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Dairy farming in pakistan

ghazi52

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Introduction

Being major player in the national economy, livestock sector is an economic engine for poverty alleviation in Pakistan. According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2017-18, its contribution to agriculture value added is approximately 58.9% and to national GDP is 11.1%.

Livestock of Pakistan include cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, camels, horses, asses and mules and they produce milk, meat, wool, hair, bones, fat, blood eggs, hides and skins among which milk and meat are the major products. Besides production, these animals are also used for draught purposes. Milk is produced by buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat and camel but being major contributor in milk production, cattle and buffalo are considered as major dairy animals.

Buffalos found in Pakistan make up 47% of Pakistan's major dairy animal's population providing more than about 61% of the total milk produced in the country. Buffalo breeds found in Pakistan are Nili Ravi, Kundi and Aza Kheli. Nili Ravi is considered the best buffalo breed in world and known as Black Gold of Pakistan. Cattle constitute about 53% of the national population of major dairy animals in Pakistan and contribute the share of almost 35% to the total milk production in country. The cattle breeds found in the country are Sahiwal, Cholistani, Red Sindhi, Achai, Bhagnari, Dajjal, Dhanni, Gibrali, Kankrej, Lohani, Rojhan, and Thari. Out of these, Sahiwal, Cholistani, and Red Sindhi are main dairy breeds and well known internationally due to their distinct characteristics. Other than well-defined cattle breeds, there are a large number of nondescript and crossbred cattle in this country.

Over few years, the importance of crossbred animals has been increased due to start of the development in dairy sector on commercial lines. The crossbred animals are mostly preferred for commercial dairy farms due to their higher production. Mostly cross of local cows (like Sahiwal and Cholistani) with imported cows (like Holstein Friesian and Jersey) is demanded by such farms. Besides our local and crossbred animals, imported animals are also the part of dairy cow family of Pakistan. Corporate Dairy Farms prefer dairy animals from other countries and run their farms on most modern lines with international expertise. These animals are imported from Australia, America and Sweden. The breeds of these imported animals are Holstein Friesian, Jersey and Friesian Jersey Cross.

Sheep and goats are reared in rural areas but their main purpose is mutton production. The milk produced from these small ruminants is used domestically. Camel is the animal of nomads who raise this animal to sell on Eid ul Adha. The milk produced by camel is used to meet the family needs. Some nomads also sell camel milk in urban areas and its demand is increasing day by day due to medicinal value. If we work on camel breeds, we can find camel as a good dairy animal.

Most of the milk produced in Pakistan comes from cattle and buffalo. The rest of it is collectively produced by sheep, goat and camel which, most of the time, is not sold as such, rather consumed domestically or mixed with buffalo and cow milk.

Estimated current National livestock Population based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:


Species

Population (Million)

Cattle

46.1

Buffalo

38.8

Sheep

30.5

Goat

74.1

Camel

1.1



Estimated current National Population of Cattle Breeds based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:


Breeds

........................Population (Million)

Sahiwal .................... 4.29

Red Sindhi....................4.73

Thari.............................2.78

Bhag Nari.......................1.61

Rojhan............................0.59

Dhanni.............................2.31

Kankraj.............................0.42

Lohani...............................0.87

Achai...............................1.06

Gabralli0.............................36

Foreign/Cross Bred.............5.77

Others............................21.31



Estimated current National Population of Buffalo Breeds based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:

Breeds

.............................Population (Million)

Nili Ravi.....................14.79

Kundhi ....................... 9.48

Azakhale.....................0.17

Others.......................14.37

Milk is favourite food in Pakistan and is consumed as fresh, boiled, powdered and in processed form like yogurt, ghee, lassi, butter, cheese, ice cream, sweets and in other confectioneries. The interesting thing regarding the dairy sector of Pakistan is that although it is third largest milk producing country in the world but still its production falls short to meet the national demand. It is not possible to say that Pakistan is deficient in Milk Production. Pakistan is sufficient in milk production but issue is with supply chain as milk is produced in sufficient volume is few pockets of country but its demand is nationwide. So to fulfill the national demand of milk the need is to manage its supply chain to ensure its availability throughout the country.

