There are Chinese buildings relics and artifacts such as coins, poetry and tools found on the islands. There are also Chinese historical records of Chinese gov officials and personnel, Chinese navy, fishermen, business traders and some settlers either worked or lived there sometimes in the past. These prove that Chinese first discovered and dominated many of the islands.Can you prove it?
Chinese archeologists digging in Paracel Islands unearth ancient relics, including objects fron Tang and Sung dynasties which lasted from 10th to 13th centuries, supporting contention that Chinese have been active on islands for centuries; dispute between People's Repub of China and S Vietnam...
Article on the Chinese Relics and other Evidences on Paracels:
中国南海（South China Sea）是世界第三大海，仅次于珊瑚海和阿拉伯海，东起东经117°50′，西至东经109°30′，北起北纬20°42′，南至北纬4°附近，东西宽约900公里，南北长约1800多公里。这里是热带海洋地区，珊瑚礁生长极为繁盛，故此在这个辽阔的范围之内岛屿滩礁可称星罗棋布。
The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Original 2021-05-25 14:53 ·
Sasu Restoring the Four Sands: Documentary on the Recovery of the South China Sea Islands after World War II Part 1:
Why did Deng Shichang lead a ship to visit Hong Kong before he died in Jiawu?
This relic on the Reach ship reveals the truth 01: China has never forgotten the South China Sea The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The location of the South my country Sea and the islands in the "Map of the Provinces of the People's Republic of China" in 1952 (published by Yaguang Yuge Institute).
On August 15, 1945, the Japanese Empire announced its surrender, the end of World War II, China finally raised its eyebrows and won the victory of the Anti-Japanese War. As the most important eastern country among the anti-fascist allies, China became a victorious country in the war against Japan. However, in the face of devastation, China is faced with a series of major issues of recovering its territory. The recovery of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is one of the most important issues. At the time of the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, my country's naval forces and maritime territory in the South China Sea had been completely lost, including Hainan Island, Dongsha, Xisha, Nansha, and Huangyan Island, which were all occupied by the Japanese during the war. However, my country's attitude towards the territory of the South China Sea is clear, and my country's claim to sovereignty has been strongly supported by countries with a sense of justice in the world.
The South China Sea is the third largest sea in the world, after the Coral Sea and the Arabian Sea. It starts from 117°50'E in the east, 109°30'E in the west, 20°42'N in the north, and 4N in the south. °Nearby, it is about 900 kilometers wide from east to west and more than 1800 kilometers long from north to south. This is a tropical marine area, and coral reefs are extremely prosperous, so the islands and reefs in this vast area can be said to be dotted.
In addition to mainland islands such as Hainan Island, at least 150 of them have been surveyed and named. According to their locations, the Dongsha Islands, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands and Nansha Islands, namely the "Four Sands in the South China Sea", are all inherent in my country. It is also an island area where Chinese fishermen have been operating for a long time.
Before World War II, there were permanent residents living there. The South China Sea Islands are the farthest part of my country's territory protruding to the south, and are scattered in the vast seas, which can be called the outpost of my country's southern Xinjiang. China's recovery of the islands in the South China Sea after World War II is based on full sovereignty.
From a very early time, China has had a clear sense of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea, aptly naming the four sands in the South China Sea as "Thousands of Miles of Changsha", "Wanli Stone Beds" and "Wanli Stone Ponds". As my country's largest island in the South China Sea, the development and administrative system of Hainan Island can be traced back to the Qin and Han dynasties, and the naming of the South China Sea was completed in the Zhou Dynasty. Shi Chongdou in the Jin Dynasty once took out a three-foot-tall coral tree. According to Mr. Mai Yunyu's research, this is a treasure from the islands of the South China Sea. It started thousands of years ago.
