to be handed over to the Pakistan Meteorological Department.

At a briefing held here, Dr Ghulam Rasool said the radar in Islamabad would be handed over to the PMD in October this year, while installation of a weather radar in Multan would be completed by 2021-22.

He said that after the radar system in Lahore was modernised, the PMD would be able to forecast weather 400 kilometres inside India, covering Indian Punjab and held Kashmir.
Pakistan’s average temperature to go up by 5°C by century’s end

  • Climate Impact Lab data shows Lahore, nearby areas likely to get hotter even if efforts to curb greenhouse emissions continue

The annual average temperature in Pakistan is expected to go up by five degrees Celsius by the end of the century, according to the data compiled by the Climate Impact Lab.

At the beginning of the century, the average annual temperature in Pakistan was 21 degrees Celsius whereas, by the end of the century, it is expected to rise up to 26 degrees Celsius. According to the data, Lahore and its neighbouring areas are likely to get hotter even if Pakistan and its neighbours continue to take actions to curb greenhouse emissions in line with the pledges of the Paris Agreement.


Mean annual temperature in Pakistan at the beginning of the current century.

At the beginning of the century, there were a total of 198 32-degree days in Lahore and its surrounding areas whereas by the end of the century, the number of 32-degree days is expected to range between 229 and 245.

This change in temperature will also be felt in other parts of the world. In tropical regions such as Jakarta in Indonesia, where there were five months with an average temperature of 32 degrees Celsius at the beginning of the year 2000, the heat might last there throughout the year. In Indian capital New Delhi, the months with 32-degree days will increase from six to eight months. In Spain’s Madrid, the number of 32-degree days would double or triple by the end of the century.

“How different cities and regions experience an increase in 32-degree days depends in part on how well adapted to heat they already are,” said Dr Kelly McCusker, a climate scientist at the Rhodium Group.

The data compiled by the Climate Impact Lab does not take into account the factor of humidity which makes the situation worse when the weather is already hot. Humidity severely impacts the lives of people in developing countries where outdoor labourers and factory workers are exposed to severe climatic conditions and are more prone to heatstroke and other health hazards.

“A very important factor for how humans experience heat is how humid it is,” Dr McCusker said, adding, “If it is also humid, humans cannot physiologically evaporate sweat as easily, and we cannot cool down our bodies effectively.”

High temperature also impacts food production and is one of the leading causes of draughts. Other than that, the electricity demand also skyrockets in hot weather.
Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) has finally received funds and support to replace its three-decade-old radar system with new, advanced equipment.

The C-band Doppler radar is expected to improve accuracy in forecasting severe weather systems before they hit the country. The department has been using the prevailing system, S-band radar since 1991. The new system is going to be operational before 2020.

The new radar is believed to be the most advanced in the region. It will be installed in collaboration with the help of the Japanese state agency, Japan International Cooperation Agency. The new system is coming at a price of Rs. 1.8 billion, 97 percent of which will be paid by Japan.

Chief Meteorological Officer in Karachi, Sardar Sarfaraz, has told, “The new radar system will enhance our ability to make accurate short term weather forecasts within the range of 450 km around Karachi, while thunderstorms and other unusual weather events will be observed from all sides.”

According to the official, the capacity of the new radar is two times higher than the currently installed system. Moreover, the new system will improve the accuracy of rainfall estimates, especially during high-impact weather events like storms.


Picture of Recently Installed Radar in PMD Islamabad

New Radar’s Capacity

Along with accuracy, the Met department will be able to predict the rainfall in centimeters and millimeters with the new Doppler radar. With the advancement of technology, weather radar systems have also advanced. They are now able to detect and issue warnings on weather-related hazards.

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) spokesperson, Brigadier Mukhtar Ahmed, has also said that the new radar will improve the overall early warning system. “We will be able to respond to extreme weather-related disasters in a much better way after the radar is installed,” he added.

The new radar has several applications. It will also improve aviation safety and increase the operational efficiency of the air transport industry. “With this radar, we can share information with ships and planes which is good for air safety and sea safety,” said the Met chief.

He further told that the new system will be helpful to the fishermen as well. It will allow the met department to issue weather forecasts within the vicinity of 200 km of the open sea. It will be able to predict cyclones from the Arabian Sea beforehand.

Pictures of Under Construction building for C-band Doppler Radar in Karachi.... The Radar have the range of 450 KM will help in forecasting severe weather conditions and improve accuracy. The capacity of this Radar is 2 times higher than the currently installed radar which is 3 decades old.


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New doppler weather radar activated in Karachi

The radar is capable of forecasting rainfall in a radius of about 450kms and strong winds in a radius of about 200kms

Aftab Khan
May 28, 2021

photo express


KARACHI: The Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) on Friday activated a modern doppler weather radar in Karachi after a period of 30 years.

The doppler radar is capable of forecasting rainfall in a radius of about 450kms and strong winds in a radius of about 200kms.

The new radar, which was built at a cost of around Rs1.58 billion, is also capable of providing timely reports of cyclones and other tropical storms in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal regions.

The PMD department had also provided a link to radar imagery on its website. The weather device would be able to detect conditions much faster as compared it its analogue predecessor which was installed in 1991.

The new device was supposed to be activated before the monsoon rains of 2020, however, due to the pandemic, the operation was delayed.

According to met department Director Sardar Sarfraz, the new radar has twice the wavelength as compared to the analogue equipment, which had about a wavelength of 10cm.

“Unusual activities including thunderstorms, cloud masks and others can be observed simultaneously from the east, west, north and south with the new doppler radar,” he said.

He added that the state-of-the-art device would also be able to predict rainfall in advance, in both millimetres and centimetres, two to six hours before its occurence.

“This will facilitate town planning and forecasting for rainwater discharge. It would also detect passing weather systems near the city,” he added.

Sarfaraz further stated that the radar would also be helpful for the aviation industry as it would be able to gauge strong winds.

“Flights and ships will be protected from hazards. The system of international shipping and shipping traffic forecasting will be improved. A quick warning will be possible in case of storms, rains, hot weather and other weather disasters,” he added.

He added that fishermen will also be warned of inclement weather conditions and storms.

“People living in the coastal areas of Balochistan and Sindh will be provided with accurate forecasting and warning,” he said, adding that the new radar would reduce the loss of life and property due to natural disasters in Pakistan.
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