Current Milk Production and its availability for human consumption in Pakistan as per Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:


Species

Milk Production
(Billion Liters)


Human Milk Consumption (Billion Liters)

Cattle 20.903...............16.722

Buffalo 35.136.............28.109

Sheep 0.040..............0.040

Goat 0.915................0.915

Camel 0.896...............0.896

Total 57.890...............46.682

To get more such calculations related to livestock sector, don't hesitate to contact us!

Let's have a look on different production systems of Pakistan. Till late eighties, more than 60% of buffaloes and some cows were maintained under the system of Rural Subsistence Production System. In this system on an average there were 3 to 4 dairy animals with one or two adult females. Almost 50 to 60% of the feed requirements of these animals were fulfilled from grazing along with wheat straw and some green fodder. ¼th of milk produced was sold out and remaining was utilized for domestic use. This system still exists in some areas of Pakistan.

With the time being Rural Subsistence Production System changed into Rural Market-Oriented Smallholder Production System. Under this system, on an average there were 5 to 7 animals per herd, inclusive of cow; 3 to 4 adult lactating animals, one or two heifers, and one or two male calves, but most often no bull. Feeding requirement of lactating animals were fulfilled from fodder along with wheat straw and seed cake. More than 70% of milk produced was sold either directly or through middlemen. This system was practiced by those smallholders who have access to nearby livestock markets.

In 1980s, dairy sector in Pakistan moved towards commercial side and development of rural commercial dairy farms started. A typical rural dairy farm running on commercial basis consisted of about 30 animals of which 70% were females, including some cows. Approximately 40% of these adult females were in milk during most of the year. Fodder crops provided 50% and straws about 35% of the feed requirements and concentrates made the rest of it. More than 90% of the milk produced at the farm was sold.

With growing demand for milk in urban areas rural commercial dairy farming moved toward peri-urban areas. In peri-urban areas there are large and small dairy herds consisting of 20-50 animals with nearly 90% of adult females in production. Male calves are disposed off within first two weeks of birth. These animals are fed chopped green fodder andwheat straw and concentrate mixture with target to sell almost total milk produced.

Over the last 2 to 3 decades, large peri-urban commercial dairy farming has also emerged. Targets of these farms are to get maximum milk production with economical and quality feeding and good management. Animals on these farms are fed good quality green fodder or silage along with concentrate mixture. Dairy animals maintained at these farms are considered elite animals; hence their yields per lactation are considerably higher than those of animals maintained under other production systems. Milk produced on these farms is either sold out in processed/fresh form through outlets or departmental stores or supplied to dairy companies.

During last ten years major changes has been occurred in dairy sector of Pakistan. A large number of modern dairy farms established in different areas. Most of these dairy farms have exotic animals and number of these animals is in hundreds and even in thousands. Dairy farms with more than 3000 animals also exist and with 5000 animals are in plan. Such farms have adopted most modern managemental and feeding practices and well trained man power. Milk produced on these farms is either sold out in processed/fresh form through outlets/ departmental stores/house supply etc. or supplied to dairy companies.
 
DAIRY FARMING IN PAKISTAN

You will know why dairy farming is a good business, and what to look out for when you are starting out, because I am going to share some of my experiences (I have been involved directly in dairy farming for the last almost-two years).

dairy-farming-pakistan.jpg


My first hand experience starting a dairy farm here in Pakistan

Dairy Farming is a very hot topic in Pakistan. A lot of seasoned and would-be entrepreneurs have already jumped onto the Dairy Farming bandwagon in Pakistan, and even more so like to talk about getting into dairy farming. But have you asked yourself this question, “why start a dairy farm?”


Why Start A Dairy Farm

Yours truly have been working on the dairy farming project since June 2009. My interest was pretty much ‘academic’ at first; just knowing how the business and the animals operate. It was after almost a year of travelling in and around Punjab, meeting countless number of people in the field, discussing and debating with some very qualified consultants and breeders, that I decided to dip my toes in this project.

