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Can you prove it?
There are Chinese buildings relics and artifacts such as coins, poetry and tools found on the islands. There are also Chinese historical records of Chinese gov officials and personnel, Chinese navy, fishermen, business traders and some settlers either worked or lived there sometimes in the past. These prove that Chinese first discovered and dominated many of the islands.








Article on the Chinese Relics and other Evidences on Paracels:

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹
原创2021-05-25 14:53·萨苏

光复四沙:二战后收回南海诸岛纪实​

前篇:邓世昌甲午殉国前为何率舰到访香港?致远舰上的这一遗物揭开真相

01:中国不曾忘南海


西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

1952年《中华人民共和国分省地图》中我国南海地区及各岛屿位置 (亚光舆地学社出版)。
1945年8月15日,日本帝国宣布投降,第二次世界大战结束,中国终于扬眉吐气,取得了抗日战争的胜利,并做为反法西斯盟国中最重要的东方国家成为对日作战的战胜国。然而,面对满目疮痍,中国面临着一系列收复国土的重大课题,收回南海地区各岛屿的主权,便是这些课题中最重要的内容之一。

在抗战胜利之时,我国在南海的海军兵力和海洋领土已经损失殆尽,包括海南岛和东沙、西沙、南沙、黄岩岛等都曾在战争中被日军占据。但我国对于南海领土的态度是明确的,且我国的主权要求得到了世界具有正义感的国家大力支持。

中国南海(South China Sea)是世界第三大海,仅次于珊瑚海和阿拉伯海,东起东经117°50′,西至东经109°30′,北起北纬20°42′,南至北纬4°附近,东西宽约900公里,南北长约1800多公里。这里是热带海洋地区,珊瑚礁生长极为繁盛,故此在这个辽阔的范围之内岛屿滩礁可称星罗棋布。

除海南岛这样的大陆岛以外,经过查勘和命名的至少可达150余座,依其位置的分布东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛和南沙群岛,即“南海四沙”,均为我国固有领土,且为我国渔民长期作业的岛区,二战前既曾有固定居民居住。南海诸岛是我国领土向南突出最远的部分,而且是散布于广阔的海域之中,可称是我国南疆的前哨。

中国在二战后收回南海诸岛,是有充分主权依据的。

很早以来,中国便对南海诸岛有着清晰的主权意识,贴切地命名南海四沙为“千里长沙”“万里石床”“万里石塘”等。作为我国在南海最大的岛屿,海南岛的开发和行政建制可以上溯到秦汉,而南海的命名则在周朝便已经完成,庄子和惠施进行辩论的时候便曾以南海为题。晋朝石崇斗富时曾拿出三尺高的珊瑚树,据麦蕴瑜先生考证,这便是来自于南海诸岛的宝物,是石崇“使人航海”所得,可见我国对于四沙的开发早在千年前便已经开始。

历代中国政府都十分重视南海诸岛的主权问题。

汉武帝元封元年(前110年),就在海南岛建立珠崖、儋耳两郡,已经将海南岛纳入行政管理。

五代以后,战事频繁,大批中原人民迁居海南。

北宋时期,一批名人如苏轼等因贬官来到南海,并留下了“日啖荔枝三百颗,不妨常作岭南人”的诗句。

南宋末年,因逃避战乱,几十万闽南的莆田人移民到现在的海南岛,带来了莆田话和闽南文化。

元代,海南建制仍仿宋制,称为琼州路,领三州、十三县。

明朝则称海南岛为琼州府,有海瑞等名宦出自于此,可见当时南海不但于领土意义上与中央政权呼吸与共,文化上也浑然一体。

清代又将琼州府改称琼州道,仍为三州十三县。

而在这种种变迁之中,对于南海诸岛和海疆的管理也由海南辐射而出。元朝时以“万里石塘”即南海为内海,并派将军史弼巡视南海各地,说明我国至少在元代已经对南海诸岛开始实施实际的行政和国防管理。也是在元代,郭守敬进行天文测绘时曾将最南端的测试点放在南海诸岛上。

明代郑和下西洋曾多次巡视南海,明朝政府并在海南岛万州设立水师营,具体负责以“万里石塘”“石星石塘”“万里长沙”为名的南海诸岛防务。

清代南海诸岛属广东水师巡逻范围,两次鸦片战争之后我国兴起洋务运动,新建的海军舰队包括北洋水师的舰只经常到南海巡航,航程达到槟榔屿,新加坡等地。

光绪后期因甲午、甲申、庚子各战役我海军损失惨重,但在20世纪初仍努力于西沙、东沙等群岛维护我国主权,先后取得从日人手中收回东沙群岛主权,由广东水师提督李准率伏波、琛航、广金等舰组成的舰队巡逻西沙群岛(李准晚年回忆也曾到达南沙群岛),勒石纪事,标定海图,体现了我国对南海诸岛的具体管辖和领土意识。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

曾在清末巡逻南海诸岛的广金号炮舰,这是它在民国期间留下的影像。
我国清末民间也不断有渔民至南海诸岛生产作业,在岛上立庙修舍,客观上反映着我国对各岛的主权。

这些渔民修建的庙宇,和清末对南海进行巡逻时留下的碑刻至今犹存,仔细研究,其中颇有对历史的深刻反映。以西沙群岛为例,岛上的古庙和古碑便颇有值得玩味之处。

根据西沙考古发现证实,或许因为有唯一的淡水井,甘泉岛上唐宋时期便有我国人定居于此,但是到了清末,南海诸岛的固定居民却并不多,很多岛屿一直处于无人状态。

让人感到出乎意料的是,南海诸岛中的许多岛屿,虽然缺乏居民生活的条件,却有不少庙宇。根据1974年至1975年文物普查的结果,仅在西沙群岛各岛,便有十三座庙。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

甘泉岛上的兄弟庙,确定为民国期间琼海县渔民苏德柳等建造,是岛上较近期的庙宇。
这十三座庙包括——

  • 永兴岛上一座(名为“孤魂庙”,已拆毁)
  • 甘泉岛上三座
  • 琛航岛上两座(已拆毁一座)
  • 和五岛上两座(1973年拆毁一座)
  • 北岛上一座
  • 广金岛上一座
  • 赵述岛上一座
  • 珊瑚岛上一座(已拆毁)
这些庙的建造时间从明代到民国都有,大多用珊瑚石板砌成,造型十分简陋。较大的也只是单间房屋,有四面围墙(多为珊瑚石板建造,少数采用砖砌)。而较小的一般只有半米高左右,仅可在前点香火祭祀而已。

所有小庙的顶部都已经坍塌不存,但有筒瓦、板瓦发现,庙内有神龛、供桌、神像等,有的庙门外还有一道曲尺形的护墙。

我们可以通过一批照片看到这些小庙1974年时的境况:

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

甘泉岛小庙。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

北岛珊瑚石小庙,顶部已经坍塌,但内部仍可见祭坛和牌位。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

广金岛两座相对的小庙,仅能放下香炉,可能是西沙群岛上最小的庙。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

和五岛珊瑚石小庙仅存庙内石板小龛。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

琛航岛珊瑚石小庙。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

赵述岛小庙,已经坍塌,仅存门两侧残墙。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

近人在赵述岛上利用残墙新建的佛龛。
这些庙宇到七十年代已经十分荒败,一方面是日法两国曾侵占我西沙群岛部分岛礁,有意破坏我岛上建筑和历史遗迹,以毁灭岛屿古来为我所有的历史证据;另一方面则是因为建国后提倡反封建无神论,有一段时间里不再有渔民前去供拜和修理,在严酷的自然环境中,比较容易损毁。

近年来,由于在西沙定居和进行渔业生产的人员日多,有些庙宇得到了修复和扩建,从打鱼人寻求精神安慰的角度来说,也是可以理解的。

至于庙宇中供奉的是什么神,也无法完全分辨清楚,娘娘、土地、海神都有,其中特色是“孤魂庙”

庙名“孤魂”是何意?原来南海有传说,明代曾有一百零八位渔民出海捕鱼,为海盗杀害,因孤魂不得还乡,常年在海上游荡,并时时显灵帮助后来的渔民——当地出海的渔民都称“兄弟”,而渔民们感其佑护,便为其立庙祭祀。

永兴岛与和五岛上的庙宇前,各有一副对联,分别是——

兄弟感灵应,孤魂得恩深。

前向双帆孤魂庙,庙后一井兄弟安。
从这里都可以读出渔民“兄弟”与“孤魂”亡灵之间的关系——孤魂护佑渔民平安,渔民祭祀使孤魂得到慰籍。这可以算是南海一种独特而原始的祭祀文化了。

虽然十分简陋,但远海迢迢,到此兴建庙宇也是十分困难的事情,西沙群岛怎么会有这么多座庙呢?难道在一座岛上建庙祭祀还不够吗?

在1975年进行西沙文物普查时,工作人员也对这件事颇为困惑,经过向渔民询问,才知道这些庙宇除了祭祀以外,还有一种功能。

按照民间规矩,最先上岛盖庙的渔民会受到同业们的尊敬,在这里进行渔捞有优先权,对一些古代庙宇进行修缮,可以获得同样近似“岛主”的敬畏。所以,几乎每个稍大一些的岛屿上都能看到渔民们设立的庙宇了。

建庙的谜题比较轻易地解开了,但西沙群岛的庙,有的还守护着至今我们解不开的谜团。

比如,1973年,民兵在永兴岛孤魂庙旁发现了一块埋藏于地下的石碑,是用灰色麻石刻成。石碑质量较好,长九十二厘米,宽十九厘米,厚八厘米。经过鉴定,这是当时的中国政府1921年派人到此巡视时设立的“视察纪念”碑。

而1974年,又在北岛珊瑚石小庙旁进行文物考察时,发现了两块被破坏的石碑,经过对合,基本能够辨认碑上的文字。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹


这两块碑中第一块较长,长九十二厘米,宽十九厘米,厚八厘米,质地为粗麻石,中间是“视察纪念”四字,侧面有“大清光绪二十八年”字样。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹


第二块碑已残,残长五十八厘米,宽二十四厘米,厚九厘米,中央也是“视察纪念”四字,左侧一行小字,为“大清光绪二十八年”。

细细品读这三块碑,可以找到很多重要信息。

这三块碑都是麻石所刻,而当地为珊瑚岛,没有这样的石料,说明它们都是从大陆运来的,风高浪急,海运艰难,中国从清代以来,对于到西沙巡视的重视由此可见一斑。

这其中,清光绪那两块碑,让我们深感历史的迷雾之深。

根据文献记载,清末广东水师提督李准曾率海军琛航、伏波两舰视察西沙,传诵一时,这“视察纪念”之碑,或许便是他们当年的遗物。但是,李准这次巡海究竟在何时,史家屡有争议。

李准曾回忆,这次巡海发生在1909年,当时巡阅西沙十五岛,命名刻碑,绘图而还。并说明此事发生在中日东沙群岛之争后。

然而,他在回忆中的描述显然与这个时间不符:

“东沙岛之案交涉既终,因思粤中海岛之类于东沙者必不少。左翼分统林君国祥,老于航海者也,言于余曰:距琼州榆林港迤西约二百海里,有群岛焉,西人名之曰怕拉洗尔挨伦(即西方对西沙群岛的非正式称谓“帕拉塞尔群岛”),距香港约四百海里,凡从新加坡东行来港者,必经此线……余极欲探其究竟,收入海图,作为中国之领土,因请于安帅,而探此绝岛。

安帅极然余说……乃以航海探险之事属之林君国祥,乘伏波、琛航两舰。余带卫队一排,以排长范连仲领之。吴君敬荣为伏波管带,刘君义宽为琛航管带。余乘伏波,以林君为航海之主,悉听其指挥。王君仁棠随行参赞。”
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹


海军宿将林国祥,毕业于福州船政学堂,早年与邓世昌搭档,曾参加过援台、中法、中日甲午战争,勇猛敢战,是广东海军的早期优秀将领。

李准谈到此次航海的指挥官和建议者,均为海军宿将林国祥。但林国祥在1908年已经去世,是不可能在1909年随同李准进行这一考察的。故此经重新考证,目前普遍的看法,这次巡航应该发生于1907年。

然而,1975年在西沙发现的这两块“光绪二十八年”的石碑,却让人对这个结论产生了怀疑。这是因为光绪二十八年即1902年,距1907年尚有五年之久,总不会五年前这石碑便刻好等着参加此次航行吧?

我们只能推测,可能在1902年或者更早,中国官方已经有了对于西沙群岛的巡视,李准1907年的考察只是最为正规和规模较大的一次罢了。

这个谜团,不算有答案,只能说等待后人更多的发现来佐证。

那么,在北岛上的两块石碑,怎么会被打碎了呢?

推测是日、法侵占西沙群岛时,出于霸占我领土,销毁历史证据的原因,将我国建立的视察纪念碑毁掉,造成如此后果。甚至,这两块碑有可能原来并不是立在北岛上的,毁碑者是将各岛石碑拆除后运到北岛,统一打碎的。

如果是这样,今后北岛考古可能还会有新的发现。可能也正是因为担心被人毁坏而失去证实主权的意义,1921年民国期间那块石碑才会被埋在沙下。

这种事儿,希望以后不要再发生了。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

两块古碑被修复后重新立起拍照。
西沙群岛的庙和碑中,难免依然存在未解之谜。但世事变迁,如今,作为三沙市的首府,繁忙的西沙码头和猎猎升起的国旗,不但可以告慰那些曾经生活在此的先民们,也在让他们知道,这片祖先留下的海洋,我们必将永远守护下去。


Translation:

The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Original 2021-05-25 14:53 ·
Sasu Restoring the Four Sands: Documentary on the Recovery of the South China Sea Islands after World War II Part 1:
Why did Deng Shichang lead a ship to visit Hong Kong before he died in Jiawu?

This relic on the Reach ship reveals the truth 01: China has never forgotten the South China Sea The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The location of the South my country Sea and the islands in the "Map of the Provinces of the People's Republic of China" in 1952 (published by Yaguang Yuge Institute).

On August 15, 1945, the Japanese Empire announced its surrender, the end of World War II, China finally raised its eyebrows and won the victory of the Anti-Japanese War. As the most important eastern country among the anti-fascist allies, China became a victorious country in the war against Japan. However, in the face of devastation, China is faced with a series of major issues of recovering its territory. The recovery of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is one of the most important issues. At the time of the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, my country's naval forces and maritime territory in the South China Sea had been completely lost, including Hainan Island, Dongsha, Xisha, Nansha, and Huangyan Island, which were all occupied by the Japanese during the war. However, my country's attitude towards the territory of the South China Sea is clear, and my country's claim to sovereignty has been strongly supported by countries with a sense of justice in the world.

The South China Sea is the third largest sea in the world, after the Coral Sea and the Arabian Sea. It starts from 117°50'E in the east, 109°30'E in the west, 20°42'N in the north, and 4N in the south. °Nearby, it is about 900 kilometers wide from east to west and more than 1800 kilometers long from north to south. This is a tropical marine area, and coral reefs are extremely prosperous, so the islands and reefs in this vast area can be said to be dotted.

In addition to mainland islands such as Hainan Island, at least 150 of them have been surveyed and named. According to their locations, the Dongsha Islands, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands and Nansha Islands, namely the "Four Sands in the South China Sea", are all inherent in my country. It is also an island area where Chinese fishermen have been operating for a long time.

Before World War II, there were permanent residents living there. The South China Sea Islands are the farthest part of my country's territory protruding to the south, and are scattered in the vast seas, which can be called the outpost of my country's southern Xinjiang. China's recovery of the islands in the South China Sea after World War II is based on full sovereignty.

From a very early time, China has had a clear sense of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea, aptly naming the four sands in the South China Sea as "Thousands of Miles of Changsha", "Wanli Stone Beds" and "Wanli Stone Ponds". As my country's largest island in the South China Sea, the development and administrative system of Hainan Island can be traced back to the Qin and Han dynasties, and the naming of the South China Sea was completed in the Zhou Dynasty. Shi Chongdou in the Jin Dynasty once took out a three-foot-tall coral tree. According to Mr. Mai Yunyu's research, this is a treasure from the islands of the South China Sea. It started thousands of years ago.