Successive Chinese governments have attached great importance to the issue of sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea. In the first year of the Yuanfeng reign (110 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty established Zhuya and Dan'er counties on Hainan Island and brought Hainan Island into administrative management. After the Five Dynasties, wars were frequent, and a large number of people from the Central Plains moved to Hainan. During the Northern Song Dynasty, a group of famous people, such as Su Shi, came to the South China Sea due to their demotions, and left behind the poem "If you eat 300 lychees a day, you might as well be a Lingnan native". At the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, hundreds of thousands of Putian people from southern Fujian immigrated to Hainan Island to escape the war, bringing Putian dialect and southern Fujian culture with them. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Hainan system still imitated the Song system, called Qiongzhou Road, leading three states and thirteen counties. In the Ming Dynasty, Hainan Island was called Qiongzhou Prefecture, and Hai Rui and other famous officials came from this. It can be seen that the South China Sea not only shared the territorial sense with the central government at that time, but also culturally integrated. In the Qing Dynasty, Qiongzhou Prefecture was renamed Qiongzhou Road, and it was still thirteen counties in three states.
In the midst of these changes, the management of the islands and sea frontiers in the South China Sea also radiated from Hainan. In the Yuan Dynasty, the "Wanli Shitang", that is, the South China Sea, was used as the inland sea, and the general Shi Bi was dispatched to inspect all parts of the South China Sea, indicating that my country had begun to implement the actual administrative and national defense management of the South China Sea Islands at least in the Yuan Dynasty. Also in the Yuan Dynasty, when Guo Shoujing was conducting astronomical surveying and mapping, he placed the southernmost test point on the islands of the South China Sea.
In the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He went to the Western Ocean to inspect the South China Sea many times. The government of the Ming Dynasty set up a navy camp in Wanzhou, Hainan Island, which was specifically responsible for the defense of the South China Sea islands named "Wanli Shitang", "Shixing Shitang" and "Wanli Changsha".
In the Qing Dynasty, the South China Sea Islands belonged to the patrol range of the Guangdong Navy. After the two Opium Wars, the Westernization Movement emerged in my country. The newly built naval fleet, including the ships of the Beiyang Navy, often patrolled the South China Sea, and the voyage reached Penang, Singapore and other places. In the late Guangxu period, our navy suffered heavy losses due to the battles of Jiawu, Jiashen, and Gengzi.
However, in the early 20th century, we still worked hard to safeguard our sovereignty in the Xisha and Dongsha Islands, and successively obtained the sovereignty of the Dongsha Islands from the Japanese. Li Zhun led a fleet composed of Fubo, Chenhang, Guangjin and other ships to patrol the Xisha Islands (Li Zhun recalled that he also visited the Nansha Islands in his later years). Territorial awareness.
The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The gunboat Guangjin used to patrol the South China Sea Islands in the late Qing Dynasty. This is the image it left during the Republic of China. In the late Qing Dynasty in my country, fishermen continued to go to the islands of the South China Sea for production operations, and built temples and houses on the islands, which objectively reflected my country's sovereignty over the islands. The temples built by these fishermen and the inscriptions left by their patrols in the South China Sea in the late Qing Dynasty still exist today. Taking the Xisha Islands as an example, the ancient temples and monuments on the island are quite interesting. According to the archaeological findings of Xisha, perhaps because there is the only fresh water well,
Chinese people settled here in the Tang and Song Dynasties on Ganquan Island, but by the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were not many permanent residents of the South China Sea Islands, and many islands have been unmanned. . Surprisingly, many of the islands in the South China Sea have many temples despite lacking living conditions for residents. According to the results of the cultural relics census from 1974 to 1975, there are thirteen temples in each island of the Paracel Islands alone.