I was interested in quite a few facets of Dairy Farming:

  1. The Business Model: Dairy farming has a very unique business model, and no other business has the capability of multiplying its assets while still producing revenue. Remarkable.
  2. The Current Situation: One of many lessons that Richard Branson has taught me is that you should get into a business where you think you can do better. Dairy farming, I knew, had a very, very large room for improvement.
  3. A Very Solid Demand: A lot of businesses and entrepreneurs would consider a ‘demand’ for something a good enough reason to get into any project. But for me, dairy farming is not only the demand of the market, but also a need. People need healthy, quality milk (and meat). It fits in with the idea of for-profit philanthropy where I stand a chance of actually helping people out, and earning prayers as well as profits. Now that’s an inspiration!
  4. Super Integration: This was not vertical integration as much as it was super integration. I already have two independent projects, one agriculture farmingand the other is milk supply within Lahore,Alhumdulillah. The dairy farm has the potential of sitting in very nicely between the two, and providing wholesome integration. Although integration of any two businesses, much less three, is a pain in the neck (amongst other body parts), dairy farming provides me with the perfect long-term inspiration for working on these three projects!

Warning: Know This Before You Start Dairy Farming

Most of the things people say, they just say them without much thought. They’d discourage you from doing anything different. This should not stop any half-decent starta from doing and starting different projects, of course. Having said that, following are the main points – so far – that should be considered when starting your own dairy farm:

1. It is a long term project.

There are no two ways about it. The time when you actually start seeing profits, IF a lot of things go right, is at least three years, usually five years. If you start taking out profits from it before three years, be prepared to inject more money in to it afterwards. But the upside to this remarkable business model is best explained by the following example that I frequently give to my friends and would-be entrepreneurs:

  • I start a shoe shop, selling shows. You start a dairy farm, selling milk.
  • After three years, if both of us do well in our businesses, I’d be richer than you.
  • After six years, I’d have five branches all over the city, and will still be richer than you. You’d have great cash flows but you will find it hard to beat my retail outlets.
  • Ten years later, it won’t matter how good I am doing, you will be much richer than me, in terms of assets, and most importantly, in terms of cash in hand.
  • After 10 years, no business seem to even come close to the almost logarithmic growth of a dairy farm.
So if you can train yourself to actually think slow and steady, rather than fast and wobbly, then dairy farming is definitely something to consider.

2. The Most Important Factor is Currently the Hardest

The hardest part of setting up a dairy farm is the procurement of good-quality, high-yielding, environment-hardened animals. This is also the most important activity for an owner of a dairy farm.

You can go for imported cows, but I did not and I recommend that you don’t either.

A lot of people will tell you that you shouldn’t because they are expensive. I want you to know that imported cows are not expensive. If you are paying 140,000 (PKR) for a cross-bred cow, then paying 180,000 for an imported cow does not make the cow ‘expensive expensive’, it just makes it ‘relatively expensive’. And your target is not to increase the number of heads, but to increase the number of liters of milk. So an imported cow averaging 25 to 30 liters per lactation is much better than a cross-bred cow averaging 14 to 18 liters per lactation. The ROI is just plain and simple and you should stop listening to people who tell you otherwise.

But that’s not the reason why you should not get imported cows. The number one problem with imported cows is that they are unable to withstand the blast of heat of the Pakistani summers. Setting up the right infrastructure is essential, but that is not the only thing that you’d have to look into. There is disease and the very little margin of error that the imported cows give to you and your management.

I would suggest you do what I am doing; find good-quality locally bred cows, make sure that your dairy farm shed and cooling infrastructure is very much in place and then run the farm for at least a year to gauge how well your infrastructure (shed, cooling etc) is handling your locally-bred cows.

But that brings me back to the main point: finding high-quality locally bred cows is the hardest thing you’d have to do. It is also the MOST IMPORTANT thing for any dairy farm. As I have repeated this repeatedly (!!), a dairy farm’s main function is to procure and breed good-quality cows. The milk (and meat) is a by product of that main function.