Successive Chinese governments have attached great importance to the issue of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea. In the first year of the Yuanfeng reign (110 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty established Zhuya and Dan'er counties on Hainan Island and brought Hainan Island into administrative management. After the Five Dynasties, wars were frequent, and a large number of people from the Central Plains moved to Hainan. During the Northern Song Dynasty, a group of famous people, such as Su Shi, came to the South China Sea due to their demotions, and left behind the poem "If you eat 300 lychees a day, you might as well be a Lingnan native". At the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, hundreds of thousands of Putian people from southern Fujian immigrated to Hainan Island to escape the war, bringing Putian dialect and southern Fujian culture with them. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Hainan system still imitated the Song system, called Qiongzhou Road, leading three states and thirteen counties. In the Ming Dynasty, Hainan Island was called Qiongzhou Prefecture, and Hai Rui and other famous officials came from this. It can be seen that the South China Sea not only shared the territorial sense with the central government at that time, but also culturally integrated. In the Qing Dynasty, Qiongzhou Prefecture was renamed Qiongzhou Road, and it was still thirteen counties in three states.

In the midst of these changes, the management of the islands and sea frontiers in the South China Sea also radiated from Hainan. In the Yuan Dynasty, the "Wanli Shitang", that is, the South China Sea, was used as the inland sea, and the general Shi Bi was dispatched to inspect all parts of the South China Sea, indicating that my country had begun to implement the actual administrative and national defense management of the South China Sea Islands at least in the Yuan Dynasty. Also in the Yuan Dynasty, when Guo Shoujing was conducting astronomical surveying and mapping, he placed the southernmost test point on the islands of the South China Sea.

In the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He went to the Western Ocean to inspect the South China Sea many times. The government of the Ming Dynasty set up a navy camp in Wanzhou, Hainan Island, which was specifically responsible for the defense of the South China Sea islands named "Wanli Shitang", "Shixing Shitang" and "Wanli Changsha".

In the Qing Dynasty, the South China Sea Islands belonged to the patrol range of the Guangdong Navy. After the two Opium Wars, the Westernization Movement emerged in my country. The newly built naval fleet, including the ships of the Beiyang Navy, often patrolled the South China Sea, and the voyage reached Penang, Singapore and other places. In the late Guangxu period, our navy suffered heavy losses due to the battles of Jiawu, Jiashen, and Gengzi.

However, in the early 20th century, we still worked hard to safeguard our sovereignty in the Xisha and Dongsha Islands, and successively obtained the sovereignty of the Dongsha Islands from the Japanese. Li Zhun led a fleet composed of Fubo, Chenhang, Guangjin and other ships to patrol the Xisha Islands (Li Zhun recalled that he also visited the Nansha Islands in his later years). Territorial awareness.

The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The gunboat Guangjin used to patrol the South China Sea Islands in the late Qing Dynasty. This is the image it left during the Republic of China. In the late Qing Dynasty in my country, fishermen continued to go to the islands of the South China Sea for production operations, and built temples and houses on the islands, which objectively reflected my country's sovereignty over the islands. The temples built by these fishermen and the inscriptions left by their patrols in the South China Sea in the late Qing Dynasty still exist today. Taking the Xisha Islands as an example, the ancient temples and monuments on the island are quite interesting. According to the archaeological findings of Xisha, perhaps because there is the only fresh water well,

Chinese people settled here in the Tang and Song Dynasties on Ganquan Island, but by the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were not many permanent residents of the South China Sea Islands, and many islands have been unmanned. . Surprisingly, many of the islands in the South China Sea have many temples despite lacking living conditions for residents. According to the results of the cultural relics census from 1974 to 1975, there are thirteen temples in each island of the Paracel Islands alone.

The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The Brothers Temple on Ganquan Island was determined to be built by Su Deliu, a fisherman from Qionghai County during the Republic of China, and is a relatively recent temple on the island. The thirteen temples include— One on Yongxing Island (named "Lone Soul Temple", which has been demolished) Three on Ganquan Island Two on Chenhang Island (one has been demolished) Two on Hegoshima (one demolished in 1973) One on the North Island One on Hiroshima Island One on Zhaoshu Island One on Coral Island (Demolished) These temples were built from the Ming Dynasty to the Republic of China. The larger ones are just one-room houses with four walls (mostly built of coral slate, a few of them are brick). The smaller ones are generally only about half a meter high, and can only be sacrificed by lighting incense in front of them. The tops of all the small temples have collapsed and disappeared, but tube tiles and slab tiles have been found. There are shrines, offering tables, statues, etc. in the temples, and there is a curved wall outside the gates of some temples. We can see the situation of these small temples in 1974 through a batch of photos: The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Ganquan Island Small Temple. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small coral stone temple on the North Island, the top has collapsed, but the altar and tablet are still visible inside. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The two opposite small temples on Guangjin Island, which can only put down incense burners, may be the smallest temples on the Paracel Islands. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small coral stone temple of Hewudao only has a small niche of stone slabs in the temple. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Chenhang Island Coral Stone Temple.

The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small temple on Zhaoshu Island has collapsed, and only the remaining walls on both sides of the door remain. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The Buddhist shrines newly built by the neighbors on Zhaoshu Island using the remnants of the wall. These temples were very desolate by the 1970s.

On the one hand, Japan and France occupied some islands and reefs of our Xisha Islands, deliberately destroying the buildings and historical relics on our islands, in order to destroy the historical evidence that the islands have been owned by me in ancient times; On the one hand, it was because after the founding of the People's Republic of China, anti-feudal atheism was advocated. For a period of time, fishermen no longer came to worship and repair. In the harsh natural environment, it is relatively easy to damage.

In recent years, due to the increasing number of people who have settled in Xisha and engaged in fishery production, some temples have been repaired and expanded. From the perspective of fishermen seeking spiritual comfort, it is understandable. As for what gods are enshrined in the temples, it is impossible to tell exactly which gods are enshrined in the temples. There are goddesses, gods of the land, and sea gods. What does the name of the temple "Lone Soul" mean? It turns out that there is a legend in the South China Sea that in the Ming Dynasty, there were 108 fishermen who went out to sea to fish and were killed by pirates. Because of their solitary souls, they could not return to their hometowns.

Brothers”, and the fishermen felt their protection and set up temples to worship him. In front of the temples on Yongxing Island and Hewu Island, each has a couplet, which are— The brothers were inspired, and the lonely soul was deeply grateful.

Go forward to Shuangfan Gushun Temple, and behind the temple is Yijing Brother An. From here, you can read the relationship between the fishermen's "brothers" and the "lonely souls" - the lonely souls protect the fishermen's safety, and the fishermen's sacrifices give the lonely souls comfort. This can be regarded as a unique and primitive sacrificial culture in the South China Sea. Although it is very simple, it is very difficult to build temples because of the long seas. How can there be so many temples in the Xisha Islands? Isn't it enough to build a temple on an island to worship? During the census of Xisha cultural relics in 1975, the staff were also quite confused about this matter. After asking the fishermen, they realized that these temples have a function other than offering sacrifices. According to folk rules, the first fishermen to build temples on the island will be respected by their peers. Fishing here has priority.

Repairing some ancient temples can gain the same awe as the "island owner". Therefore, almost every larger island can see temples set up by fishermen. The mystery of building a temple is relatively easy to solve, but some of the temples in the Xisha Islands still guard the mystery that we can't solve so far. For example, in 1973, militiamen discovered a stone tablet buried in the ground next to the Lonely Soul Temple on Yongxing Island. It was carved from gray hemp stone.

The stele is of good quality, 92 centimeters long, 19 centimeters wide and 8 centimeters thick. After identification, this is the "inspection memorial" monument set up by the then Chinese government in 1921 when it sent people to visit here. In 1974, during a cultural relic inspection next to the small coral stone temple in Beidao, two damaged stone steles were discovered.

The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The first of the two steles is longer, 92 cm long, 19 cm wide, and 8 cm thick. " lettering. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The second stele has been destroyed, with a residual length of 58 cm, a width of 24 cm and a thickness of nine cm. Carefully read these three monuments, you can find a lot of important information. These three steles are all carved with granite, and the local area is a coral island. There is no such stone material, which means that they were all transported from the mainland. The wind is high and the waves are rough, and the shipping is difficult.

Since the Qing Dynasty, China has attached great importance to the inspection of Xisha. This is evident. Among them, the two monuments of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty made us feel the depth of the fog of history. According to documentary records, Li Zhun, the Admiral of the Guangdong Navy in the late Qing Dynasty, led the two ships Chenhang and Fubo to inspect Xisha, and it was passed on for a while. However, historians have repeatedly disputed when Li Zhun made this patrol. Li Zhun once recalled that this patrol took place in 1909, when he visited the fifteen islands of Xisha, named the monument, and returned it by drawing. He also explained that the incident occurred after the dispute between China and Japan over the Dongsha Islands.

However, his description in his recollections clearly does not match this time: "The negotiation of the Dongsha Island case has ended, because there must be many people thinking about the islands in the middle of Guangdong and the like in Dongsha. The left wing branch leader Lin Junguoxiang, who is also an old sailor, said to Yu Yu: It is about 200 nautical miles west of Qiongzhou Yulin Port. , There are archipelagos, which are called by the Westerners to be Pearrasier (that is, the informal name for the Paracel Islands in the West), which is about 400 nautical miles away from Hong Kong. This line must be passed... Yu Ji wanted to find out what it was, and collected it on the chart. As China's territory, he invited Yu Anshuai to explore this island. An Shuai said very much... It was Lin Junguoxiang, who belonged to the voyage and exploration, and took the two ships Fubo and Chenhang. Yu led a platoon of guards, led by platoon leader Fan Lianzhong. Wu Junjingrong is the Fubo pipe belt, and Liu Junyikuan is the Chen air pipe belt. Yu Cheng Fubo, with Lin Jun as the navigator, listened to his command. Wang Junrentang accompanied the counselor. " The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Veteran Navy General Lin Guoxiang, graduated from Fuzhou Shipbuilding School, partnered with Deng Shichang in his early years, participated in aid to Taiwan, Sino-French, Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War, fought bravely, and was an early outstanding general of the Guangdong Navy.

Li Zhun talked about the commander and advisor of the voyage, both of whom were Navy veteran Lim Kwok Siang. However, Lin Guoxiang had already passed away in 1908, so it was impossible to accompany Li Zhun on this investigation in 1909.

Therefore, after re-examination, the current general view is that this cruise should have occurred in 1907. However, the two steles of the "Twenty-eighth Year of Guangxu" discovered in Xisha in 1975 cast doubt on this conclusion. This is because the twenty-eighth year of Guangxu, namely 1902, is still five years away from 1907. Wouldn't this stone tablet be carved five years ago waiting to participate in this voyage?

We can only speculate that maybe in 1902 or earlier, the Chinese government had already inspected the Paracel Islands, and Li Zhun's inspection in 1907 was only the most formal and large-scale one. This mystery does not have an answer, it can only be said that we are waiting for more discoveries from future generations to prove it. Then, how could the two stone tablets on the North Island be broken? It is speculated that when Japan and France invaded and occupied the Xisha Islands, they destroyed the inspection monument established by our country for the reasons of occupying our territory and destroying historical evidence, resulting in such consequences.

It is even possible that the two steles were not originally erected on the North Island. The stele destroyers removed the steles from each island and transported them to the North Island, and smashed them together. If so, there may be new discoveries in North Island archaeology in the future. Perhaps it is precisely because of the fear of being destroyed that it loses its significance in proving sovereignty, that the stele was buried under the sand during the Republic of China in 1921. I hope this doesn't happen again in the future. Xisha Temple Stele



Another article on Spratlys:

李国强:中国拥有南海诸岛主权的历史事实无可争辩​


选择字号: 本文共阅读 111 次 更新时间:2022-03-31 15:05:43


进入专题: 南海问题

李国强


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早在2000多年前的秦汉时期,中国人民已经开始在南海航行和生产活动,不仅首先发现南海诸岛,并对南海有了初步认识。东汉杨孚《异物志》记载:“涨海崎头,水浅而多磁石。”“崎头”即我国古人对南海礁屿和浅滩的称呼;而“涨海”即我国古代对南海最早的称谓。
隋唐时期分别以七洲洋、珊瑚洲、焦石山、象石等指称南海海域或岛礁,尽管名称不尽相同,但表明随着我国人民在南海活动的增加,对南海的认知程度逐步加深并趋向了具体化。
至宋代,南海诸岛和南海海域已经成为我国人民日常生产生活的家园,不仅以“石塘”“长沙”对南海不同岛礁和不同海域清晰地加以区别和命名,而且将南海诸岛纳入了版图。目前所见把南海岛礁命名为“石塘”的最早史籍,是宋代文献《宋会要》,成书于13世纪初的《琼管志》一书则首次将南海岛礁分别称为“千里长沙”“万里石塘”。由此至明清两代,“石塘”“长沙”作为我国南海诸岛的通用名,而被广泛使用,并见诸各类历史文献和舆图。
我国政府对南海诸岛的管辖从唐宋开始渐趋展开。赵汝适《诸蕃志》中记载,在唐代南海诸岛隶属于海南四州军。宋代沿袭唐代设置,南海诸岛仍属于广南西路琼管吉阳军的管辖范围,标志着中国政府将南海诸岛纳入版图、设置行政建制初现端倪。
设立“水师”,纳入海防,则是中国政府对南海实施管辖的又一个重要方式。据成书于1040年的我国第一部官修兵书《武经总要》记载,宋太祖在907年建立了巡海水师,巡管南海海面。
明清时期,对南海诸岛的经营开发和管辖有了进一步发展。目前所见《更路簿》有数十种抄本,这一珍贵的文献,真实记录了我国渔民从海南文昌清澜港、琼海潭门港等地出发,前往西沙、南沙海域的情况,其中记录生产作业线大约200条,渔民给西沙、南沙岛礁命名的地名大约120个,充分说明我国人民经营开发的范围完全涵盖了今天南海诸岛中的主要岛礁和海域,西沙和南沙海域是我国人民世世代代生产经营的传统渔场,足以表明中国在南海享有历史性权利。
在明清时期,我国政府对南海诸岛实施管辖的机制更加完备,一方面继续将南海诸岛明确地纳入版图,并置于广东省琼州府万州辖下。另一方面持续实施水师巡视,明朝设立巡海备倭官和海南卫,清朝设立崖州协水师营,负责对包括南海在内海域的巡视和军事戍卫。
20世纪70年代以来,我国国家文物局及广东、海南的文物部门先后组织了多次考古调查和挖掘,在南沙群岛部分岛礁及其海域发现了中国人民生产、生活的大量遗迹、遗物,包括不同历史时期的陶器、瓷器、铜器、铁器、石器、钱币、象牙、石雕等以及土地庙、墓碑、水井、茅屋、石碑、人工种植的椰树等等,这些遗迹遗物是我国人民在南海诸岛长期生产、生活的历史写照,反映了我国人民航行南海并开发、利用南海海域的历史事实。
近代以后,外国人擅闯南海诸岛时,早已有中国人居住在一些岛礁,外国航海者了解到一些渔民使用的地名,并将其按照渔民的海南岛方言语音拼写成英文或其它文字标记于海图,长期沿用下来。比如1923年英国海军部出版的《中国海指南》一书中所载Sin Cowe 和 Nam Yit,即源自我国渔民所称的秤钩峙和南乙峙。该书还记载,在安波沙洲发现有中国人的“陋屋之遗迹”;“地萨岛(即今郑和群礁),海南渔民,以捕取海参、贝壳为活。各岛都有其足迹,亦有久居岩礁间者。海南每岁有小船驶往岛上,携米粮及其它必需品,与渔民交换参、贝。”并记载太平岛“常为海南渔民所栖止,捕取海参及贝壳等”。
1909年广东水师提督李准奉命前往西沙群岛巡视,不仅在岛上开展了物产调查、测绘等工作,同时对西沙14座岛屿予以命名。
1933年法国殖民者非法侵占南沙岛礁,制造了“九小岛事件”。此举引起中国政府及社会各界的一致抗议。7月26日国民政府外交部致电法国政府提出严重抗议,指出南沙群岛“仅有我(国)渔人居留岛上,在国际间确认中国领土”。8月4日向法国驻华公使提出对法国所谓主权宣告保留权利的外交照会。
民国时期,中国政府核定、重定了南海诸岛名称。1934年内政部水陆地图审查委员会公布“关于我国南海诸岛各岛屿中英地名对照表”,列出南海诸岛132个岛礁滩洲名称。
1935年,水陆地图审查委员会出版《中国南海各岛屿图》,这是民国政府出版的第一份具有官方性质的南海专项地图,此后中国的各类地图对南海诸岛的标绘更为严谨、详尽。仅1935年4月至1948年,我国国内出版的各类地图中,至少有60种完整标绘了南海诸岛。水陆地图审查委员会对南海诸岛名称、地图的审核与公布,是中国政府对南海诸岛所实施的有效管辖。
抗战胜利后,根据《开罗宣言》和《波茨坦公告》的精神,我国政府决定接收和恢复西沙、南沙群岛主权。1946年9月2日,国民政府发布关于收复西南沙群岛的训令,经内政、外交和国防三部会商后,派出以海军为主的接收人员。1946年11月29日完成西沙群岛接收,1946年12月15日完成南沙群岛接收。在接收工作完成之后,立碑鸣炮宣示主权,测量绘图明确疆界,留兵戍守实施巡防,设立机构强化管辖。
1947年2月28日国民政府发布完成西沙、中沙、南沙群岛接收公报。之后,国民政府再次审定南海诸岛及其所属各岛礁沙滩名称,于12月1日公布了“南海诸岛新旧地名对照表”,共计167个岛礁沙滩洲。1948年2月内政部公布了《中华民国行政区域图》,其附图即《南海诸岛位置图》,该图明确标示了南海诸岛名称和南海11条断续线。
新中国成立后,我国对南海诸岛的主权管辖进入了崭新时代。我国政府依据国际法赋予的权利和义务,合法履行主权和管辖权。1951年8月15日,周恩来外长发表《关于英美对日和约草案及旧金山会议声明》,庄严指出西沙、南沙群岛“向为中国领土”,中国对西沙、南沙享有主权。此后,针对外国对我南海诸岛的侵犯,多次发表声明,重申中国在南海诸岛及其附近海域的主权立场。1982年4月24日中国地名委员会受权公布了我国南海诸岛部分标准地名,共计289个。
此外,大量外国资料表明南海诸岛主权属于中国。1933年9月法国出版的《殖民地世界》杂志登载了1930年法国炮舰“马立休士”号测量南沙群岛岛礁时,多处岛上都有中国人以及中国人修建的茅屋、水井、神座等。
1961年美国出版的《哥伦比亚利平科特世界地名辞典》写到,南沙群岛是“南中国海的中国属地,广东省的一部分。”1963年美国出版的《威尔德麦克各国百科全书》说:中华人民共和国各岛屿,还包括伸展到北纬4度的南中国海的岛屿和珊瑚礁。1966年日本出版的《新中国年鉴》说:“中国的沿海线,北从辽东半岛起到南沙群岛约一万一千公里,加上沿海岛屿的海岸线,达二万公里。”
1971年,美国出版的《世界各国区划百科全书》说:“人民共和国包括几个群岛,其中最大的是海南岛,在南海岸附近。其他群岛包括南中国海的一些礁石和群岛,最远伸展到北纬4度。这些礁石和群岛包括东沙、西沙、中沙和南沙群岛。”1972年日本出版的《世界年鉴》说:“中国……除大陆部分的领土外,有海南岛、台湾、澎湖列岛及中国南海上的东沙、西沙、中沙、南沙各群岛等。”
上述事实清楚地表明,中国对南海诸岛及其附近海域主权的立场,得到许多国家和国际社会的广泛承认。
菲律宾领土范围的确定,来源于1898年《美西巴黎和平协议》、1900年《美西关于菲律宾外围岛屿割让的条约》(即《华盛顿条约》)、1930年英国和美国签署的《关于划定英属北婆罗洲与美属菲律宾之间的边界条约》等国际条约,因此菲律宾的国家领土边界线被统称为“国际条约界限”或“菲律宾条约界限”。这些条约清晰可见,南海诸岛根本不在菲律宾领土界限之内。而1935年菲律宾宪法、1946年“美菲一般关系条约”、1961年菲律宾“关于领海基线的第3046号法令”等菲律宾国内法或条约,均明文反复确认了“国际条约界限”所规定的菲律宾领土范围,而南沙岛礁和黄岩岛不在其中。
1946年7月菲律宾建国之初便觊觎南沙群岛。1946年9月11日菲律宾外长季里诺致函盟军统帅麦克阿瑟,提出由菲律宾兼并南沙群岛的无理要求。麦克阿瑟对此未予回应,由于没有得到美国的支持,菲律宾未敢轻举妄动。
1954年6月马尼拉一家私立海事学校校长托马斯·克洛马宣称,在巴拉望群岛以西的南海发现一群“无主以及无人居住的荒岛”,并将该地命名为“自由地”。1956年5月24日菲律宾外交部法律司邀集政府有关机关代表开会,在听取克洛马的陈述后,当场确定克洛马所主张的“自由地”各岛屿在菲律宾领土之外。然而就是这样一个闹剧,竟然成为菲律宾日后提出主权要求的所谓依据。
1972年4月菲律宾政府将克洛马所称的“自由地”定名为“卡拉延群岛”,划归巴拉望省管辖。1978年6月11日菲律宾总统马科斯签署了第1596号总统令,重新划定“卡拉延群岛”区域,中国南沙群岛的大部分岛礁,都被纳入该法令公布的“卡拉延”区域的地理坐标内。1987年11月,菲律宾议会重新划定其海域,将南沙群岛中大约60个大小岛礁非法划入菲律宾版图内。
南沙群岛在历史上早已成为中国固有领土,绝非什么“无主地”。克洛马在南沙所谓“发现”新岛礁的行为,不仅为当时的菲律宾政府所否定,而且从未得到国际社会承认。因此,菲律宾设立的所谓“卡拉延群岛”在事实上是荒诞的、在法理上是荒谬的。
菲律宾为了使其侵占中国南沙岛礁的行为合法化,还提出了所谓“安全原则”“地理邻近原则”。事实上,在国际社会根本不存在根据距离远近或者军事、经济和安全等因素决定领土主权归属的国际法规则,“安全”和“邻近”不仅从来不是国际法认同的领土取得方式,而且完全有悖于国际准则。因此,以“安全原则”“地理邻近原则”主张拥有南沙岛礁领土主权,于理不通,于法不容。
自上世纪70年代以来,菲律宾长期非法侵占中国南沙岛礁并大搞建设。特别是在1995年3月菲律宾海军炸毁中国在五方礁、仙娥礁、信义礁、半月礁和仁爱礁等南沙岛礁上设立的测量标志,突袭停靠在半月礁附近的4艘中国渔船,扣留船上62名渔民。此后数年间,菲律宾多次驱逐、逮捕甚至枪击在黄岩岛海域正常作业、正常航行的中国渔民。1999年5月9日菲律宾方面借口技术故障,其57号登陆舰“马德雷山号”突然“搁浅”仁爱礁,菲方置中方严正交涉于不顾,非法坐滩至今已达17年。2012年菲律宾军警非法登临在黄岩岛附近海域作业的中国渔船,制造了“黄岩岛事件”。菲律宾罔顾事实,不断侵犯中国在南海的主权和相关权利,肆意侵害中国渔民的生命财产安全,在危及地区和平稳定、危及中菲双边关系的路上越走越远。
大量历史事实表明,中国拥有南海诸岛主权是基于中国人民世世代代最早发现、最早命名、最早开发利用和经营以及历代中国政府对南海诸岛连续不断的行政管辖的基础上而确立的。中国拥有南海诸岛及其附近海域主权和相关权利的历史事实是确凿的,历史脉络是清晰的,历史依据是充分的,历史地位是合法的。中国始终是南海诸岛真正唯一的主人。菲律宾对南沙、黄岩岛的所谓主权要求,无史可据,无法可依,丝毫撼动不了中国在南海的主权地位。

(作者为中国社会科学院中国边疆研究所研究员)


Tanslation:

Li Guoqiang: The historical fact that China has sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is indisputable

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This article has been read 111 times Update time: 2022-03-31 15:05:43

Enter the topic: South China Sea issue

● Li Guoqiang As early as the Qin and Han Dynasties more than 2,000 years ago, the Chinese people had already started sailing and production activities in the South China Sea. They not only first discovered the islands in the South China Sea, but also had a preliminary understanding of the South China Sea. Yang Fu's "Foreign Objects" in the Eastern Han Dynasty recorded: "Zhanghai Qitou, the water is shallow and many magnets." "Qitou" is the name of the ancients in China for the reefs and shoals of the South China Sea; and "Zhanghai" is the earliest name for the South my country Sea in ancient China. .
During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the South China Sea waters or islands and reefs were referred to as Qizhouyang, Coral Island, Jiaoshishan, Xiangshi, etc. Although the names are different, it shows that with the increase of Chinese people's activities in the South China Sea, the awareness of the South China Sea has gradually deepened. and tends to be specific.

By the Song Dynasty, the islands of the South China Sea and the waters of the South China Sea had become the daily production and life homes of the Chinese people. Not only did they clearly distinguish and name different islands, reefs and sea areas in the South China Sea with "Shitang" and "Changsha", but they also included the islands in the South China Sea. territory. The earliest historical book to name the islands and reefs in the South China Sea as "Shitang" is the Song Dynasty document "Song Huiyao", and the book "Qiong Guan Zhi" written in the early 13th century named the islands and reefs in the South China Sea as "Qianli" for the first time. Changsha "Wanli Shitang".

From then to the Ming and Qing dynasties, "Shitang" and "Changsha" were widely used as the common names of the islands in the South my country Sea, and were found in various historical documents and maps. The jurisdiction of the Chinese government over the islands in the South my country Sea has been gradually expanded since the Tang and Song dynasties.

According to Zhao Rushi's "Zhufan Zhi", in the Tang Dynasty, the South China Sea Islands belonged to the Hainan Four Prefecture Army. The Song Dynasty followed the setting of the Tang Dynasty, and the South China Sea Islands still belonged to the jurisdiction of the Qiongguan Jiyang Army on Guangnan West Road, marking the beginning of the Chinese government's incorporation of the South China Sea Islands into its territory and the establishment of an administrative system.

The establishment of "navy divisions" and incorporation of Haiphong is another important way for the Chinese government to exercise jurisdiction over the South China Sea. According to the first official book on military repair in my country, "Wu Jing Zong Yao" written in 1040, Song Taizu established a sea patrol division in 907 to patrol the South China Sea.

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the management, development and jurisdiction of the South China Sea Islands were further developed. There are dozens of manuscripts of "Genglu Book" that I have seen so far. This precious document truly records the situation of Chinese fishermen from Hainan Wenchang Qinglan Port, Qionghai Tanmen Port and other places to the waters of Xisha and Nansha. About 200 production lines are recorded, and about 120 place names have been named by fishermen to the islands and reefs of Xisha and Nansha, which fully shows that the scope of operation and development by the Chinese people completely covers the main islands and reefs and sea areas of the islands in the South China Sea today. The traditional fishing grounds produced and operated by the Chinese people from generation to generation are enough to show that China enjoys historic rights in the South China Sea.

During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Chinese government had a more complete mechanism for exercising jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea. On the one hand, it continued to explicitly incorporate the islands in the South China Sea and placed them under the jurisdiction of Wanzhou, the prefecture of Qiongzhou, Guangdong Province. On the other hand, navy patrols continued to be implemented.

The Ming Dynasty set up patrolling officers and Hainan guards, and the Qing Dynasty set up the Yazhou navy battalion, which was responsible for patrolling and military guarding the waters including the South China Sea. Since the 1970s, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of my country and the cultural relics departments of Guangdong and Hainan have successively organized several archaeological investigations and excavations. A large number of relics and relics of the production and life of the Chinese people have been discovered in some islands and reefs of the Nansha Islands and their waters, including Pottery, porcelain, bronze, iron, stone, coins, ivory, stone carvings, etc. in different historical periods, as well as land temples, tombstones, wells, thatched huts, stone tablets, artificially planted coconut trees, etc. The historical portrayal of the island's long-term production and life reflects the historical fact that the Chinese people sailed the South my country Sea and developed and utilized the waters of the South China Sea.

After modern times, when foreigners trespassed on the islands of the South China Sea, there were already Chinese people living on some islands and reefs. Foreign navigators learned about the place names used by some fishermen and spelled them into English or other characters according to the fishermen's Hainanese dialect. For charts, it has been used for a long time. For example, Sin Cowe and Nam Yit contained in the book "Guide to the China Sea" published by the British Admiralty in 1923 are derived from what Chinese fishermen call Liangouzhi and Nanyizhi. The book also records that there are "remains of shabby houses" of the Chinese people found on the Anbo sandbar; Those who live among the rocky reefs for a long time. Hainan has small boats sailing to the island every year, carrying rice grain and other necessities, and exchanging ginseng and shellfish with fishermen.” It also records that Taiping Island “is often inhabited by Hainan fishermen, catching sea cucumbers and shells, etc.” .

In 1909, Li Zhun, the Admiral of the Guangdong Navy, was ordered to inspect the Xisha Islands. He not only carried out property surveys, surveying and mapping, but also named the 14 Xisha islands. In 1933, French colonists illegally occupied Nansha islands and reefs, creating the "Nine Isles Incident". The move aroused unanimous protests from the Chinese government and all sectors of society. On July 26, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kuomintang government sent a serious protest to the French government, pointing out that the Nansha Islands "are the only fishermen who live on the island and confirm China's territory internationally." On August 4, a diplomatic note was submitted to the French Minister to China on the reservation of rights to the so-called sovereignty declaration of France.

During the period of the Republic of China, the Chinese government approved and re-designated the names of the islands in the South China Sea. In 1934, the Land and Water Map Review Committee of the Ministry of the Interior published the "Comparison Table of Chinese and English Geographical Names of the Islands of the South my country Sea Islands", which listed the names of 132 islands, reefs and beaches in the South China Sea Islands.

In 1935, the Land and Water Map Review Committee published "Maps of Islands in the South China Sea", which was the first official special map of the South China Sea published by the government of the Republic of China. detailed. From April 1935 to 1948 alone, among the various maps published in my country, at least 60 types of maps in the South China Sea were completely plotted. The review and publication of the names and maps of the islands in the South China Sea by the Land and Water Map Review Committee is the effective jurisdiction of the Chinese government over the islands in the South China Sea.

After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, in accordance with the spirit of the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Proclamation, the Chinese government decided to take over and restore the sovereignty of the Xisha and Nansha Islands. On September 2, 1946, the Nationalist Government issued an order on the recovery of the Nansha Islands, and after consultations with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Foreign Affairs and National Defense, it dispatched the navy-based receivers. The reception of the Xisha Islands was completed on November 29, 1946, and the reception of the Nansha Islands was completed on December 15, 1946. After the reception work was completed, a monument was erected and cannons were fired to declare sovereignty, surveying and drawing to clarify the boundaries, leaving troops to guard and patrolling, and establishing institutions to strengthen jurisdiction. On February 28, 1947, the National Government issued a communique on the completion of the reception of the Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha Islands.

After that, the National Government re-examined the names of the South China Sea Islands and their respective islands, reefs and beaches. On December 1, it announced the "Comparison Table of Old and New Place Names for the South China Sea Islands", with a total of 167 islands, reefs and beaches.

In February 1948, the Ministry of the Interior published the "Administrative Area Map of the Republic of China", the attached map was the "Location Map of the Islands in the South China Sea", which clearly marked the names of the islands in the South China Sea and 11 intermittent lines in the South China Sea. After the founding of New China, my country's sovereign jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea has entered a new era.

The Chinese government legally exercises its sovereignty and jurisdiction in accordance with the rights and obligations conferred by international law. On August 15, 1951, Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai issued the "Declaration of the Anglo-American Peace Treaty with Japan and the Statement of the San Francisco Conference", solemnly pointing out that the Xisha and Nansha Islands are "Chinese territory" and that China enjoys sovereignty over the Xisha and Nansha Islands. Since then, in response to foreign encroachment on the islands in the South China Sea, it has issued several statements, reiterating China's sovereign position on the islands in the South China Sea and their adjacent waters.

On April 24, 1982, the China Geographical Names Committee was authorized to publish some standard geographical names of the South my country Sea Islands, a total of 289. In addition, a large number of foreign data show that the sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands belongs to China.

In September 1933, the French magazine "Colonial World" published that when the French gunboat "Marixius" surveyed the islands and reefs of the Nansha Islands in 1930, there were Chinese and Chinese-built huts, wells, and shrines on many islands. The "Columbia Lippincott World Place Names Dictionary" published in the United States in 1961 wrote that the Nansha Islands are "a Chinese territory in the South China Sea and a part of Guangdong Province."

In 1963, the "Wilde Mack Encyclopedia of Nations" published in the United States said: The islands of the People's Republic of China, including islands and coral reefs in the South China Sea extending to 4 degrees north latitude. The "New China Yearbook" published in Japan in 1966 said: "China's coastal line is about 11,000 kilometers from the Liaodong Peninsula to the Nansha Islands in the north, and the coastline of the coastal islands is 20,000 kilometers."