The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The Brothers Temple on Ganquan Island was determined to be built by Su Deliu, a fisherman from Qionghai County during the Republic of China, and is a relatively recent temple on the island. The thirteen temples include— One on Yongxing Island (named "Lone Soul Temple", which has been demolished) Three on Ganquan Island Two on Chenhang Island (one has been demolished) Two on Hegoshima (one demolished in 1973) One on the North Island One on Hiroshima Island One on Zhaoshu Island One on Coral Island (Demolished) These temples were built from the Ming Dynasty to the Republic of China. The larger ones are just one-room houses with four walls (mostly built of coral slate, a few of them are brick). The smaller ones are generally only about half a meter high, and can only be sacrificed by lighting incense in front of them. The tops of all the small temples have collapsed and disappeared, but tube tiles and slab tiles have been found. There are shrines, offering tables, statues, etc. in the temples, and there is a curved wall outside the gates of some temples. We can see the situation of these small temples in 1974 through a batch of photos: The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Ganquan Island Small Temple. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small coral stone temple on the North Island, the top has collapsed, but the altar and tablet are still visible inside. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The two opposite small temples on Guangjin Island, which can only put down incense burners, may be the smallest temples on the Paracel Islands. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small coral stone temple of Hewudao only has a small niche of stone slabs in the temple. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Chenhang Island Coral Stone Temple.
The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The small temple on Zhaoshu Island has collapsed, and only the remaining walls on both sides of the door remain. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The Buddhist shrines newly built by the neighbors on Zhaoshu Island using the remnants of the wall. These temples were very desolate by the 1970s.
On the one hand, Japan and France occupied some islands and reefs of our Xisha Islands, deliberately destroying the buildings and historical relics on our islands, in order to destroy the historical evidence that the islands have been owned by me in ancient times; On the one hand, it was because after the founding of the People's Republic of China, anti-feudal atheism was advocated. For a period of time, fishermen no longer came to worship and repair. In the harsh natural environment, it is relatively easy to damage.
In recent years, due to the increasing number of people who have settled in Xisha and engaged in fishery production, some temples have been repaired and expanded. From the perspective of fishermen seeking spiritual comfort, it is understandable. As for what gods are enshrined in the temples, it is impossible to tell exactly which gods are enshrined in the temples. There are goddesses, gods of the land, and sea gods. What does the name of the temple "Lone Soul" mean? It turns out that there is a legend in the South China Sea that in the Ming Dynasty, there were 108 fishermen who went out to sea to fish and were killed by pirates. Because of their solitary souls, they could not return to their hometowns.
Brothers”, and the fishermen felt their protection and set up temples to worship him. In front of the temples on Yongxing Island and Hewu Island, each has a couplet, which are— The brothers were inspired, and the lonely soul was deeply grateful.
Go forward to Shuangfan Gushun Temple, and behind the temple is Yijing Brother An. From here, you can read the relationship between the fishermen's "brothers" and the "lonely souls" - the lonely souls protect the fishermen's safety, and the fishermen's sacrifices give the lonely souls comfort. This can be regarded as a unique and primitive sacrificial culture in the South China Sea. Although it is very simple, it is very difficult to build temples because of the long seas. How can there be so many temples in the Xisha Islands? Isn't it enough to build a temple on an island to worship? During the census of Xisha cultural relics in 1975, the staff were also quite confused about this matter. After asking the fishermen, they realized that these temples have a function other than offering sacrifices. According to folk rules, the first fishermen to build temples on the island will be respected by their peers. Fishing here has priority.
Repairing some ancient temples can gain the same awe as the "island owner". Therefore, almost every larger island can see temples set up by fishermen. The mystery of building a temple is relatively easy to solve, but some of the temples in the Xisha Islands still guard the mystery that we can't solve so far. For example, in 1973, militiamen discovered a stone tablet buried in the ground next to the Lonely Soul Temple on Yongxing Island. It was carved from gray hemp stone.
The stele is of good quality, 92 centimeters long, 19 centimeters wide and 8 centimeters thick. After identification, this is the "inspection memorial" monument set up by the then Chinese government in 1921 when it sent people to visit here. In 1974, during a cultural relic inspection next to the small coral stone temple in Beidao, two damaged stone steles were discovered.