So be prepared to hunt down good animals wherever you can find them. I remember travelling a total of 2000 kms plus, by road, all over Punjab, in one week, just to see and meet cow breeders. I didn’t pay half as much attention to the shed that I was constructing, or even the silage pits that were being prepared at the time, because purchasing the right animals is that one 20% activity that gives more than 80% of the result (if you are not aware of the wonderful 80/20 principle and how it applies to everything I talk about here, do read up on it by clicking here)


3. Finding the right people

Finding the right person to manage your dairy farm is also something to pay VERY close attention to. Stealing milk is very easy. If you do not trust the person who is managing the farm, then that’s a losing proposition. You should pray that God helps you find that person. You can also start with a solid attitude of trust, of reward and of accountability. I can write quite a few things on how to deal with people, because that is ALL of this is about, but suffice it to say for now, that one of the hardest things to do in dairy farming – just like in any other business – is to find the right people to manage and carry your dairy farm forward.

Details of who’s who and how many people should do what activity, those things are not the scope of this article and may be covered/posted later, God willing.

Finding technical help like that of vets and professional consults for animal feeding etc is NOT a problem, especially here in Pakistan. That is again one of the benefits of dairy farming, that the infrastructure that only a government can provide, is ALREADY IN PLACE in Pakistan. Sure there are problems, but it is good enough for you to not complain and get some work done.

###

This is just a run down of my thoughts on dairy farming and some – just some – of the pitfalls that you should look out for. By God’s Grace, my dairy farm has been operational for a about 4 months now and I am happy that I have started this business.
 
most of the people from my village survive by selling milk, farmers who were pretty well off 2 decades back are living like peasants now since this "jamhooriat" took over.

Sorry this might be off topic but what do you think about Poultry farming vs Dairy farming, which one is better in your opinion?
 
How to Start Dairy Farming in Pakistan

Sonia Juned

How-to-Start-Dairy-Farming-in-Pakistan.jpg



This article is about setting up a dairy farm in which cows and buffaloes are kept primarily for milk production in conventional housing system. The animals are fed green fodder and roughage at 8-10% of live body weight in addition to nutritionally balanced formulated feed and bred by Artificial Insemination method to gain optimum milk yields in lactation cycle of average 300 days. Dairy farming involves housing, breeding, feeding, watering, disease control and hygienic production of milk on farm.


The proposed dairy farm would be established on leased land with purpose built shed constructed on conventional housing system. The farm would start the operations with 12 animals (10 cows and 2 buffaloes having daily per animal milk production of 13 and 8 liters respectively) to achieve milk production of 34,560 liters by the end of first year, excluding the milk consumed by suckling calves. The breeding of animals would be planned through ‘Artificial Insemination’ method. Female calves would be given special attention and raised as heifers and male calves would be sold for fattening purpose. The milk will be primarily sold to bulk buyers at the rate of average Rs.60 per liter. The farm will also offer milk sale to domestic individual consumers.

Following are some key points before getting into the dairy farming business:

  • Background knowledge and related experience of the entrepreneur in dairy farm operations.
  • Application of good husbandry practices such as timely feeding, watering and vaccination to ensure animal’s health and disease-free environment.
  • Awareness about the supply and demand of milk in the market as demand of milk is relatively higher in summer as compared to winter season.
  • Efficient marketing of the project and bulk supply to wholesalers.
In the proposed study, initially twelve (12) animals, preferably 80% cows and 20% buffaloes, are recommended to obtain optimum milk production in the first year of project. It is assumed that on average, 70-80% animals would be in lactation on farm. The female heifers born at farm would be added in milking herd; hence the number of animals would be 50 at 10th year of project. The male calves would be sold for meat. Although, buffalo milk has higher fat content (9 10%) as compared to cow’s milk (3-6%) but total milk production of cows in average lactation period of 300 days is higher as compared to buffaloes. The dairy farm will have the capacity to sale 34,560 liters of milk, primarily directly to consumers and then milk contractors and processors in its first year of operation.

Dairy farming is a viable business proposition for both rural and peri-urban areas of Pakistan. There is almost equal demand for milk in rural and peri urban areas around the major cities such as Lahore, Faisalabad, Jhang, Sahiwal, Pakpattan, Jehlum, Peshawar, Charsadda, D.I. Khan, Quetta, Zhob, Lasbela, Karachi, Hyderabad, Sakkar etc. across the country; hence, from the demand point of view, the said project offers good investment opportunities for small scale investment in all provinces of country.