In 1971, the "Encyclopedia of Zoning of Countries in the World" published by the United States said: "The People's Republic includes several archipelagos, the largest of which is Hainan Island, near the south coast. Other archipelagos include some reefs and archipelagos in the South China Sea, extending as far as possible. To 4 degrees north latitude. These reefs and archipelagos include Dongsha, Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha Islands."

The World Yearbook published by Japan in 1972 said: "China... In addition to the mainland part of the territory, there are Hainan Island, Taiwan, Penghu Islands and the Dongsha, Xisha, Zhongsha, Nansha islands in the South China Sea, etc.” The above facts clearly show that China's position on the sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands and its adjacent waters has been widely recognized by many countries and the international community.

The determination of the Philippine territorial scope comes from the 1898 "Paris Peace Agreement" between the United States and Spain, the 1900 "US-Spanish Treaty on the cession of the Philippine Outer Islands" (the "Washington Treaty"), and the 1930 "On Delimitation" signed by the United Kingdom and the United States. International treaties such as the Boundary Treaty between British North Borneo and the American Philippines, so the national territorial boundaries of the Philippines are collectively referred to as "International Treaty Limits" or "Philippine Treaty Limits". These treaties clearly show that the islands in the South China Sea are not at all within the Philippine territorial boundaries. However, domestic laws or treaties of the Philippines, such as the 1935 Philippine Constitution, the 1946 "U.S.-Philippine General Relations Treaty", and the 1961 Philippine "Decree No. 3046 on the Baselines of the Territorial Sea", all expressly and repeatedly affirmed the Philippines' "international treaty boundaries". Territorial scope, but Nansha Islands and Huangyan Island are not among them. In July 1946, the Philippines coveted the Nansha Islands at the beginning of its founding. On September 11, 1946, Philippine Foreign Secretary Gilino sent a letter to Allied Commander-in-Chief MacArthur, making an unreasonable request for the Philippines to annex the Nansha Islands. MacArthur did not respond to this, because without the support of the United States, the Philippines did not dare to act rashly.

In June 1954, Thomas Croma, the principal of a private maritime school in Manila, declared that a group of "unowned and uninhabited desert islands" had been discovered in the South China Sea west of Palawan, and named the place "Freeland". On May 24, 1956, the Legal Department of the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs invited representatives of relevant government agencies to a meeting. After listening to Cloma's statement, it was determined on the spot that the islands of "free land" claimed by Cloma were outside the territory of the Philippines. However, it is such a farce that has become the so-called basis for the Philippines to claim sovereignty in the future.

In April 1972, the Philippine government named the "free land" that Croma called "Kalayaan Islands" and placed it under the jurisdiction of Palawan Province. On June 11, 1978, Philippine President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1596 to redefine the "Kalayaan" area. Most of the islands and reefs of China's Nansha Islands were included in the "Kalayaan" area announced by the decree. within geographic coordinates. In November 1987, the Philippine Congress re-delimited its waters and illegally included about 60 large and small islands and reefs in the Nansha Islands into the territory of the Philippines.

The Nansha Islands have long been China's inherent territory in history, and are by no means "territorial". Croma's so-called "discovery" of new islands and reefs in the Nansha Islands was not only denied by the Philippine government at the time, but also never recognized by the international community. Therefore, the so-called "Kalayaan Islands" established by the Philippines are absurd in fact and absurd in law. In order to legitimize its occupation of China's Nansha islands and reefs, the Philippines also proposed the so-called "security principle" and "geographical proximity principle". In fact, there is no rule of international law in the international community that determines the ownership of territorial sovereignty based on factors such as distance or military, economic, and security. international norms. Therefore, claiming territorial sovereignty over Nansha islands and reefs based on the "security principle" and the "geographical proximity principle" is unreasonable and intolerable in law.

Since the 1970s, the Philippines has illegally occupied China's Nansha islands and reefs for a long time and has been engaged in construction. In particular, in March 1995, the Philippine navy blew up the survey marks set up by China on Wufang Jiao, Xian'e Jiao, Xinyi Jiao, Banyue Jiao and Ren'ai Jiao, and raided four Chinese fishing boats docked near Banyue Jiao. , detained 62 fishermen on board. In the following years, the Philippines has repeatedly expelled, arrested and even shot Chinese fishermen who were operating and sailing normally in the waters off Huangyan Island.

On May 9, 1999, under the pretext of technical failure, the Philippine side landed its No. 57 landing ship "Monte Madre" on Ren'ai Reef. The Philippine side ignored China's solemn representations and has been on the beach illegally for 17 years. In 2012, the Philippine military and police illegally boarded a Chinese fishing boat operating in the waters near Huangyan Island, creating the "Huangyan Island Incident". In disregard of facts, the Philippines has continuously violated China's sovereignty and related rights in the South China Sea, and wantonly violated the safety of life and property of Chinese fishermen.

A large number of historical facts show that China's sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is established on the basis of the earliest discovery, naming, development, utilization and operation of the islands by the Chinese people from generation to generation, as well as the continuous administrative jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea by successive Chinese governments. The historical fact that China has sovereignty and related rights over the South China Sea Islands and their adjacent waters is conclusive, the historical context is clear, the historical basis is sufficient, and its historical status is legitimate. China has always been the true and only owner of the South China Sea Islands. The so-called sovereignty claims of the Philippines over the Nansha Islands and Huangyan Island have no historical basis and cannot be relied upon. (The author is a researcher at the China Frontier Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) Enter the topic: South China Sea issue





进入专题: 南海问题
 
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Beast

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There are Chinese buildings relics and artifacts such as coins found on the islands. There are also Chinese historical records of Chinese gov, Chinese navy, fishermen, business traders and some settlers either worked or lived there sometimes in the past. These prove that Chinese first discovered and dominated many of the islands.








Article on the Chinese Relics and other Evidences on Paracels:

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹
原创2021-05-25 14:53·萨苏

光复四沙:二战后收回南海诸岛纪实​

前篇:邓世昌甲午殉国前为何率舰到访香港?致远舰上的这一遗物揭开真相

01:中国不曾忘南海


西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

1952年《中华人民共和国分省地图》中我国南海地区及各岛屿位置 (亚光舆地学社出版)。
1945年8月15日,日本帝国宣布投降,第二次世界大战结束,中国终于扬眉吐气,取得了抗日战争的胜利,并做为反法西斯盟国中最重要的东方国家成为对日作战的战胜国。然而,面对满目疮痍,中国面临着一系列收复国土的重大课题,收回南海地区各岛屿的主权,便是这些课题中最重要的内容之一。

在抗战胜利之时,我国在南海的海军兵力和海洋领土已经损失殆尽,包括海南岛和东沙、西沙、南沙、黄岩岛等都曾在战争中被日军占据。但我国对于南海领土的态度是明确的,且我国的主权要求得到了世界具有正义感的国家大力支持。

中国南海(South China Sea)是世界第三大海,仅次于珊瑚海和阿拉伯海,东起东经117°50′,西至东经109°30′,北起北纬20°42′,南至北纬4°附近,东西宽约900公里,南北长约1800多公里。这里是热带海洋地区,珊瑚礁生长极为繁盛,故此在这个辽阔的范围之内岛屿滩礁可称星罗棋布。

除海南岛这样的大陆岛以外,经过查勘和命名的至少可达150余座,依其位置的分布东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛和南沙群岛,即“南海四沙”,均为我国固有领土,且为我国渔民长期作业的岛区,二战前既曾有固定居民居住。南海诸岛是我国领土向南突出最远的部分,而且是散布于广阔的海域之中,可称是我国南疆的前哨。

中国在二战后收回南海诸岛,是有充分主权依据的。

很早以来,中国便对南海诸岛有着清晰的主权意识,贴切地命名南海四沙为“千里长沙”“万里石床”“万里石塘”等。作为我国在南海最大的岛屿,海南岛的开发和行政建制可以上溯到秦汉,而南海的命名则在周朝便已经完成,庄子和惠施进行辩论的时候便曾以南海为题。晋朝石崇斗富时曾拿出三尺高的珊瑚树,据麦蕴瑜先生考证,这便是来自于南海诸岛的宝物,是石崇“使人航海”所得,可见我国对于四沙的开发早在千年前便已经开始。

历代中国政府都十分重视南海诸岛的主权问题。

汉武帝元封元年(前110年),就在海南岛建立珠崖、儋耳两郡,已经将海南岛纳入行政管理。

五代以后,战事频繁,大批中原人民迁居海南。

北宋时期,一批名人如苏轼等因贬官来到南海,并留下了“日啖荔枝三百颗,不妨常作岭南人”的诗句。

南宋末年,因逃避战乱,几十万闽南的莆田人移民到现在的海南岛,带来了莆田话和闽南文化。

元代,海南建制仍仿宋制,称为琼州路,领三州、十三县。

明朝则称海南岛为琼州府,有海瑞等名宦出自于此,可见当时南海不但于领土意义上与中央政权呼吸与共,文化上也浑然一体。

清代又将琼州府改称琼州道,仍为三州十三县。

而在这种种变迁之中,对于南海诸岛和海疆的管理也由海南辐射而出。元朝时以“万里石塘”即南海为内海,并派将军史弼巡视南海各地,说明我国至少在元代已经对南海诸岛开始实施实际的行政和国防管理。也是在元代,郭守敬进行天文测绘时曾将最南端的测试点放在南海诸岛上。

明代郑和下西洋曾多次巡视南海,明朝政府并在海南岛万州设立水师营,具体负责以“万里石塘”“石星石塘”“万里长沙”为名的南海诸岛防务。

清代南海诸岛属广东水师巡逻范围,两次鸦片战争之后我国兴起洋务运动,新建的海军舰队包括北洋水师的舰只经常到南海巡航,航程达到槟榔屿,新加坡等地。

光绪后期因甲午、甲申、庚子各战役我海军损失惨重,但在20世纪初仍努力于西沙、东沙等群岛维护我国主权,先后取得从日人手中收回东沙群岛主权,由广东水师提督李准率伏波、琛航、广金等舰组成的舰队巡逻西沙群岛(李准晚年回忆也曾到达南沙群岛),勒石纪事,标定海图,体现了我国对南海诸岛的具体管辖和领土意识。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

曾在清末巡逻南海诸岛的广金号炮舰,这是它在民国期间留下的影像。
我国清末民间也不断有渔民至南海诸岛生产作业,在岛上立庙修舍,客观上反映着我国对各岛的主权。

这些渔民修建的庙宇,和清末对南海进行巡逻时留下的碑刻至今犹存,仔细研究,其中颇有对历史的深刻反映。以西沙群岛为例,岛上的古庙和古碑便颇有值得玩味之处。

根据西沙考古发现证实,或许因为有唯一的淡水井,甘泉岛上唐宋时期便有我国人定居于此,但是到了清末,南海诸岛的固定居民却并不多,很多岛屿一直处于无人状态。

让人感到出乎意料的是,南海诸岛中的许多岛屿,虽然缺乏居民生活的条件,却有不少庙宇。根据1974年至1975年文物普查的结果,仅在西沙群岛各岛,便有十三座庙。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

甘泉岛上的兄弟庙,确定为民国期间琼海县渔民苏德柳等建造,是岛上较近期的庙宇。
这十三座庙包括——

  • 永兴岛上一座(名为“孤魂庙”,已拆毁)
  • 甘泉岛上三座
  • 琛航岛上两座(已拆毁一座)
  • 和五岛上两座(1973年拆毁一座)
  • 北岛上一座
  • 广金岛上一座
  • 赵述岛上一座
  • 珊瑚岛上一座(已拆毁)
这些庙的建造时间从明代到民国都有,大多用珊瑚石板砌成,造型十分简陋。较大的也只是单间房屋,有四面围墙(多为珊瑚石板建造,少数采用砖砌)。而较小的一般只有半米高左右,仅可在前点香火祭祀而已。

所有小庙的顶部都已经坍塌不存,但有筒瓦、板瓦发现,庙内有神龛、供桌、神像等,有的庙门外还有一道曲尺形的护墙。

我们可以通过一批照片看到这些小庙1974年时的境况:

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

甘泉岛小庙。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

北岛珊瑚石小庙,顶部已经坍塌,但内部仍可见祭坛和牌位。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

广金岛两座相对的小庙,仅能放下香炉,可能是西沙群岛上最小的庙。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

和五岛珊瑚石小庙仅存庙内石板小龛。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

琛航岛珊瑚石小庙。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

赵述岛小庙,已经坍塌,仅存门两侧残墙。
西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

近人在赵述岛上利用残墙新建的佛龛。
这些庙宇到七十年代已经十分荒败,一方面是日法两国曾侵占我西沙群岛部分岛礁,有意破坏我岛上建筑和历史遗迹,以毁灭岛屿古来为我所有的历史证据;另一方面则是因为建国后提倡反封建无神论,有一段时间里不再有渔民前去供拜和修理,在严酷的自然环境中,比较容易损毁。

近年来,由于在西沙定居和进行渔业生产的人员日多,有些庙宇得到了修复和扩建,从打鱼人寻求精神安慰的角度来说,也是可以理解的。

至于庙宇中供奉的是什么神,也无法完全分辨清楚,娘娘、土地、海神都有,其中特色是“孤魂庙”

庙名“孤魂”是何意?原来南海有传说,明代曾有一百零八位渔民出海捕鱼,为海盗杀害,因孤魂不得还乡,常年在海上游荡,并时时显灵帮助后来的渔民——当地出海的渔民都称“兄弟”,而渔民们感其佑护,便为其立庙祭祀。

永兴岛与和五岛上的庙宇前,各有一副对联,分别是——


从这里都可以读出渔民“兄弟”与“孤魂”亡灵之间的关系——孤魂护佑渔民平安,渔民祭祀使孤魂得到慰籍。这可以算是南海一种独特而原始的祭祀文化了。

虽然十分简陋,但远海迢迢,到此兴建庙宇也是十分困难的事情,西沙群岛怎么会有这么多座庙呢?难道在一座岛上建庙祭祀还不够吗?

在1975年进行西沙文物普查时,工作人员也对这件事颇为困惑,经过向渔民询问,才知道这些庙宇除了祭祀以外,还有一种功能。

按照民间规矩,最先上岛盖庙的渔民会受到同业们的尊敬,在这里进行渔捞有优先权,对一些古代庙宇进行修缮,可以获得同样近似“岛主”的敬畏。所以,几乎每个稍大一些的岛屿上都能看到渔民们设立的庙宇了。

建庙的谜题比较轻易地解开了,但西沙群岛的庙,有的还守护着至今我们解不开的谜团。

比如,1973年,民兵在永兴岛孤魂庙旁发现了一块埋藏于地下的石碑,是用灰色麻石刻成。石碑质量较好,长九十二厘米,宽十九厘米,厚八厘米。经过鉴定,这是当时的中国政府1921年派人到此巡视时设立的“视察纪念”碑。

而1974年,又在北岛珊瑚石小庙旁进行文物考察时,发现了两块被破坏的石碑,经过对合,基本能够辨认碑上的文字。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹


这两块碑中第一块较长,长九十二厘米,宽十九厘米,厚八厘米,质地为粗麻石,中间是“视察纪念”四字,侧面有“大清光绪二十八年”字样。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹


第二块碑已残,残长五十八厘米,宽二十四厘米,厚九厘米,中央也是“视察纪念”四字,左侧一行小字,为“大清光绪二十八年”。

细细品读这三块碑,可以找到很多重要信息。

这三块碑都是麻石所刻,而当地为珊瑚岛,没有这样的石料,说明它们都是从大陆运来的,风高浪急,海运艰难,中国从清代以来,对于到西沙巡视的重视由此可见一斑。

这其中,清光绪那两块碑,让我们深感历史的迷雾之深。

根据文献记载,清末广东水师提督李准曾率海军琛航、伏波两舰视察西沙,传诵一时,这“视察纪念”之碑,或许便是他们当年的遗物。但是,李准这次巡海究竟在何时,史家屡有争议。

李准曾回忆,这次巡海发生在1909年,当时巡阅西沙十五岛,命名刻碑,绘图而还。并说明此事发生在中日东沙群岛之争后。

然而,他在回忆中的描述显然与这个时间不符:


西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹


海军宿将林国祥,毕业于福州船政学堂,早年与邓世昌搭档,曾参加过援台、中法、中日甲午战争,勇猛敢战,是广东海军的早期优秀将领。

李准谈到此次航海的指挥官和建议者,均为海军宿将林国祥。但林国祥在1908年已经去世,是不可能在1909年随同李准进行这一考察的。故此经重新考证,目前普遍的看法,这次巡航应该发生于1907年。

然而,1975年在西沙发现的这两块“光绪二十八年”的石碑,却让人对这个结论产生了怀疑。这是因为光绪二十八年即1902年,距1907年尚有五年之久,总不会五年前这石碑便刻好等着参加此次航行吧?