The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The first of the two steles is longer, 92 cm long, 19 cm wide, and 8 cm thick. " lettering. The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles The second stele has been destroyed, with a residual length of 58 cm, a width of 24 cm and a thickness of nine cm. Carefully read these three monuments, you can find a lot of important information. These three steles are all carved with granite, and the local area is a coral island. There is no such stone material, which means that they were all transported from the mainland. The wind is high and the waves are rough, and the shipping is difficult.
Since the Qing Dynasty, China has attached great importance to the inspection of Xisha. This is evident. Among them, the two monuments of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty made us feel the depth of the fog of history. According to documentary records, Li Zhun, the Admiral of the Guangdong Navy in the late Qing Dynasty, led the two ships Chenhang and Fubo to inspect Xisha, and it was passed on for a while. However, historians have repeatedly disputed when Li Zhun made this patrol. Li Zhun once recalled that this patrol took place in 1909, when he visited the fifteen islands of Xisha, named the monument, and returned it by drawing. He also explained that the incident occurred after the dispute between China and Japan over the Dongsha Islands.
However, his description in his recollections clearly does not match this time: "The negotiation of the Dongsha Island case has ended, because there must be many people thinking about the islands in the middle of Guangdong and the like in Dongsha. The left wing branch leader Lin Junguoxiang, who is also an old sailor, said to Yu Yu: It is about 200 nautical miles west of Qiongzhou Yulin Port. , There are archipelagos, which are called by the Westerners to be Pearrasier (that is, the informal name for the Paracel Islands in the West), which is about 400 nautical miles away from Hong Kong. This line must be passed... Yu Ji wanted to find out what it was, and collected it on the chart. As China's territory, he invited Yu Anshuai to explore this island. An Shuai said very much... It was Lin Junguoxiang, who belonged to the voyage and exploration, and took the two ships Fubo and Chenhang. Yu led a platoon of guards, led by platoon leader Fan Lianzhong. Wu Junjingrong is the Fubo pipe belt, and Liu Junyikuan is the Chen air pipe belt. Yu Cheng Fubo, with Lin Jun as the navigator, listened to his command. Wang Junrentang accompanied the counselor. " The Mystery of Xisha Temple Steles Veteran Navy General Lin Guoxiang, graduated from Fuzhou Shipbuilding School, partnered with Deng Shichang in his early years, participated in aid to Taiwan, Sino-French, Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War, fought bravely, and was an early outstanding general of the Guangdong Navy.
Li Zhun talked about the commander and advisor of the voyage, both of whom were Navy veteran Lim Kwok Siang. However, Lin Guoxiang had already passed away in 1908, so it was impossible to accompany Li Zhun on this investigation in 1909.
Therefore, after re-examination, the current general view is that this cruise should have occurred in 1907. However, the two steles of the "Twenty-eighth Year of Guangxu" discovered in Xisha in 1975 cast doubt on this conclusion. This is because the twenty-eighth year of Guangxu, namely 1902, is still five years away from 1907. Wouldn't this stone tablet be carved five years ago waiting to participate in this voyage?
We can only speculate that maybe in 1902 or earlier, the Chinese government had already inspected the Paracel Islands, and Li Zhun's inspection in 1907 was only the most formal and large-scale one. This mystery does not have an answer, it can only be said that we are waiting for more discoveries from future generations to prove it. Then, how could the two stone tablets on the North Island be broken? It is speculated that when Japan and France invaded and occupied the Xisha Islands, they destroyed the inspection monument established by our country for the reasons of occupying our territory and destroying historical evidence, resulting in such consequences.