Apart from Lahore, Sialkot, kasur, Gujranwala, Bahawalpur, Okara, Dadu, Lasbela, D. I. Khan etc., dairy farming in rural and peri-urban locations around all major cities are the primary markets for dairy farming. The target clients for a dairy farm business include; domestic consumers, milk contractors and suppliers, milk collection and processing companies and dairy products manufacturing companies.

Producing High Quantity Milk at Dairy Farms in Pakistan

The milk production process of dairy farms in Pakistan starts with the selection of the right animal goes as follow:


Selection of good dairy buffalo breeds: namely, Nili-Ravi and Kundi and cattle breeds such as Sahiwal, Red Sindhi and Cholistani. Crossbred cows (cross of local non-descript cows with semen of exotic breeds e.g. Holstein, Friesian and Jersey) may also be considered.

Selection of animals with excellent body condition and udder health: average daily milk production of 8 liters or above for buffaloes and 12 liters or above for cows in 2nd or 3rd lactation, essentially with no disease history.

Housing: Good housing leads to good management practices and ultimately optimum production. Generally, housing should is:

  • Less expensive
  • Well ventilated, comfortable and dry with hygienic environment
  • Equipped with easy drainage system and mechanism for removal of dung urine and waste material
  • Protected from extreme environmental conditions
  • Having maximum sun exposure: axis of length to be east to west
  • Available with feed and water for 24 hours
  • Planned so that future expansion may be possible when required

Feeding:
Milking animal should be fed 1 kg of concentrate feed per 3 liters of milk produced; hence animal with 10 liters of milk production would be offered 3-3.5 kg of concentrate. Green fodder should be supplied @ 8-10% of body weight to the animals. Additionally, urea molasses blocks and salt blocks can help in better milk production. New born calves should be fed colostrum and milk @ 8-10% of body weight for first month of age. After that, green fodder should be added to its feeding plan

Watering:
Supply of clean drinking water in clean troughs i.e. 50 to 80 liters of water consumption/adult animal/day round the clock maintains the milk production capacity of the animal.

Breeding:
Efficient and timely Artificial Insemination (AI) of good genetic worth is a key to success in good breeding programs of herd. The detection of heat in buffaloes should be given special attention as they do not show signs of heat (silent heat).

Calving:
Pregnant animals should be given special attention in third trimester of pregnancy and should be separated in pregnancy pens, if possible. Veterinary assistance should be sought out in case of emergency. Calf care and heifer management is very important in maintaining dairy farm production.

Udder health:
Hygienic and clean milking twice a day (morning/ evening) lowers the chances of mastitis as udder health and hygiene is most important in dairy animals.

Storage:
Proper storage of milk should be done preferably at temperature of 4 c.

Disease management:
Deworming for endoparasitic infestations is necessary in calves born at farm. Timely vaccination against infectious diseases should be done as a prophylactic measure. At a well managed farm, mortality should not exceed 2-3% per year. The sick animals should be separated from rest of the animals and kept in quarantine.

Record keeping:
The animals should be ear-tagged having information of animal such as breed, age, date of birth / purchase, number of lactation, vaccination etc. The records for daily milk yields, weight, Artificial Insemination (AI), calving, vaccination and medication etc. are also important.

Culling:
Good productive animals should be selected and uneconomical animals should be culled.

Care:
Regular technical assistance from the livestock professionals and experts.

Investment Required for Starting a Dairy Farm in Pakistan

A dairy farm with 12 animals (80% cows and 20% buffaloes) in Pakistan needs a total investment estimated at Rs. 2.19 million out of which the capital cost of the project is Rs.2.01 million with working capital of Rs. 0.17 million. Details of financials can be studied in the business plan for dairy farming in Pakistan by SMEDA.


In case dairy farm is not able to attain its target milk production or implement effective husbandry practices, it will not be able to cover the potential market and recover payments; hence, cost of operating the business will increase.
 
So you guys will get a laugh, but whenever I visit Pakistan, I try to find milk from Australian cows as Buffalo milk's taste hasn't set yet to my palate.

There is a fancy shop with purple or blue lights (don't remember exactly) in Lahore I used to get milk from. Don't quite remember the name, but they only sell Australian cow milk, yogurt, and that's it.
 