我们只能推测,可能在1902年或者更早,中国官方已经有了对于西沙群岛的巡视,李准1907年的考察只是最为正规和规模较大的一次罢了。

这个谜团,不算有答案,只能说等待后人更多的发现来佐证。

那么,在北岛上的两块石碑,怎么会被打碎了呢?

推测是日、法侵占西沙群岛时,出于霸占我领土,销毁历史证据的原因,将我国建立的视察纪念碑毁掉,造成如此后果。甚至,这两块碑有可能原来并不是立在北岛上的,毁碑者是将各岛石碑拆除后运到北岛,统一打碎的。

如果是这样,今后北岛考古可能还会有新的发现。可能也正是因为担心被人毁坏而失去证实主权的意义,1921年民国期间那块石碑才会被埋在沙下。

这种事儿,希望以后不要再发生了。

西沙庙碑之谜:十三座庙碑刻满了中国渔民在南海诸岛的历史遗迹

两块古碑被修复后重新立起拍照。
西沙群岛的庙和碑中,难免依然存在未解之谜。但世事变迁,如今,作为三沙市的首府,繁忙的西沙码头和猎猎升起的国旗,不但可以告慰那些曾经生活在此的先民们,也在让他们知道,这片祖先留下的海洋,我们必将永远守护下去。


Translation:

The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Original 2021-05-25 14:53 · Sasu Restoring the Four Sands: Documentary on the Recovery of the South China Sea Islands after World War II Part 1: Why did Deng Shichang lead a ship to visit Hong Kong before he died in Jiawu? This relic on the Reach ship reveals the truth 01: China has never forgotten the South China Sea The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The location of the South my country Sea and the islands in the "Map of the Provinces of the People's Republic of China" in 1952 (published by Yaguang Yuge Institute). On August 15, 1945, the Japanese Empire announced its surrender, the end of World War II, China finally raised its eyebrows and won the victory of the Anti-Japanese War. As the most important eastern country among the anti-fascist allies, China became a victorious country in the war against Japan. However, in the face of devastation, China is faced with a series of major issues of recovering its territory. The recovery of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is one of the most important issues. At the time of the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, my country's naval forces and maritime territory in the South China Sea had been completely lost, including Hainan Island, Dongsha, Xisha, Nansha, and Huangyan Island, which were all occupied by the Japanese during the war. However, my country's attitude towards the territory of the South China Sea is clear, and my country's claim to sovereignty has been strongly supported by countries with a sense of justice in the world. The South China Sea is the third largest sea in the world, after the Coral Sea and the Arabian Sea. It starts from 117°50'E in the east, 109°30'E in the west, 20°42'N in the north, and 4N in the south. °Nearby, it is about 900 kilometers wide from east to west and more than 1800 kilometers long from north to south. This is a tropical marine area, and coral reefs are extremely prosperous, so the islands and reefs in this vast area can be said to be dotted. In addition to mainland islands such as Hainan Island, at least 150 of them have been surveyed and named. According to their locations, the Dongsha Islands, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands and Nansha Islands, namely the "Four Sands in the South China Sea", are all inherent in my country. It is also an island area where Chinese fishermen have been operating for a long time. Before World War II, there were permanent residents living there. The South China Sea Islands are the farthest part of my country's territory protruding to the south, and are scattered in the vast seas, which can be called the outpost of my country's southern Xinjiang. China's recovery of the islands in the South China Sea after World War II is based on full sovereignty. From a very early time, China has had a clear sense of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea, aptly naming the four sands in the South China Sea as "Thousands of Miles of Changsha", "Wanli Stone Beds" and "Wanli Stone Ponds". As my country's largest island in the South China Sea, the development and administrative system of Hainan Island can be traced back to the Qin and Han dynasties, and the naming of the South China Sea was completed in the Zhou Dynasty. Shi Chongdou in the Jin Dynasty once took out a three-foot-tall coral tree. According to Mr. Mai Yunyu's research, this is a treasure from the islands of the South China Sea. It started thousands of years ago. Successive Chinese governments have attached great importance to the issue of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea. In the first year of the Yuanfeng reign (110 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty established Zhuya and Dan'er counties on Hainan Island and brought Hainan Island into administrative management. After the Five Dynasties, wars were frequent, and a large number of people from the Central Plains moved to Hainan. During the Northern Song Dynasty, a group of famous people, such as Su Shi, came to the South China Sea due to their demotions, and left behind the poem "If you eat 300 lychees a day, you might as well be a Lingnan native". At the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, hundreds of thousands of Putian people from southern Fujian immigrated to Hainan Island to escape the war, bringing Putian dialect and southern Fujian culture with them. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Hainan system still imitated the Song system, called Qiongzhou Road, leading three states and thirteen counties. In the Ming Dynasty, Hainan Island was called Qiongzhou Prefecture, and Hai Rui and other famous officials came from this. It can be seen that the South China Sea not only shared the territorial sense with the central government at that time, but also culturally integrated. In the Qing Dynasty, Qiongzhou Prefecture was renamed Qiongzhou Road, and it was still thirteen counties in three states. In the midst of these changes, the management of the islands and sea frontiers in the South China Sea also radiated from Hainan. In the Yuan Dynasty, the "Wanli Shitang", that is, the South China Sea, was used as the inland sea, and the general Shi Bi was dispatched to inspect all parts of the South China Sea, indicating that my country had begun to implement the actual administrative and national defense management of the South China Sea Islands at least in the Yuan Dynasty. Also in the Yuan Dynasty, when Guo Shoujing was conducting astronomical surveying and mapping, he placed the southernmost test point on the islands of the South China Sea. In the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He went to the Western Ocean to inspect the South China Sea many times. The government of the Ming Dynasty set up a navy camp in Wanzhou, Hainan Island, which was specifically responsible for the defense of the South China Sea islands named "Wanli Shitang", "Shixing Shitang" and "Wanli Changsha". In the Qing Dynasty, the South China Sea Islands belonged to the patrol range of the Guangdong Navy. After the two Opium Wars, the Westernization Movement emerged in my country. The newly built naval fleet, including the ships of the Beiyang Navy, often patrolled the South China Sea, and the voyage reached Penang, Singapore and other places. In the late Guangxu period, our navy suffered heavy losses due to the battles of Jiawu, Jiashen, and Gengzi. However, in the early 20th century, we still worked hard to safeguard our sovereignty in the Xisha and Dongsha Islands, and successively obtained the sovereignty of the Dongsha Islands from the Japanese. Li Zhun led a fleet composed of Fubo, Chenhang, Guangjin and other ships to patrol the Xisha Islands (Li Zhun recalled that he also visited the Nansha Islands in his later years). Territorial awareness. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The gunboat Guangjin used to patrol the South China Sea Islands in the late Qing Dynasty. This is the image it left during the Republic of China. In the late Qing Dynasty in my country, fishermen continued to go to the islands of the South China Sea for production operations, and built temples and houses on the islands, which objectively reflected my country's sovereignty over the islands. The temples built by these fishermen and the inscriptions left by their patrols in the South China Sea in the late Qing Dynasty still exist today. Taking the Xisha Islands as an example, the ancient temples and monuments on the island are quite interesting. According to the archaeological findings of Xisha, perhaps because there is the only fresh water well, Chinese people settled here in the Tang and Song Dynasties on Ganquan Island, but by the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were not many permanent residents of the South China Sea Islands, and many islands have been unmanned. . Surprisingly, many of the islands in the South China Sea have many temples despite lacking living conditions for residents. According to the results of the cultural relics census from 1974 to 1975, there are thirteen temples in each island of the Paracel Islands alone. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The Brothers Temple on Ganquan Island was determined to be built by Su Deliu, a fisherman from Qionghai County during the Republic of China, and is a relatively recent temple on the island. The thirteen temples include— One on Yongxing Island (named "Lone Soul Temple", which has been demolished) Three on Ganquan Island Two on Chenhang Island (one has been demolished) Two on Hegoshima (one demolished in 1973) One on the North Island One on Hiroshima Island One on Zhaoshu Island One on Coral Island (Demolished) These temples were built from the Ming Dynasty to the Republic of China. The larger ones are just one-room houses with four walls (mostly built of coral slate, a few of them are brick). The smaller ones are generally only about half a meter high, and can only be sacrificed by lighting incense in front of them. The tops of all the small temples have collapsed and disappeared, but tube tiles and slab tiles have been found. There are shrines, offering tables, statues, etc. in the temples, and there is a curved wall outside the gates of some temples. We can see the situation of these small temples in 1974 through a batch of photos: The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Ganquan Island Small Temple. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small coral stone temple on the North Island, the top has collapsed, but the altar and tablet are still visible inside. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The two opposite small temples on Guangjin Island, which can only put down incense burners, may be the smallest temples on the Paracel Islands. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small coral stone temple of Hewudao only has a small niche of stone slabs in the temple. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Chenhang Island Coral Stone Temple. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small temple on Zhaoshu Island has collapsed, and only the remaining walls on both sides of the door remain. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The Buddhist shrines newly built by the neighbors on Zhaoshu Island using the remnants of the wall. These temples were very desolate by the 1970s. On the one hand, Japan and France occupied some islands and reefs of our Xisha Islands, deliberately destroying the buildings and historical relics on our islands, in order to destroy the historical evidence that the islands have been owned by me in ancient times; On the one hand, it was because after the founding of the People's Republic of China, anti-feudal atheism was advocated. For a period of time, fishermen no longer came to worship and repair. In the harsh natural environment, it is relatively easy to damage. In recent years, due to the increasing number of people who have settled in Xisha and engaged in fishery production, some temples have been repaired and expanded. From the perspective of fishermen seeking spiritual comfort, it is understandable. As for what gods are enshrined in the temples, it is impossible to tell exactly which gods are enshrined in the temples. There are goddesses, gods of the land, and sea gods. What does the name of the temple "Lone Soul" mean? It turns out that there is a legend in the South China Sea that in the Ming Dynasty, there were 108 fishermen who went out to sea to fish and were killed by pirates. Because of their solitary souls, they could not return to their hometowns. Brothers”, and the fishermen felt their protection and set up temples to worship him. In front of the temples on Yongxing Island and Hewu Island, each has a couplet, which are— The brothers were inspired, and the lonely soul was deeply grateful. Go forward to Shuangfan Gushun Temple, and behind the temple is Yijing Brother An. From here, you can read the relationship between the fishermen's "brothers" and the "lonely souls" - the lonely souls protect the fishermen's safety, and the fishermen's sacrifices give the lonely souls comfort. This can be regarded as a unique and primitive sacrificial culture in the South China Sea. Although it is very simple, it is very difficult to build temples because of the long seas. How can there be so many temples in the Xisha Islands? Isn't it enough to build a temple on an island to worship? During the census of Xisha cultural relics in 1975, the staff were also quite confused about this matter. After asking the fishermen, they realized that these temples have a function other than offering sacrifices. According to folk rules, the first fishermen to build temples on the island will be respected by their peers. Fishing here has priority. Repairing some ancient temples can gain the same awe as the "island owner". Therefore, almost every larger island can see temples set up by fishermen. The mystery of building a temple is relatively easy to solve, but some of the temples in the Xisha Islands still guard the mystery that we can't solve so far. For example, in 1973, militiamen discovered a stone tablet buried in the ground next to the Lonely Soul Temple on Yongxing Island. It was carved from gray hemp stone. The stele is of good quality, 92 centimeters long, 19 centimeters wide and 8 centimeters thick. After identification, this is the "inspection memorial" monument set up by the then Chinese government in 1921 when it sent people to visit here. In 1974, during a cultural relic inspection next to the small coral stone temple in Beidao, two damaged stone steles were discovered. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The first of the two steles is longer, 92 cm long, 19 cm wide, and 8 cm thick. " lettering. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The second stele has been destroyed, with a residual length of 58 cm, a width of 24 cm and a thickness of nine cm. Carefully read these three monuments, you can find a lot of important information. These three steles are all carved with granite, and the local area is a coral island. There is no such stone material, which means that they were all transported from the mainland. The wind is high and the waves are rough, and the shipping is difficult. Since the Qing Dynasty, China has attached great importance to the inspection of Xisha. This is evident. Among them, the two monuments of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty made us feel the depth of the fog of history. According to documentary records, Li Zhun, the Admiral of the Guangdong Navy in the late Qing Dynasty, led the two ships Chenhang and Fubo to inspect Xisha, and it was passed on for a while. However, historians have repeatedly disputed when Li Zhun made this patrol. Li Zhun once recalled that this patrol took place in 1909, when he visited the fifteen islands of Xisha, named the monument, and returned it by drawing. He also explained that the incident occurred after the dispute between China and Japan over the Dongsha Islands. However, his description in his recollections clearly does not match this time: "The negotiation of the Dongsha Island case has ended, because there must be many people thinking about the islands in the middle of Guangdong and the like in Dongsha. The left wing branch leader Lin Junguoxiang, who is also an old sailor, said to Yu Yu: It is about 200 nautical miles west of Qiongzhou Yulin Port. , There are archipelagos, which are called by the Westerners to be Pearrasier (that is, the informal name for the Paracel Islands in the West), which is about 400 nautical miles away from Hong Kong. This line must be passed... Yu Ji wanted to find out what it was, and collected it on the chart. As China's territory, he invited Yu Anshuai to explore this island. An Shuai said very much... It was Lin Junguoxiang, who belonged to the voyage and exploration, and took the two ships Fubo and Chenhang. Yu led a platoon of guards, led by platoon leader Fan Lianzhong. Wu Junjingrong is the Fubo pipe belt, and Liu Junyikuan is the Chen air pipe belt. Yu Cheng Fubo, with Lin Jun as the navigator, listened to his command. Wang Junrentang accompanied the counselor. " The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Veteran Navy General Lin Guoxiang, graduated from Fuzhou Shipbuilding School, partnered with Deng Shichang in his early years, participated in aid to Taiwan, Sino-French, Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War, fought bravely, and was an early outstanding general of the Guangdong Navy. Li Zhun talked about the commander and advisor of the voyage, both of whom were Navy veteran Lim Kwok Siang. However, Lin Guoxiang had already passed away in 1908, so it was impossible to accompany Li Zhun on this investigation in 1909. Therefore, after re-examination, the current general view is that this cruise should have occurred in 1907. However, the two steles of the "Twenty-eighth Year of Guangxu" discovered in Xisha in 1975 cast doubt on this conclusion. This is because the twenty-eighth year of Guangxu, namely 1902, is still five years away from 1907. Wouldn't this stone tablet be carved five years ago waiting to participate in this voyage? We can only speculate that maybe in 1902 or earlier, the Chinese government had already inspected the Paracel Islands, and Li Zhun's inspection in 1907 was only the most formal and large-scale one. This mystery does not have an answer, it can only be said that we are waiting for more discoveries from future generations to prove it. Then, how could the two stone tablets on the North Island be broken? It is speculated that when Japan and France invaded and occupied the Xisha Islands, they destroyed the inspection monument established by our country for the reasons of occupying our territory and destroying historical evidence, resulting in such consequences. It is even possible that the two steles were not originally erected on the North Island. The stele destroyers removed the steles from each island and transported them to the North Island, and smashed them together. If so, there may be new discoveries in North Island archaeology in the future. Perhaps it is precisely because of the fear of being destroyed that it loses its significance in proving sovereignty, that the stele was buried under the sand during the Republic of China in 1921. I hope this doesn't happen again in the future. Xisha Temple Stele


Another article on Spratlys:

李国强:中国拥有南海诸岛主权的历史事实无可争辩​


选择字号: 本文共阅读 111 次 更新时间:2022-03-31 15:05:43


进入专题: 南海问题

李国强


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早在2000多年前的秦汉时期,中国人民已经开始在南海航行和生产活动,不仅首先发现南海诸岛,并对南海有了初步认识。东汉杨孚《异物志》记载:“涨海崎头,水浅而多磁石。”“崎头”即我国古人对南海礁屿和浅滩的称呼;而“涨海”即我国古代对南海最早的称谓。
隋唐时期分别以七洲洋、珊瑚洲、焦石山、象石等指称南海海域或岛礁,尽管名称不尽相同,但表明随着我国人民在南海活动的增加,对南海的认知程度逐步加深并趋向了具体化。
至宋代,南海诸岛和南海海域已经成为我国人民日常生产生活的家园,不仅以“石塘”“长沙”对南海不同岛礁和不同海域清晰地加以区别和命名,而且将南海诸岛纳入了版图。目前所见把南海岛礁命名为“石塘”的最早史籍,是宋代文献《宋会要》,成书于13世纪初的《琼管志》一书则首次将南海岛礁分别称为“千里长沙”“万里石塘”。由此至明清两代,“石塘”“长沙”作为我国南海诸岛的通用名,而被广泛使用,并见诸各类历史文献和舆图。
我国政府对南海诸岛的管辖从唐宋开始渐趋展开。赵汝适《诸蕃志》中记载,在唐代南海诸岛隶属于海南四州军。宋代沿袭唐代设置,南海诸岛仍属于广南西路琼管吉阳军的管辖范围,标志着中国政府将南海诸岛纳入版图、设置行政建制初现端倪。
设立“水师”,纳入海防,则是中国政府对南海实施管辖的又一个重要方式。据成书于1040年的我国第一部官修兵书《武经总要》记载,宋太祖在907年建立了巡海水师,巡管南海海面。
明清时期,对南海诸岛的经营开发和管辖有了进一步发展。目前所见《更路簿》有数十种抄本,这一珍贵的文献,真实记录了我国渔民从海南文昌清澜港、琼海潭门港等地出发,前往西沙、南沙海域的情况,其中记录生产作业线大约200条,渔民给西沙、南沙岛礁命名的地名大约120个,充分说明我国人民经营开发的范围完全涵盖了今天南海诸岛中的主要岛礁和海域,西沙和南沙海域是我国人民世世代代生产经营的传统渔场,足以表明中国在南海享有历史性权利。
在明清时期,我国政府对南海诸岛实施管辖的机制更加完备,一方面继续将南海诸岛明确地纳入版图,并置于广东省琼州府万州辖下。另一方面持续实施水师巡视,明朝设立巡海备倭官和海南卫,清朝设立崖州协水师营,负责对包括南海在内海域的巡视和军事戍卫。
20世纪70年代以来,我国国家文物局及广东、海南的文物部门先后组织了多次考古调查和挖掘,在南沙群岛部分岛礁及其海域发现了中国人民生产、生活的大量遗迹、遗物,包括不同历史时期的陶器、瓷器、铜器、铁器、石器、钱币、象牙、石雕等以及土地庙、墓碑、水井、茅屋、石碑、人工种植的椰树等等,这些遗迹遗物是我国人民在南海诸岛长期生产、生活的历史写照,反映了我国人民航行南海并开发、利用南海海域的历史事实。
近代以后,外国人擅闯南海诸岛时,早已有中国人居住在一些岛礁,外国航海者了解到一些渔民使用的地名,并将其按照渔民的海南岛方言语音拼写成英文或其它文字标记于海图,长期沿用下来。比如1923年英国海军部出版的《中国海指南》一书中所载Sin Cowe 和 Nam Yit,即源自我国渔民所称的秤钩峙和南乙峙。该书还记载,在安波沙洲发现有中国人的“陋屋之遗迹”;“地萨岛(即今郑和群礁),海南渔民,以捕取海参、贝壳为活。各岛都有其足迹,亦有久居岩礁间者。海南每岁有小船驶往岛上,携米粮及其它必需品,与渔民交换参、贝。”并记载太平岛“常为海南渔民所栖止,捕取海参及贝壳等”。
1909年广东水师提督李准奉命前往西沙群岛巡视,不仅在岛上开展了物产调查、测绘等工作,同时对西沙14座岛屿予以命名。
1933年法国殖民者非法侵占南沙岛礁,制造了“九小岛事件”。此举引起中国政府及社会各界的一致抗议。7月26日国民政府外交部致电法国政府提出严重抗议,指出南沙群岛“仅有我(国)渔人居留岛上,在国际间确认中国领土”。8月4日向法国驻华公使提出对法国所谓主权宣告保留权利的外交照会。
民国时期,中国政府核定、重定了南海诸岛名称。1934年内政部水陆地图审查委员会公布“关于我国南海诸岛各岛屿中英地名对照表”,列出南海诸岛132个岛礁滩洲名称。
1935年,水陆地图审查委员会出版《中国南海各岛屿图》,这是民国政府出版的第一份具有官方性质的南海专项地图,此后中国的各类地图对南海诸岛的标绘更为严谨、详尽。仅1935年4月至1948年,我国国内出版的各类地图中,至少有60种完整标绘了南海诸岛。水陆地图审查委员会对南海诸岛名称、地图的审核与公布,是中国政府对南海诸岛所实施的有效管辖。
抗战胜利后,根据《开罗宣言》和《波茨坦公告》的精神,我国政府决定接收和恢复西沙、南沙群岛主权。1946年9月2日,国民政府发布关于收复西南沙群岛的训令,经内政、外交和国防三部会商后,派出以海军为主的接收人员。1946年11月29日完成西沙群岛接收,1946年12月15日完成南沙群岛接收。在接收工作完成之后,立碑鸣炮宣示主权,测量绘图明确疆界,留兵戍守实施巡防,设立机构强化管辖。
1947年2月28日国民政府发布完成西沙、中沙、南沙群岛接收公报。之后,国民政府再次审定南海诸岛及其所属各岛礁沙滩名称,于12月1日公布了“南海诸岛新旧地名对照表”,共计167个岛礁沙滩洲。1948年2月内政部公布了《中华民国行政区域图》,其附图即《南海诸岛位置图》,该图明确标示了南海诸岛名称和南海11条断续线。
新中国成立后,我国对南海诸岛的主权管辖进入了崭新时代。我国政府依据国际法赋予的权利和义务,合法履行主权和管辖权。1951年8月15日,周恩来外长发表《关于英美对日和约草案及旧金山会议声明》,庄严指出西沙、南沙群岛“向为中国领土”,中国对西沙、南沙享有主权。此后,针对外国对我南海诸岛的侵犯,多次发表声明,重申中国在南海诸岛及其附近海域的主权立场。1982年4月24日中国地名委员会受权公布了我国南海诸岛部分标准地名,共计289个。
此外,大量外国资料表明南海诸岛主权属于中国。1933年9月法国出版的《殖民地世界》杂志登载了1930年法国炮舰“马立休士”号测量南沙群岛岛礁时,多处岛上都有中国人以及中国人修建的茅屋、水井、神座等。
1961年美国出版的《哥伦比亚利平科特世界地名辞典》写到,南沙群岛是“南中国海的中国属地,广东省的一部分。”1963年美国出版的《威尔德麦克各国百科全书》说:中华人民共和国各岛屿,还包括伸展到北纬4度的南中国海的岛屿和珊瑚礁。1966年日本出版的《新中国年鉴》说:“中国的沿海线,北从辽东半岛起到南沙群岛约一万一千公里,加上沿海岛屿的海岸线,达二万公里。”
1971年,美国出版的《世界各国区划百科全书》说:“人民共和国包括几个群岛,其中最大的是海南岛,在南海岸附近。其他群岛包括南中国海的一些礁石和群岛,最远伸展到北纬4度。这些礁石和群岛包括东沙、西沙、中沙和南沙群岛。”1972年日本出版的《世界年鉴》说:“中国……除大陆部分的领土外,有海南岛、台湾、澎湖列岛及中国南海上的东沙、西沙、中沙、南沙各群岛等。”
上述事实清楚地表明,中国对南海诸岛及其附近海域主权的立场,得到许多国家和国际社会的广泛承认。
菲律宾领土范围的确定,来源于1898年《美西巴黎和平协议》、1900年《美西关于菲律宾外围岛屿割让的条约》(即《华盛顿条约》)、1930年英国和美国签署的《关于划定英属北婆罗洲与美属菲律宾之间的边界条约》等国际条约,因此菲律宾的国家领土边界线被统称为“国际条约界限”或“菲律宾条约界限”。这些条约清晰可见,南海诸岛根本不在菲律宾领土界限之内。而1935年菲律宾宪法、1946年“美菲一般关系条约”、1961年菲律宾“关于领海基线的第3046号法令”等菲律宾国内法或条约,均明文反复确认了“国际条约界限”所规定的菲律宾领土范围,而南沙岛礁和黄岩岛不在其中。
1946年7月菲律宾建国之初便觊觎南沙群岛。1946年9月11日菲律宾外长季里诺致函盟军统帅麦克阿瑟,提出由菲律宾兼并南沙群岛的无理要求。麦克阿瑟对此未予回应,由于没有得到美国的支持,菲律宾未敢轻举妄动。
1954年6月马尼拉一家私立海事学校校长托马斯·克洛马宣称,在巴拉望群岛以西的南海发现一群“无主以及无人居住的荒岛”,并将该地命名为“自由地”。1956年5月24日菲律宾外交部法律司邀集政府有关机关代表开会,在听取克洛马的陈述后,当场确定克洛马所主张的“自由地”各岛屿在菲律宾领土之外。然而就是这样一个闹剧,竟然成为菲律宾日后提出主权要求的所谓依据。
1972年4月菲律宾政府将克洛马所称的“自由地”定名为“卡拉延群岛”,划归巴拉望省管辖。1978年6月11日菲律宾总统马科斯签署了第1596号总统令,重新划定“卡拉延群岛”区域,中国南沙群岛的大部分岛礁,都被纳入该法令公布的“卡拉延”区域的地理坐标内。1987年11月,菲律宾议会重新划定其海域,将南沙群岛中大约60个大小岛礁非法划入菲律宾版图内。
南沙群岛在历史上早已成为中国固有领土,绝非什么“无主地”。克洛马在南沙所谓“发现”新岛礁的行为,不仅为当时的菲律宾政府所否定,而且从未得到国际社会承认。因此,菲律宾设立的所谓“卡拉延群岛”在事实上是荒诞的、在法理上是荒谬的。
菲律宾为了使其侵占中国南沙岛礁的行为合法化,还提出了所谓“安全原则”“地理邻近原则”。事实上,在国际社会根本不存在根据距离远近或者军事、经济和安全等因素决定领土主权归属的国际法规则,“安全”和“邻近”不仅从来不是国际法认同的领土取得方式,而且完全有悖于国际准则。因此,以“安全原则”“地理邻近原则”主张拥有南沙岛礁领土主权,于理不通,于法不容。
自上世纪70年代以来,菲律宾长期非法侵占中国南沙岛礁并大搞建设。特别是在1995年3月菲律宾海军炸毁中国在五方礁、仙娥礁、信义礁、半月礁和仁爱礁等南沙岛礁上设立的测量标志,突袭停靠在半月礁附近的4艘中国渔船,扣留船上62名渔民。此后数年间,菲律宾多次驱逐、逮捕甚至枪击在黄岩岛海域正常作业、正常航行的中国渔民。1999年5月9日菲律宾方面借口技术故障,其57号登陆舰“马德雷山号”突然“搁浅”仁爱礁,菲方置中方严正交涉于不顾,非法坐滩至今已达17年。2012年菲律宾军警非法登临在黄岩岛附近海域作业的中国渔船,制造了“黄岩岛事件”。菲律宾罔顾事实,不断侵犯中国在南海的主权和相关权利,肆意侵害中国渔民的生命财产安全,在危及地区和平稳定、危及中菲双边关系的路上越走越远。
大量历史事实表明,中国拥有南海诸岛主权是基于中国人民世世代代最早发现、最早命名、最早开发利用和经营以及历代中国政府对南海诸岛连续不断的行政管辖的基础上而确立的。中国拥有南海诸岛及其附近海域主权和相关权利的历史事实是确凿的,历史脉络是清晰的,历史依据是充分的,历史地位是合法的。中国始终是南海诸岛真正唯一的主人。菲律宾对南沙、黄岩岛的所谓主权要求,无史可据,无法可依,丝毫撼动不了中国在南海的主权地位。

(作者为中国社会科学院中国边疆研究所研究员)


Tanslation:

Li Guoqiang: The historical fact that China has sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is indisputable Select font size: Large Medium Small This article has been read 111 times Update time: 2022-03-31 15:05:43 Enter the topic: South China Sea issue ● Li Guoqiang As early as the Qin and Han Dynasties more than 2,000 years ago, the Chinese people had already started sailing and production activities in the South China Sea. They not only first discovered the islands in the South China Sea, but also had a preliminary understanding of the South China Sea. Yang Fu's "Foreign Objects" in the Eastern Han Dynasty recorded: "Zhanghai Qitou, the water is shallow and many magnets." "Qitou" is the name of the ancients in China for the reefs and shoals of the South China Sea; and "Zhanghai" is the earliest name for the South my country Sea in ancient China. . During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the South China Sea waters or islands and reefs were referred to as Qizhouyang, Coral Island, Jiaoshishan, Xiangshi, etc. Although the names are different, it shows that with the increase of Chinese people's activities in the South China Sea, the awareness of the South China Sea has gradually deepened. and tends to be specific. By the Song Dynasty, the islands of the South China Sea and the waters of the South China Sea had become the daily production and life homes of the Chinese people. Not only did they clearly distinguish and name different islands, reefs and sea areas in the South China Sea with "Shitang" and "Changsha", but they also included the islands in the South China Sea. territory. The earliest historical book to name the islands and reefs in the South China Sea as "Shitang" is the Song Dynasty document "Song Huiyao", and the book "Qiong Guan Zhi" written in the early 13th century named the islands and reefs in the South China Sea as "Qianli" for the first time. Changsha "Wanli Shitang". From then to the Ming and Qing dynasties, "Shitang" and "Changsha" were widely used as the common names of the islands in the South my country Sea, and were found in various historical documents and maps. The jurisdiction of the Chinese government over the islands in the South my country Sea has been gradually expanded since the Tang and Song dynasties. According to Zhao Rushi's "Zhufan Zhi", in the Tang Dynasty, the South China Sea Islands belonged to the Hainan Four Prefecture Army. The Song Dynasty followed the setting of the Tang Dynasty, and the South China Sea Islands still belonged to the jurisdiction of the Qiongguan Jiyang Army on Guangnan West Road, marking the beginning of the Chinese government's incorporation of the South China Sea Islands into its territory and the establishment of an administrative system. The establishment of "navy divisions" and incorporation of Haiphong is another important way for the Chinese government to exercise jurisdiction over the South China Sea. According to the first official book on military repair in my country, "Wu Jing Zong Yao" written in 1040, Song Taizu established a sea patrol division in 907 to patrol the South China Sea. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the management, development and jurisdiction of the South China Sea Islands were further developed. There are dozens of manuscripts of "Genglu Book" that I have seen so far. This precious document truly records the situation of Chinese fishermen from Hainan Wenchang Qinglan Port, Qionghai Tanmen Port and other places to the waters of Xisha and Nansha. About 200 production lines are recorded, and about 120 place names have been named by fishermen to the islands and reefs of Xisha and Nansha, which fully shows that the scope of operation and development by the Chinese people completely covers the main islands and reefs and sea areas of the islands in the South China Sea today. The traditional fishing grounds produced and operated by the Chinese people from generation to generation are enough to show that China enjoys historic rights in the South China Sea. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Chinese government had a more complete mechanism for exercising jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea. On the one hand, it continued to explicitly incorporate the islands in the South China Sea and placed them under the jurisdiction of Wanzhou, the prefecture of Qiongzhou, Guangdong Province. On the other hand, navy patrols continued to be implemented. The Ming Dynasty set up patrolling officers and Hainan guards, and the Qing Dynasty set up the Yazhou navy battalion, which was responsible for patrolling and military guarding the waters including the South China Sea. Since the 1970s, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of my country and the cultural relics departments of Guangdong and Hainan have successively organized several archaeological investigations and excavations. A large number of relics and relics of the production and life of the Chinese people have been discovered in some islands and reefs of the Nansha Islands and their waters, including Pottery, porcelain, bronze, iron, stone, coins, ivory, stone carvings, etc. in different historical periods, as well as land temples, tombstones, wells, thatched huts, stone tablets, artificially planted coconut trees, etc. The historical portrayal of the island's long-term production and life reflects the historical fact that the Chinese people sailed the South my country Sea and developed and utilized the waters of the South China Sea. After modern times, when foreigners trespassed on the islands of the South China Sea, there were already Chinese people living on some islands and reefs. Foreign navigators learned about the place names used by some fishermen and spelled them into English or other characters according to the fishermen's Hainanese dialect. For charts, it has been used for a long time. For example, Sin Cowe and Nam Yit contained in the book "Guide to the China Sea" published by the British Admiralty in 1923 are derived from what Chinese fishermen call Liangouzhi and Nanyizhi. The book also records that there are "remains of shabby houses" of the Chinese people found on the Anbo sandbar; Those who live among the rocky reefs for a long time. Hainan has small boats sailing to the island every year, carrying rice grain and other necessities, and exchanging ginseng and shellfish with fishermen.” It also records that Taiping Island “is often inhabited by Hainan fishermen, catching sea cucumbers and shells, etc.” . In 1909, Li Zhun, the Admiral of the Guangdong Navy, was ordered to inspect the Xisha Islands. He not only carried out property surveys, surveying and mapping, but also named the 14 Xisha islands. In 1933, French colonists illegally occupied Nansha islands and reefs, creating the "Nine Isles Incident". The move aroused unanimous protests from the Chinese government and all sectors of society. On July 26, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kuomintang government sent a serious protest to the French government, pointing out that the Nansha Islands "are the only fishermen who live on the island and confirm China's territory internationally." On August 4, a diplomatic note was submitted to the French Minister to China on the reservation of rights to the so-called sovereignty declaration of France. During the period of the Republic of China, the Chinese government approved and re-designated the names of the islands in the South China Sea. In 1934, the Land and Water Map Review Committee of the Ministry of the Interior published the "Comparison Table of Chinese and English Geographical Names of the Islands of the South my country Sea Islands", which listed the names of 132 islands, reefs and beaches in the South China Sea Islands. In 1935, the Land and Water Map Review Committee published "Maps of Islands in the South China Sea", which was the first official special map of the South China Sea published by the government of the Republic of China. detailed. From April 1935 to 1948 alone, among the various maps published in my country, at least 60 types of maps in the South China Sea were completely plotted. The review and publication of the names and maps of the islands in the South China Sea by the Land and Water Map Review Committee is the effective jurisdiction of the Chinese government over the islands in the South China Sea. After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, in accordance with the spirit of the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Proclamation, the Chinese government decided to take over and restore the sovereignty of the Xisha and Nansha Islands. On September 2, 1946, the Nationalist Government issued an order on the recovery of the Nansha Islands, and after consultations with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Foreign Affairs and National Defense, it dispatched the navy-based receivers. The reception of the Xisha Islands was completed on November 29, 1946, and the reception of the Nansha Islands was completed on December 15, 1946. After the reception work was completed, a monument was erected and cannons were fired to declare sovereignty, surveying and drawing to clarify the boundaries, leaving troops to guard and patrolling, and establishing institutions to strengthen jurisdiction. On February 28, 1947, the National Government issued a communique on the completion of the reception of the Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha Islands. After that, the National Government re-examined the names of the South China Sea Islands and their respective islands, reefs and beaches. On December 1, it announced the "Comparison Table of Old and New Place Names for the South China Sea Islands", with a total of 167 islands, reefs and beaches. In February 1948, the Ministry of the Interior published the "Administrative Area Map of the Republic of China", the attached map was the "Location Map of the Islands in the South China Sea", which clearly marked the names of the islands in the South China Sea and 11 intermittent lines in the South China Sea. After the founding of New China, my country's sovereign jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea has entered a new era. The Chinese government legally exercises its sovereignty and jurisdiction in accordance with the rights and obligations conferred by international law. On August 15, 1951, Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai issued the "Declaration of the Anglo-American Peace Treaty with Japan and the Statement of the San Francisco Conference", solemnly pointing out that the Xisha and Nansha Islands are "Chinese territory" and that China enjoys sovereignty over the Xisha and Nansha Islands. Since then, in response to foreign encroachment on the islands in the South China Sea, it has issued several statements, reiterating China's sovereign position on the islands in the South China Sea and their adjacent waters. On April 24, 1982, the China Geographical Names Committee was authorized to publish some standard geographical names of the South my country Sea Islands, a total of 289. In addition, a large number of foreign data show that the sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands belongs to China. In September 1933, the French magazine "Colonial World" published that when the French gunboat "Marixius" surveyed the islands and reefs of the Nansha Islands in 1930, there were Chinese and Chinese-built huts, wells, and shrines on many islands. The "Columbia Lippincott World Place Names Dictionary" published in the United States in 1961 wrote that the Nansha Islands are "a Chinese territory in the South China Sea and a part of Guangdong Province." In 1963, the "Wilde Mack Encyclopedia of Nations" published in the United States said: The islands of the People's Republic of China, including islands and coral reefs in the South China Sea extending to 4 degrees north latitude. The "New China Yearbook" published in Japan in 1966 said: "China's coastal line is about 11,000 kilometers from the Liaodong Peninsula to the Nansha Islands in the north, and the coastline of the coastal islands is 20,000 kilometers." In 1971, the "Encyclopedia of Zoning of Countries in the World" published by the United States said: "The People's Republic includes several archipelagos, the largest of which is Hainan Island, near the south coast. Other archipelagos include some reefs and archipelagos in the South China Sea, extending as far as possible. To 4 degrees north latitude. These reefs and archipelagos include Dongsha, Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha Islands." The World Yearbook published by Japan in 1972 said: "China... In addition to the mainland part of the territory, there are Hainan Island, Taiwan, Penghu Islands and the Dongsha, Xisha, Zhongsha, Nansha islands in the South China Sea, etc.” The above facts clearly show that China's position on the sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands and its adjacent waters has been widely recognized by many countries and the international community. The determination of the Philippine territorial scope comes from the 1898 "Paris Peace Agreement" between the United States and Spain, the 1900 "US-Spanish Treaty on the cession of the Philippine Outer Islands" (the "Washington Treaty"), and the 1930 "On Delimitation" signed by the United Kingdom and the United States. International treaties such as the Boundary Treaty between British North Borneo and the American Philippines, so the national territorial boundaries of the Philippines are collectively referred to as "International Treaty Limits" or "Philippine Treaty Limits". These treaties clearly show that the islands in the South China Sea are not at all within the Philippine territorial boundaries. However, domestic laws or treaties of the Philippines, such as the 1935 Philippine Constitution, the 1946 "U.S.-Philippine General Relations Treaty", and the 1961 Philippine "Decree No. 3046 on the Baselines of the Territorial Sea", all expressly and repeatedly affirmed the Philippines' "international treaty boundaries". Territorial scope, but Nansha Islands and Huangyan Island are not among them. In July 1946, the Philippines coveted the Nansha Islands at the beginning of its founding. On September 11, 1946, Philippine Foreign Secretary Gilino sent a letter to Allied Commander-in-Chief MacArthur, making an unreasonable request for the Philippines to annex the Nansha Islands. MacArthur did not respond to this, because without the support of the United States, the Philippines did not dare to act rashly. In June 1954, Thomas Croma, the principal of a private maritime school in Manila, declared that a group of "unowned and uninhabited desert islands" had been discovered in the South China Sea west of Palawan, and named the place "Freeland". On May 24, 1956, the Legal Department of the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs invited representatives of relevant government agencies to a meeting. After listening to Cloma's statement, it was determined on the spot that the islands of "free land" claimed by Cloma were outside the territory of the Philippines. However, it is such a farce that has become the so-called basis for the Philippines to claim sovereignty in the future. In April 1972, the Philippine government named the "free land" that Croma called "Kalayaan Islands" and placed it under the jurisdiction of Palawan Province. On June 11, 1978, Philippine President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1596 to redefine the "Kalayaan" area. Most of the islands and reefs of China's Nansha Islands were included in the "Kalayaan" area announced by the decree. within geographic coordinates. In November 1987, the Philippine Congress re-delimited its waters and illegally included about 60 large and small islands and reefs in the Nansha Islands into the territory of the Philippines. The Nansha Islands have long been China's inherent territory in history, and are by no means "territorial". Croma's so-called "discovery" of new islands and reefs in the Nansha Islands was not only denied by the Philippine government at the time, but also never recognized by the international community. Therefore, the so-called "Kalayaan Islands" established by the Philippines are absurd in fact and absurd in law. In order to legitimize its occupation of China's Nansha islands and reefs, the Philippines also proposed the so-called "security principle" and "geographical proximity principle". In fact, there is no rule of international law in the international community that determines the ownership of territorial sovereignty based on factors such as distance or military, economic, and security. international norms. Therefore, claiming territorial sovereignty over Nansha islands and reefs based on the "security principle" and the "geographical proximity principle" is unreasonable and intolerable in law. Since the 1970s, the Philippines has illegally occupied China's Nansha islands and reefs for a long time and has been engaged in construction. In particular, in March 1995, the Philippine navy blew up the survey marks set up by China on Wufang Jiao, Xian'e Jiao, Xinyi Jiao, Banyue Jiao and Ren'ai Jiao, and raided four Chinese fishing boats docked near Banyue Jiao. , detained 62 fishermen on board. In the following years, the Philippines has repeatedly expelled, arrested and even shot Chinese fishermen who were operating and sailing normally in the waters off Huangyan Island. On May 9, 1999, under the pretext of technical failure, the Philippine side landed its No. 57 landing ship "Monte Madre" on Ren'ai Reef. The Philippine side ignored China's solemn representations and has been on the beach illegally for 17 years. In 2012, the Philippine military and police illegally boarded a Chinese fishing boat operating in the waters near Huangyan Island, creating the "Huangyan Island Incident". In disregard of facts, the Philippines has continuously violated China's sovereignty and related rights in the South China Sea, and wantonly violated the safety of life and property of Chinese fishermen. A large number of historical facts show that China's sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is established on the basis of the earliest discovery, naming, development, utilization and operation of the islands by the Chinese people from generation to generation, as well as the continuous administrative jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea by successive Chinese governments. The historical fact that China has sovereignty and related rights over the South China Sea Islands and their adjacent waters is conclusive, the historical context is clear, the historical basis is sufficient, and its historical status is legitimate. China has always been the true and only owner of the South China Sea Islands. The so-called sovereignty claims of the Philippines over the Nansha Islands and Huangyan Island have no historical basis and cannot be relied upon. (The author is a researcher at the China Frontier Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) Enter the topic: South China Sea issue





进入专题: 南海问题
@Viet

Just admit Vietnam steal spratly island from China.
 

etylo

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He is just a chinese troller. You seriously anyone reads his tons of texts and believe to his bullshit?
Yeah, who is the liar ? Talk of you Viets making outrageous claims that are not rightfully yours. You don't have the brain to read the historical documnent of evidence of South China sea is not an excuse. You just can't accept the fact that Vietnam stole many Spratly islands from China.
 

Beast

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He is just a chinese troller. You seriously anyone reads his tons of texts and believe to his bullshit?
You mean u r the troller and pathetic liar repeatly caught with your pants down? More or less show what kind of character and lowlife human being u r when all you can rebuke ,is by attacking others with no link, zero backing besides some childish ranting from you
 

Viet

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Yeah, who is the liar ? Talk of you Viets making outrageous claims that are not rightfully yours. You don't have the brain to read the historical documnent of evidence of South China sea is not an excuse. You just can't accept the fact that Vietnam stole many Spratly islands from China.
Stealing means you had it we took from you. However those islands never belonged to you, you never had them.
As for historical evidence please stop invent bullshit.
People laugh at your claim you were the first who “saw” the seas and islands. You see it then it’s yours?
 

etylo

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Stealing means you had it we took from you. However those islands never belonged to you, you never had them.
As for historical evidence please stop invent bullshit.
People laugh at your claim you were the first who “saw” the seas and islands. You see it then it’s yours?
According to international law, those are Chinese becos Chinese first discovered them, use them and lived there. Now who is inventing bullshit ? Those historical records collected are solid evidences, period ! You have nothing to back up your claims, then you start to slander and dismiss others' evidences as fake, how shameless are you Viet ? It's exactly you the Viets who claim and occupy those islands with your big mouths with bullshits empty words as evidences but nothing else. One way or the other, China will get those Chinese islands back, they are Chinese !
 

Beast

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Stealing means you had it we took from you. However those islands never belonged to you, you never had them.
As for historical evidence please stop invent bullshit.
People laugh at your claim you were the first who “saw” the seas and islands. You see it then it’s yours?
What pathetic loser. Those evidence claim are backed by science and analyst by expert. Who r u to rebuke them when you have zero credibility's and zero evidence to rebuke Chinese? If claim is not back by historical claim then is back by what? Whose fist is bigger who have the islets? Then u think Vietnam fist is bigger than our nuclear bomb?

You Vietnam have those islet is becos you vietnam colony inherit from French Master who steal those Islet on behalf of Vietnam from China. All your evidence of claim only happens after Vietnam become colony of French. Even the historical evidence show they saw Chinese fisherman and even Qing Officers when the French and western adventurer first visited the islets.

This is the same situation in McMahon line who British illegally draw upon Chinese territories. Show me evidence of Qing or ROC even signed an agreement accepting McMahon line as the boundary.
 
Last edited:

etylo

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Stealing means you had it we took from you. However those islands never belonged to you, you never had them.
As for historical evidence please stop invent bullshit.
People laugh at your claim you were the first who “saw” the seas and islands. You see it then it’s yours?
See the following document of a letter written in Vietnamese in 1958 from Vietnam's prime minister to Chinese Prime minister Zhou En-Lai, admitting that Vietnam accepts China's claims on the islands of South China sea including Paracels(Xisha) and Spratlys(Nansha):





这就是越南当初“承认南沙群岛属中国”的国书!​


2015-07-15 21:35


这就是越南当初“承认南沙群岛属中国”的国书!

2015-07-15我们爱历史

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越南国书


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·1958年,越南“承认南沙群岛属中国”国书原件。

原件译文:越南民主共和国总理府尊敬的(周恩来)总理同志:我们郑重的向总理同志声明:越南民主共和国政府承认和赞成中华人民共和国政府于1958年9月4日所作的关于中国领海的决定和声明。我们向总理同志致以诚挚的敬意!1958年9月14日于河内敬致北京,中华人民共和国国务院总理周恩来同志越南民主共和国政府总理:范文同(签名、盖章)。


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·毛泽东会见越南领导人胡志明。

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·毛泽东和周恩来已经到了苏联去访问,后来周恩来又在中苏边境的地方迎接了胡志明,一起又到了莫斯科。1月30日,苏联政府也宣布与越南正式建交。

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English Version of About Above Vietnamese Letter:

This is Vietnam's credentials when it "recognized that the Nansha Islands belong to China"!​


2015-07-15 21:35


This is Vietnam's credentials when it "recognized that the Nansha Islands belong to China"!


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Vietnam Credentials


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·In 1958, the original credentials of Vietnam "recognizing the Nansha Islands as belonging
to China".

Original translation: The Prime Minister's Office of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Dear Comrade (Chou Enlai) Prime Minister: We solemnly declare to Comrade Prime Minister: The Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam recognizes and approves the decision of the Government of the People's Republic of China on China's territorial waters made on September 4, 1958 and statement. We extend our sincere tribute to Comrade Prime Minister! On September 14, 1958 in Hanoi to pay tribute to Beijing, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China Comrade Zhou Enlai, Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam: Pham Van Dong (signature and seal).



Decisions and Statements on China's Territorial Seas made on September 4, 1958 By Chinese Government:




中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明编辑
中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明
中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明,(1958年9月4日全国人民代表大会常务委员会第一00次会议通过)。
目录

1领海声明2领海基线声明



领海声明
编辑

中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明
(1958年9月4日全国人民代表大会常务委员会第一百次会议批准)
中华人民共和国政府宣布:
(一)
中华人民共和国的领海宽度为十二海里。这项规定适用于中华人民共和国的一切领土,包括中国大陆及其沿海岛屿,和同大陆及其沿海岛屿隔有公海的台湾及其周围各岛、澎湖列岛东沙群岛西沙群岛中沙群岛南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿。
(二)
中国大陆及其沿海岛屿的领海以连接大陆岸上和沿海岸外缘岛屿上各基点之间的各直线为基线,从基线向外延伸十二海里的水域是中国的领海。在基线以内的水域,包括渤海湾琼州海峡在内,都是中国的内海。在基线以内的岛屿,包括东引岛高登岛马祖列岛白犬列岛、乌E岛、大小金门岛、大担岛二担岛、东诺涸谀冢都是中国的内海岛屿。
(三)
一切外国飞机和军用船舶,未经中华人民共和国政府的许可,不得进入中国的领海和领海上空。
任何外国船舶在中国领海航行,必须遵守中华人民共和国政府的有关法令。
(四)
以上(二)(三)两项规定的原则同样适用于台湾及其周围各岛、澎湖列岛、东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿。
台湾和澎湖地区现在仍然被美国武力侵占,这是侵犯中华人民共和国领土完整和主权的非法行为。台湾和澎湖等地尚待收复,中华人民共和国政府有权采取一切适当的方法,在适当的时候,收复这些地区,这是中国的内政,不容外国干涉。
1958年9月4日于北京
领海基线声明
编辑

中华人民共和国政府关于中华人民共和国领海基线的声明
1996年5月15日
中华人民共和国政府根据1992年2月25日《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法》,宣布中华人民共和国大陆领海的部分基线和西沙群岛的领海基线。
一、大陆领海的部分基线为下列各相邻基点之间的直线连线:
1.山东高角(1)北纬37°24.0’东经122°42.3’
2.山东高角(1)北纬37°23.7’东经122°42.3’
3.镆耶岛(1)北纬36°57.8’东经122°34.2’
4.镆耶岛(2)北纬36°55.1’东经122°32.7’
5.镆耶岛(3)北纬36°53.7’东经122°31.1’
6.苏山岛北纬36°44.8’东经122°15.8’
7.朝连岛北纬35°53.6’东经120°53.1’
8.达山岛北纬35°00.2’东经119°54.2’
9.麻菜珩北纬33°21.8’东经121°20.8’
10.外磕脚北纬33°00.9’东经121°38.4’
11.佘山岛北纬31°25.3’东经122°14.6’
12.海礁北纬30°44.1’东经123°09.4’
13.东南礁北纬30°43.5’东经123°09.7’
14.两兄弟屿北纬30°10.1’东经122°56.7’
15.渔山列岛北纬28°53.3’东经122°16.5’
16.台州列岛(1)北纬28°23.9’东经121°55.0’
17.台州列岛(2)北纬28°23.5’东经121°54.7’
18.稻挑山北纬27°27.9’东经121°07.8’
19.东引岛北纬26°22.6’东经120°30.4’
20.东沙岛北纬26°09.4’东经120°24


Translation on Above Decisions and Statements by Chinese Government:


Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea[edit]
Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea
Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on Territorial Seas, (adopted at the 100th meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on September 4, 1958).