It is even possible that the two steles were not originally erected on the North Island. The stele destroyers removed the steles from each island and transported them to the North Island, and smashed them together. If so, there may be new discoveries in North Island archaeology in the future. Perhaps it is precisely because of the fear of being destroyed that it loses its significance in proving sovereignty, that the stele was buried under the sand during the Republic of China in 1921. I hope this doesn't happen again in the future. Xisha Temple Stele
Another article on Spratlys：
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近代以后，外国人擅闯南海诸岛时，早已有中国人居住在一些岛礁，外国航海者了解到一些渔民使用的地名，并将其按照渔民的海南岛方言语音拼写成英文或其它文字标记于海图，长期沿用下来。比如1923年英国海军部出版的《中国海指南》一书中所载Sin Cowe 和 Nam Yit，即源自我国渔民所称的秤钩峙和南乙峙。该书还记载，在安波沙洲发现有中国人的“陋屋之遗迹”；“地萨岛（即今郑和群礁），海南渔民，以捕取海参、贝壳为活。各岛都有其足迹，亦有久居岩礁间者。海南每岁有小船驶往岛上，携米粮及其它必需品，与渔民交换参、贝。”并记载太平岛“常为海南渔民所栖止，捕取海参及贝壳等”。
Li Guoqiang: The historical fact that China has sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is indisputable
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This article has been read 111 times Update time: 2022-03-31 15:05:43
Enter the topic: South China Sea issue
● Li Guoqiang As early as the Qin and Han Dynasties more than 2,000 years ago, the Chinese people had already started sailing and production activities in the South China Sea. They not only first discovered the islands in the South China Sea, but also had a preliminary understanding of the South China Sea. Yang Fu's "Foreign Objects" in the Eastern Han Dynasty recorded: "Zhanghai Qitou, the water is shallow and many magnets." "Qitou" is the name of the ancients in China for the reefs and shoals of the South China Sea; and "Zhanghai" is the earliest name for the South my country Sea in ancient China. .
During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the South China Sea waters or islands and reefs were referred to as Qizhouyang, Coral Island, Jiaoshishan, Xiangshi, etc. Although the names are different, it shows that with the increase of Chinese people's activities in the South China Sea, the awareness of the South China Sea has gradually deepened. and tends to be specific.
By the Song Dynasty, the islands of the South China Sea and the waters of the South China Sea had become the daily production and life homes of the Chinese people. Not only did they clearly distinguish and name different islands, reefs and sea areas in the South China Sea with "Shitang" and "Changsha", but they also included the islands in the South China Sea. territory. The earliest historical book to name the islands and reefs in the South China Sea as "Shitang" is the Song Dynasty document "Song Huiyao", and the book "Qiong Guan Zhi" written in the early 13th century named the islands and reefs in the South China Sea as "Qianli" for the first time. Changsha "Wanli Shitang".
From then to the Ming and Qing dynasties, "Shitang" and "Changsha" were widely used as the common names of the islands in the South my country Sea, and were found in various historical documents and maps. The jurisdiction of the Chinese government over the islands in the South my country Sea has been gradually expanded since the Tang and Song dynasties.
According to Zhao Rushi's "Zhufan Zhi", in the Tang Dynasty, the South China Sea Islands belonged to the Hainan Four Prefecture Army. The Song Dynasty followed the setting of the Tang Dynasty, and the South China Sea Islands still belonged to the jurisdiction of the Qiongguan Jiyang Army on Guangnan West Road, marking the beginning of the Chinese government's incorporation of the South China Sea Islands into its territory and the establishment of an administrative system.
The establishment of "navy divisions" and incorporation of Haiphong is another important way for the Chinese government to exercise jurisdiction over the South China Sea. According to the first official book on military repair in my country, "Wu Jing Zong Yao" written in 1040, Song Taizu established a sea patrol division in 907 to patrol the South China Sea.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the management, development and jurisdiction of the South China Sea Islands were further developed. There are dozens of manuscripts of "Genglu Book" that I have seen so far. This precious document truly records the situation of Chinese fishermen from Hainan Wenchang Qinglan Port, Qionghai Tanmen Port and other places to the waters of Xisha and Nansha. About 200 production lines are recorded, and about 120 place names have been named by fishermen to the islands and reefs of Xisha and Nansha, which fully shows that the scope of operation and development by the Chinese people completely covers the main islands and reefs and sea areas of the islands in the South China Sea today. The traditional fishing grounds produced and operated by the Chinese people from generation to generation are enough to show that China enjoys historic rights in the South China Sea.