So you guys will get a laugh, but whenever I visit Pakistan, I try to find milk from Australian cows as Buffalo milk's taste hasn't set yet to my palate.

There is a fancy shop with purple or blue lights (don't remember exactly) in Lahore I used to get milk from. Don't quite remember the name, but they only sell Australian cow milk, yogurt, and that's it.

I still recall the childhood memories when the Milk Man with the "Motorcycle" with the buckets of Milk and growing in the West I had the image of a dude with uniform lol but when I saw the Milk man it was dude with shalwar kameez and Honda Bike oh well even though my family are mostly "upper middle class" snobs who only talk English they always buy from the milk man not the supermarket crap but it did gave me pains as not use to the high lactose content eehhheee but I got used to it
 
Depends as near KHI selling milk is quite beneficial due to such large market plsu less supplier but its always hard if no big city nears u (locations matters ).Best way i see in poultry is control sheds very less mortality rate (but quite expensive to setup proper one ) broiler is kinda ""nazuk ""chicken.Also if near city these days prefering desi chicken and eggs over broiler and white eggs are preferred (health value) so free range is good option.SOrry to late reply as just checked this thread and everythign i m saying according to Karachi but my exp mostly all big cities follow same pattern but checking market first is always imp to judge trends
most of the people from my village survive by selling milk, farmers who were pretty well off 2 decades back are living like peasants now since this "jamhooriat" took over.

Sorry this might be off topic but what do you think about Poultry farming vs Dairy farming, which one is better in your opinion?
 
So you guys will get a laugh, but whenever I visit Pakistan, I try to find milk from Australian cows as Buffalo milk's taste hasn't set yet to my palate.

There is a fancy shop with purple or blue lights (don't remember exactly) in Lahore I used to get milk from. Don't quite remember the name, but they only sell Australian cow milk, yogurt, and that's it.
First time I went to Pakistan the thing that I could not cope with was the milk. It just did not taste like milk I was used to. Then one day I tried this packed 'Haleeb' milk. Wow. It was chilled and fantastic ...
 
Depends as near KHI selling milk is quite beneficial due to such large market plsu less supplier but its always hard if no big city nears u (locations matters ).Best way i see in poultry is control sheds very less mortality rate (but quite expensive to setup proper one ) broiler is kinda ""nazuk ""chicken.Also if near city these days prefering desi chicken and eggs over broiler and white eggs are preferred (health value) so free range is good option.SOrry to late reply as just checked this thread and everythign i m saying according to Karachi but my exp mostly all big cities follow same pattern but checking market first is always imp to judge trends

My uncle set up a poultry farm for this purpose. He bought some jaali feed from the one who sold him the chickens and it killed off his whole population. Chickens are very nazok, you have to be really careful.

My grandfather managed to bring all known bozorg of that locality and force that man to give back the money.

It is the jaali feed which will kill them easiest.
 
First time I went to Pakistan the thing that I could not cope with was the milk. It just did not taste like milk I was used to. Then one day I tried this packed 'Haleeb' milk. Wow. It was chilled and fantastic ...

First Time you went to Pakistan you probably had the milk man deliver by donkey or horse nowadays with a motorcycle
 
You can get lot of farm videos of youtube but i was talking about desi chicken in free range PARC also worked on it anyone can get good breeds of it but broiler is still rules the market easy to setup 5000-15000 shed with proper management lots of potential also some govt institutes offer courses.IN punjab i think they also give subsidy for control shed(not sure ) its big game 25000-30000 minimum but most of system are easily designable called it control shed less mortality ration,less days to feed the chicken (37 ) also chk the pic.On the other hand dairy is less investment earning from day one
Poultry farm house plan.jpg

My uncle set up a poultry farm for this purpose. He bought some jaali feed from the one who sold him the chickens and it killed off his whole population. Chickens are very nazok, you have to be really careful.

My grandfather managed to bring all known bozorg of that locality and force that man to give back the money.

It is the jaali feed which will kill them easiest.
 
most of the people from my village survive by selling milk, farmers who were pretty well off 2 decades back are living like peasants now since this "jamhooriat" took over.

Sorry this might be off topic but what do you think about Poultry farming vs Dairy farming, which one is better in your opinion?
What happened to their farms?
 
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