Two things worked for China:
1. One child policy for 38 years ensured that no poor is even allowed to be born.
2. Western companies putting money and factories in China.
Now the western companies will be putting money in India. And unlike China, India does not even need 1 child policy as their fertility rate has already dropped to 2.1. India will catch up with China sooner than later.
Contrary to what you might imagine, the "one-child policy" is more strictly enforced among urban residents, employees of state-owned enterprises and government officials. However, it has not been well implemented in poor rural areas. If you Google Xi Jinping and other senior CCP officials, you will find that they all have only one child.
The reasons for this are:
1. The CCP's implementation of the "one-child policy" is actually preparing for the "reform of state-owned enterprises".
The CCP does not intend to give up socialism, so they are prepared to retain and repair state-owned enterprises as the main pillar of the economy. The reform of state-owned enterprises requires large-scale layoffs (45 million employees were dismissed in the first three years of the reform period of state-owned enterprises). If these employees need to raise many children, it will be difficult for the CCP to dismiss them without causing confusion.
Therefore, the CCP began to implement the "one-child policy" in 1979, and began the "state-owned enterprise reform" 20 years later. Therefore, urban residents, employees of state-owned enterprises and government officials are the focus groups of the "one-child policy".
2. In the 1980s and 1990s, China's rural productivity fell behind. Farmers need a sufficient number of people to carry out agricultural production. Moreover, cities also need a sufficient number of migrant workers. Therefore, there is no urgent need for the "one-child policy" in rural areas.
3. The CCP has strong control and organizational capacity over cities and state-owned enterprises, and it can ensure that the "one-child policy" is strictly implemented. If officials or employees violate the policy, they will be dismissed and fined soon.
The villagers in rural areas are closely related, and they help each other escape the policy. For example, village party committee officials notified pregnant women to hide in advance. For example, the officials of the village party committee asked the whole village to share the fines equally, and then returned the collected fines to the villagers in other names. So now, only child families are rarely seen in rural areas of China.