During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Chinese government had a more complete mechanism for exercising jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea. On the one hand, it continued to explicitly incorporate the islands in the South China Sea and placed them under the jurisdiction of Wanzhou, the prefecture of Qiongzhou, Guangdong Province. On the other hand, navy patrols continued to be implemented.
The Ming Dynasty set up patrolling officers and Hainan guards, and the Qing Dynasty set up the Yazhou navy battalion, which was responsible for patrolling and military guarding the waters including the South China Sea. Since the 1970s, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of my country and the cultural relics departments of Guangdong and Hainan have successively organized several archaeological investigations and excavations. A large number of relics and relics of the production and life of the Chinese people have been discovered in some islands and reefs of the Nansha Islands and their waters, including Pottery, porcelain, bronze, iron, stone, coins, ivory, stone carvings, etc. in different historical periods, as well as land temples, tombstones, wells, thatched huts, stone tablets, artificially planted coconut trees, etc. The historical portrayal of the island's long-term production and life reflects the historical fact that the Chinese people sailed the South my country Sea and developed and utilized the waters of the South China Sea.
After modern times, when foreigners trespassed on the islands of the South China Sea, there were already Chinese people living on some islands and reefs. Foreign navigators learned about the place names used by some fishermen and spelled them into English or other characters according to the fishermen's Hainanese dialect. For charts, it has been used for a long time. For example, Sin Cowe and Nam Yit contained in the book "Guide to the China Sea" published by the British Admiralty in 1923 are derived from what Chinese fishermen call Liangouzhi and Nanyizhi. The book also records that there are "remains of shabby houses" of the Chinese people found on the Anbo sandbar; Those who live among the rocky reefs for a long time. Hainan has small boats sailing to the island every year, carrying rice grain and other necessities, and exchanging ginseng and shellfish with fishermen.” It also records that Taiping Island “is often inhabited by Hainan fishermen, catching sea cucumbers and shells, etc.” .
In 1909, Li Zhun, the Admiral of the Guangdong Navy, was ordered to inspect the Xisha Islands. He not only carried out property surveys, surveying and mapping, but also named the 14 Xisha islands. In 1933, French colonists illegally occupied Nansha islands and reefs, creating the "Nine Isles Incident". The move aroused unanimous protests from the Chinese government and all sectors of society. On July 26, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kuomintang government sent a serious protest to the French government, pointing out that the Nansha Islands "are the only fishermen who live on the island and confirm China's territory internationally." On August 4, a diplomatic note was submitted to the French Minister to China on the reservation of rights to the so-called sovereignty declaration of France.
During the period of the Republic of China, the Chinese government approved and re-designated the names of the islands in the South China Sea. In 1934, the Land and Water Map Review Committee of the Ministry of the Interior published the "Comparison Table of Chinese and English Geographical Names of the Islands of the South my country Sea Islands", which listed the names of 132 islands, reefs and beaches in the South China Sea Islands.
In 1935, the Land and Water Map Review Committee published "Maps of Islands in the South China Sea", which was the first official special map of the South China Sea published by the government of the Republic of China. detailed. From April 1935 to 1948 alone, among the various maps published in my country, at least 60 types of maps in the South China Sea were completely plotted. The review and publication of the names and maps of the islands in the South China Sea by the Land and Water Map Review Committee is the effective jurisdiction of the Chinese government over the islands in the South China Sea.
After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, in accordance with the spirit of the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Proclamation, the Chinese government decided to take over and restore the sovereignty of the Xisha and Nansha Islands. On September 2, 1946, the Nationalist Government issued an order on the recovery of the Nansha Islands, and after consultations with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Foreign Affairs and National Defense, it dispatched the navy-based receivers. The reception of the Xisha Islands was completed on November 29, 1946, and the reception of the Nansha Islands was completed on December 15, 1946. After the reception work was completed, a monument was erected and cannons were fired to declare sovereignty, surveying and drawing to clarify the boundaries, leaving troops to guard and patrolling, and establishing institutions to strengthen jurisdiction. On February 28, 1947, the National Government issued a communique on the completion of the reception of the Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha Islands.