Table of contents
1 Territorial sea declaration
2 Territorial sea baseline declaration Territorial sea declaration edit Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea (Approved at the 100th meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on September 4, 1958)

The Government of the People's Republic of China declares:

(one) The width of the territorial sea of the People's Republic of China is twelve nautical miles. This provision applies to all territories of the People's Republic of China, including mainland China and its coastal islands, and Taiwan and its surrounding islands, Penghu Islands, Dongsha Islands, Xisha Islands, and Zhongsha Islands, which are separated from the mainland and its coastal islands by high seas. , Nansha Islands and other islands belonging to China.

(two) The territorial sea of the mainland of China and its coastal islands is based on the straight lines connecting the base points on the mainland shore and the islands on the outer edges of the coast. The waters within the baseline, including the Bohai Bay and Qiongzhou Strait, are China's inland seas. The islands within the baseline, including Dongyin Island, Gaoden Island, Matsu Islands, Baiken Islands, Wue Island, Big and Small Kinmen Island, Dadan Island, Erdan Island, and Dongnuojiazhuang are all islands in China's inland sea.

(three) All foreign aircraft and military ships are not allowed to enter China's territorial waters and airspace without the permission of the government of the People's Republic of China. Any foreign ships sailing in China's territorial waters must abide by the relevant laws and regulations of the government of the People's Republic of China.

(Four) The principles set forth in (2) and (3) above are also applicable to Taiwan and its surrounding islands, the Penghu Islands, the Dongsha Islands, the Xisha Islands, the Zhongsha Islands, the Nansha Islands and other islands belonging to China. Taiwan and the Penghu area are still being occupied by the United States, which is an illegal act that violates the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the People's Republic of China. Taiwan and Penghu and other places have yet to be recovered.

The government of the People's Republic of China has the right to take all appropriate measures to recover these areas at an appropriate time. This is China's internal affairs and no foreign interference is allowed.
September 4, 1958 in Beijing Territorial Sea Baseline Statement edit

Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Baselines of the Territorial Sea of the People's Republic of China

May 15, 1996

In accordance with the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone of February 25, 1992, the Government of the People's Republic of China has declared part of the baselines of the mainland territorial sea of the People's Republic of China and the baselines of the territorial sea of the Paracel Islands.

1. Partial baselines of the continental territorial sea are straight lines connecting the following adjacent base points:

1. Shandong Gaojiao (1) 37°24.0'N latitude 122°42.3'East longitude
2. Shandong Gaojiao (1) latitude 37°23.7' north latitude 122°42.3' east longitude
3. Rongye Island (1) 36°57.8' north latitude 122°34.2' east longitude
4. Rongye Island (2) 36°55.1' north latitude 122°32.7' east longitude
5. Rongye Island (3) 36°53.7'N latitude 122°31.1'East longitude
6. Sushan Island is 36°44.8' north latitude and 122°15.8' east longitude
7. Chaolian Island, 35°53.6' north latitude, 120°53.1' east longitude
8. Dashan Island, 35°00.2' north latitude and 119°54.2' east longitude
9. Ma Caiheng 33°21.8' North Latitude 121°20.8' East Longitude
10. Outer Qiaojiao North Latitude 33°00.9' East Longitude 121°38.4'
11. Sheshan Island is 31°25.3' north latitude and 122°14.6' east longitude
12. Sea reef 30°44.1'N latitude 123°09.4'E
13. Southeast Reef 30°43.5'N latitude 123°09.7'E
14. Two Brothers Island is 30°10.1' north latitude and 122°56.7' east longitude
15. Yushan Islands 28°53.3' north latitude 122°16.5' east longitude
16. Taizhou Islands (1) 28°23.9' north latitude 121°55.0' east longitude
17. Taizhou Islands (2) 28°23.5' north latitude 121°54.7' east longitude
18. Daotiao Mountain is 27°27.9' north latitude and 121°07.8' east longitude
19. Dongyin Island, latitude 26°22.6' north, longitude 120°30.4' east
20. Dongsha Island 26°09.4'N latitude 120°24'E
 
Last edited:

Beast

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See the following document of a letter written in Vietnamese in 1958 from Vietnam's prime minister to Chinese Prime minister Zhou En-Lai, admitting that Vietnam accepts China's claims on the islands of South China sea including Paracels(Xisha) and Spratlys(Nansha):





这就是越南当初“承认南沙群岛属中国”的国书!​


2015-07-15 21:35


这就是越南当初“承认南沙群岛属中国”的国书!

2015-07-15我们爱历史

我们爱历史

微信号 his-tory

功能介绍 我们爱历史是一个以互联网、图书、活动,以及自媒体、云阅读等多种媒体形态呈现传播的人文品牌,目前已在互联网各大平台共有350万读者。
越南国书


mp23071464_1437056205566_1.jpeg



·1958年,越南“承认南沙群岛属中国”国书原件。

原件译文:越南民主共和国总理府尊敬的(周恩来)总理同志:我们郑重的向总理同志声明:越南民主共和国政府承认和赞成中华人民共和国政府于1958年9月4日所作的关于中国领海的决定和声明。我们向总理同志致以诚挚的敬意!1958年9月14日于河内敬致北京,中华人民共和国国务院总理周恩来同志越南民主共和国政府总理:范文同(签名、盖章)。


mp23071464_1437056205566_2_th.jpeg



·毛泽东会见越南领导人胡志明。

mp23071464_1437056205566_3.jpeg


·毛泽东和周恩来已经到了苏联去访问,后来周恩来又在中苏边境的地方迎接了胡志明,一起又到了莫斯科。1月30日,苏联政府也宣布与越南正式建交。

mp23071464_1437056205566_4.jpeg




Decisions and Statements on China's Territorial Seas made on September 4, 1958 By Chinese Government:




中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明编辑
中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明
中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明,(1958年9月4日全国人民代表大会常务委员会第一00次会议通过)。
目录

1领海声明2领海基线声明



领海声明
编辑

中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明
(1958年9月4日全国人民代表大会常务委员会第一百次会议批准)
中华人民共和国政府宣布:
(一)
中华人民共和国的领海宽度为十二海里。这项规定适用于中华人民共和国的一切领土,包括中国大陆及其沿海岛屿,和同大陆及其沿海岛屿隔有公海的台湾及其周围各岛、澎湖列岛东沙群岛西沙群岛中沙群岛南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿。
(二)
中国大陆及其沿海岛屿的领海以连接大陆岸上和沿海岸外缘岛屿上各基点之间的各直线为基线,从基线向外延伸十二海里的水域是中国的领海。在基线以内的水域,包括渤海湾琼州海峡在内,都是中国的内海。在基线以内的岛屿,包括东引岛高登岛马祖列岛白犬列岛、乌E岛、大小金门岛、大担岛二担岛、东诺涸谀冢都是中国的内海岛屿。
(三)
一切外国飞机和军用船舶,未经中华人民共和国政府的许可,不得进入中国的领海和领海上空。
任何外国船舶在中国领海航行,必须遵守中华人民共和国政府的有关法令。
(四)
以上(二)(三)两项规定的原则同样适用于台湾及其周围各岛、澎湖列岛、东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿。
台湾和澎湖地区现在仍然被美国武力侵占,这是侵犯中华人民共和国领土完整和主权的非法行为。台湾和澎湖等地尚待收复,中华人民共和国政府有权采取一切适当的方法,在适当的时候,收复这些地区,这是中国的内政,不容外国干涉。
1958年9月4日于北京
领海基线声明
编辑

中华人民共和国政府关于中华人民共和国领海基线的声明
1996年5月15日
中华人民共和国政府根据1992年2月25日《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法》,宣布中华人民共和国大陆领海的部分基线和西沙群岛的领海基线。
一、大陆领海的部分基线为下列各相邻基点之间的直线连线:
1.山东高角(1)北纬37°24.0’东经122°42.3’
2.山东高角(1)北纬37°23.7’东经122°42.3’
3.镆耶岛(1)北纬36°57.8’东经122°34.2’
4.镆耶岛(2)北纬36°55.1’东经122°32.7’
5.镆耶岛(3)北纬36°53.7’东经122°31.1’
6.苏山岛北纬36°44.8’东经122°15.8’
7.朝连岛北纬35°53.6’东经120°53.1’
8.达山岛北纬35°00.2’东经119°54.2’
9.麻菜珩北纬33°21.8’东经121°20.8’
10.外磕脚北纬33°00.9’东经121°38.4’
11.佘山岛北纬31°25.3’东经122°14.6’
12.海礁北纬30°44.1’东经123°09.4’
13.东南礁北纬30°43.5’东经123°09.7’
14.两兄弟屿北纬30°10.1’东经122°56.7’
15.渔山列岛北纬28°53.3’东经122°16.5’
16.台州列岛(1)北纬28°23.9’东经121°55.0’
17.台州列岛(2)北纬28°23.5’东经121°54.7’
18.稻挑山北纬27°27.9’东经121°07.8’
19.东引岛北纬26°22.6’东经120°30.4’
20.东沙岛北纬26°09.4’东经120°24


Translation on Above Decisions and Statements by Chinese Government:


Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea[edit]
Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea
Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on Territorial Seas, (adopted at the 100th meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on September 4, 1958).

Table of contents
1 Territorial sea declaration
2 Territorial sea baseline declaration Territorial sea declaration edit Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea (Approved at the 100th meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on September 4, 1958)

The Government of the People's Republic of China declares:

(one) The width of the territorial sea of the People's Republic of China is twelve nautical miles. This provision applies to all territories of the People's Republic of China, including mainland China and its coastal islands, and Taiwan and its surrounding islands, Penghu Islands, Dongsha Islands, Xisha Islands, and Zhongsha Islands, which are separated from the mainland and its coastal islands by high seas. , Nansha Islands and other islands belonging to China.

(two) The territorial sea of the mainland of China and its coastal islands is based on the straight lines connecting the base points on the mainland shore and the islands on the outer edges of the coast. The waters within the baseline, including the Bohai Bay and Qiongzhou Strait, are China's inland seas. The islands within the baseline, including Dongyin Island, Gaoden Island, Matsu Islands, Baiken Islands, Wue Island, Big and Small Kinmen Island, Dadan Island, Erdan Island, and Dongnuojiazhuang are all islands in China's inland sea.

(three) All foreign aircraft and military ships are not allowed to enter China's territorial waters and airspace without the permission of the government of the People's Republic of China. Any foreign ships sailing in China's territorial waters must abide by the relevant laws and regulations of the government of the People's Republic of China.

(Four) The principles set forth in (2) and (3) above are also applicable to Taiwan and its surrounding islands, the Penghu Islands, the Dongsha Islands, the Xisha Islands, the Zhongsha Islands, the Nansha Islands and other islands belonging to China. Taiwan and the Penghu area are still being occupied by the United States, which is an illegal act that violates the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the People's Republic of China. Taiwan and Penghu and other places have yet to be recovered.

The government of the People's Republic of China has the right to take all appropriate measures to recover these areas at an appropriate time. This is China's internal affairs and no foreign interference is allowed.
September 4, 1958 in Beijing Territorial Sea Baseline Statement edit

Statement of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Baselines of the Territorial Sea of the People's Republic of China

May 15, 1996

In accordance with the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone of February 25, 1992, the Government of the People's Republic of China has declared part of the baselines of the mainland territorial sea of the People's Republic of China and the baselines of the territorial sea of the Paracel Islands.

1. Partial baselines of the continental territorial sea are straight lines connecting the following adjacent base points:

1. Shandong Gaojiao (1) 37°24.0'N latitude 122°42.3'East longitude
2. Shandong Gaojiao (1) latitude 37°23.7' north latitude 122°42.3' east longitude
3. Rongye Island (1) 36°57.8' north latitude 122°34.2' east longitude
4. Rongye Island (2) 36°55.1' north latitude 122°32.7' east longitude
5. Rongye Island (3) 36°53.7'N latitude 122°31.1'East longitude
6. Sushan Island is 36°44.8' north latitude and 122°15.8' east longitude
7. Chaolian Island, 35°53.6' north latitude, 120°53.1' east longitude
8. Dashan Island, 35°00.2' north latitude and 119°54.2' east longitude
9. Ma Caiheng 33°21.8' North Latitude 121°20.8' East Longitude
10. Outer Qiaojiao North Latitude 33°00.9' East Longitude 121°38.4'
11. Sheshan Island is 31°25.3' north latitude and 122°14.6' east longitude
12. Sea reef 30°44.1'N latitude 123°09.4'E
13. Southeast Reef 30°43.5'N latitude 123°09.7'E
14. Two Brothers Island is 30°10.1' north latitude and 122°56.7' east longitude
15. Yushan Islands 28°53.3' north latitude 122°16.5' east longitude
16. Taizhou Islands (1) 28°23.9' north latitude 121°55.0' east longitude
17. Taizhou Islands (2) 28°23.5' north latitude 121°54.7' east longitude
18. Daotiao Mountain is 27°27.9' north latitude and 121°07.8' east longitude
19. Dongyin Island, latitude 26°22.6' north, longitude 120°30.4' east
20. Dongsha Island 26°09.4'N latitude 120°24'E
Dont worry, a vietnam refugee from Germany will claim for Vietnam on his behalf. :enjoy:
 

Viet

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According to international law, those are Chinese becos Chinese first discovered them, use them and lived there. Now who is inventing bullshit ? Those historical records collected are solid evidences, period ! You have nothing to back up your claims, then you start to slander and dismiss others' evidences as fake, how shameless are you Viet ? It's exactly you the Viets who claim and occupy those islands with your big mouths with bullshits empty words as evidences but nothing else. One way or the other, China will get those Chinese islands back, they are Chinese !
No offense, you are a clown. How is that possible they you “discovered” although you are thousands miles away while we not? We put our feet everyday into the waters but we could not see it? What logic is that? If not clown then logic of brainless zombies.
 

etylo

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No offense, you are a clown. How is that possible they you “discovered” although you are thousands miles away while we not? We put our feet everyday into the waters but we could not see it?
Idiot, you don't have any evidence to show, and the Chinese side have all the evidences there. You just pretend you don't see them or just ignore them, you are just a sore loser rogue just as your rogue country that will lie, cheat and steal and have no honour of its words. You just pretend your are that stupid or just that thick-faced to cover up your follies and lies.
 
Last edited:

Viet

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Idiot, you don't have any evidence to show, and the Chinese side have all the evidences there. You just pretend you don't see them or just ignore them, you are just a sore loser just as your country that will lie, cheat and steal and have no honour of its words. You just pretend your are that stupid or just that thick-faced to cover up your lies.
What evidence? I see none. Just tons of texts. Even if true, you were the first on those islands, that is worthless.
 

etylo

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What evidence? I see none. Just tons of texts. Even if true, you were the first on those islands, that is worthless.
If international laws on first discovered and dominated the islands don't count, then we will decide by fists as you Viets wish and think you can win against China with US backing, we will settle that way as you wish.
 

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