After that, the National Government re-examined the names of the South China Sea Islands and their respective islands, reefs and beaches. On December 1, it announced the "Comparison Table of Old and New Place Names for the South China Sea Islands", with a total of 167 islands, reefs and beaches.
In February 1948, the Ministry of the Interior published the "Administrative Area Map of the Republic of China", the attached map was the "Location Map of the Islands in the South China Sea", which clearly marked the names of the islands in the South China Sea and 11 intermittent lines in the South China Sea. After the founding of New China, my country's sovereign jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea has entered a new era.
The Chinese government legally exercises its sovereignty and jurisdiction in accordance with the rights and obligations conferred by international law. On August 15, 1951, Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai issued the "Declaration of the Anglo-American Peace Treaty with Japan and the Statement of the San Francisco Conference", solemnly pointing out that the Xisha and Nansha Islands are "Chinese territory" and that China enjoys sovereignty over the Xisha and Nansha Islands. Since then, in response to foreign encroachment on the islands in the South China Sea, it has issued several statements, reiterating China's sovereign position on the islands in the South China Sea and their adjacent waters.
On April 24, 1982, the China Geographical Names Committee was authorized to publish some standard geographical names of the South my country Sea Islands, a total of 289. In addition, a large number of foreign data show that the sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands belongs to China.
In September 1933, the French magazine "Colonial World" published that when the French gunboat "Marixius" surveyed the islands and reefs of the Nansha Islands in 1930, there were Chinese and Chinese-built huts, wells, and shrines on many islands. The "Columbia Lippincott World Place Names Dictionary" published in the United States in 1961 wrote that the Nansha Islands are "a Chinese territory in the South China Sea and a part of Guangdong Province."
In 1963, the "Wilde Mack Encyclopedia of Nations" published in the United States said: The islands of the People's Republic of China, including islands and coral reefs in the South China Sea extending to 4 degrees north latitude. The "New China Yearbook" published in Japan in 1966 said: "China's coastal line is about 11,000 kilometers from the Liaodong Peninsula to the Nansha Islands in the north, and the coastline of the coastal islands is 20,000 kilometers."
In 1971, the "Encyclopedia of Zoning of Countries in the World" published by the United States said: "The People's Republic includes several archipelagos, the largest of which is Hainan Island, near the south coast. Other archipelagos include some reefs and archipelagos in the South China Sea, extending as far as possible. To 4 degrees north latitude. These reefs and archipelagos include Dongsha, Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha Islands."
The World Yearbook published by Japan in 1972 said: "China... In addition to the mainland part of the territory, there are Hainan Island, Taiwan, Penghu Islands and the Dongsha, Xisha, Zhongsha, Nansha islands in the South China Sea, etc.” The above facts clearly show that China's position on the sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands and its adjacent waters has been widely recognized by many countries and the international community.
The determination of the Philippine territorial scope comes from the 1898 "Paris Peace Agreement" between the United States and Spain, the 1900 "US-Spanish Treaty on the cession of the Philippine Outer Islands" (the "Washington Treaty"), and the 1930 "On Delimitation" signed by the United Kingdom and the United States. International treaties such as the Boundary Treaty between British North Borneo and the American Philippines, so the national territorial boundaries of the Philippines are collectively referred to as "International Treaty Limits" or "Philippine Treaty Limits". These treaties clearly show that the islands in the South China Sea are not at all within the Philippine territorial boundaries. However, domestic laws or treaties of the Philippines, such as the 1935 Philippine Constitution, the 1946 "U.S.-Philippine General Relations Treaty", and the 1961 Philippine "Decree No. 3046 on the Baselines of the Territorial Sea", all expressly and repeatedly affirmed the Philippines' "international treaty boundaries". Territorial scope, but Nansha Islands and Huangyan Island are not among them. In July 1946, the Philippines coveted the Nansha Islands at the beginning of its founding. On September 11, 1946, Philippine Foreign Secretary Gilino sent a letter to Allied Commander-in-Chief MacArthur, making an unreasonable request for the Philippines to annex the Nansha Islands. MacArthur did not respond to this, because without the support of the United States, the Philippines did not dare to act rashly.
In June 1954, Thomas Croma, the principal of a private maritime school in Manila, declared that a group of "unowned and uninhabited desert islands" had been discovered in the South China Sea west of Palawan, and named the place "Freeland". On May 24, 1956, the Legal Department of the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs invited representatives of relevant government agencies to a meeting. After listening to Cloma's statement, it was determined on the spot that the islands of "free land" claimed by Cloma were outside the territory of the Philippines. However, it is such a farce that has become the so-called basis for the Philippines to claim sovereignty in the future.
In April 1972, the Philippine government named the "free land" that Croma called "Kalayaan Islands" and placed it under the jurisdiction of Palawan Province. On June 11, 1978, Philippine President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1596 to redefine the "Kalayaan" area. Most of the islands and reefs of China's Nansha Islands were included in the "Kalayaan" area announced by the decree. within geographic coordinates. In November 1987, the Philippine Congress re-delimited its waters and illegally included about 60 large and small islands and reefs in the Nansha Islands into the territory of the Philippines.
The Nansha Islands have long been China's inherent territory in history, and are by no means "territorial". Croma's so-called "discovery" of new islands and reefs in the Nansha Islands was not only denied by the Philippine government at the time, but also never recognized by the international community. Therefore, the so-called "Kalayaan Islands" established by the Philippines are absurd in fact and absurd in law. In order to legitimize its occupation of China's Nansha islands and reefs, the Philippines also proposed the so-called "security principle" and "geographical proximity principle". In fact, there is no rule of international law in the international community that determines the ownership of territorial sovereignty based on factors such as distance or military, economic, and security. international norms. Therefore, claiming territorial sovereignty over Nansha islands and reefs based on the "security principle" and the "geographical proximity principle" is unreasonable and intolerable in law.
Since the 1970s, the Philippines has illegally occupied China's Nansha islands and reefs for a long time and has been engaged in construction. In particular, in March 1995, the Philippine navy blew up the survey marks set up by China on Wufang Jiao, Xian'e Jiao, Xinyi Jiao, Banyue Jiao and Ren'ai Jiao, and raided four Chinese fishing boats docked near Banyue Jiao. , detained 62 fishermen on board. In the following years, the Philippines has repeatedly expelled, arrested and even shot Chinese fishermen who were operating and sailing normally in the waters off Huangyan Island.
On May 9, 1999, under the pretext of technical failure, the Philippine side landed its No. 57 landing ship "Monte Madre" on Ren'ai Reef. The Philippine side ignored China's solemn representations and has been on the beach illegally for 17 years. In 2012, the Philippine military and police illegally boarded a Chinese fishing boat operating in the waters near Huangyan Island, creating the "Huangyan Island Incident". In disregard of facts, the Philippines has continuously violated China's sovereignty and related rights in the South China Sea, and wantonly violated the safety of life and property of Chinese fishermen.
A large number of historical facts show that China's sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea is established on the basis of the earliest discovery, naming, development, utilization and operation of the islands by the Chinese people from generation to generation, as well as the continuous administrative jurisdiction over the islands in the South China Sea by successive Chinese governments. The historical fact that China has sovereignty and related rights over the South China Sea Islands and their adjacent waters is conclusive, the historical context is clear, the historical basis is sufficient, and its historical status is legitimate. China has always been the true and only owner of the South China Sea Islands. The so-called sovereignty claims of the Philippines over the Nansha Islands and Huangyan Island have no historical basis and cannot be relied upon. (The author is a researcher at the China Frontier Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) Enter the topic: South China Sea issue