• Thursday, November 21, 2019

US Ballistic Missile Defence

Discussion in 'Military Forum' started by Indus Falcon, May 2, 2015.

  1. Hindustani78

    Hindustani78 BANNED

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    http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/us-plans-first-icbm-defence-test/article18591143.ece
    Washington, May 27, 2017 21:13 IST
    Updated: May 27, 2017 21:13 IST

    Pentagon will try to shoot down an intercontinental-range missile for the first time in a test next week.

    Preparing for North Korea’s growing threat, the Pentagon will try to shoot down an intercontinental-range missile for the first time in a test next week. The goal is to more closely simulate a North Korean ICBM aimed at the U.S. homeland, officials said on Friday

    The American interceptor has a spotty track record, succeeding in nine of 17 attempts against missiles of less-than-intercontinental range since 1999. The most recent test, in June 2014, was a success, but that followed three straight failures.

    The system has evolved from the multibillion-dollar effort triggered by President Ronald Reagan’s 1983 push for a “Star Wars” solution to ballistic missile threats during the Cold War when the Soviet Union was the only major worry.

    North Korea is now the focus of U.S. efforts because its leader, Kim Jong-un, has vowed to field a nuclear-armed missile capable of reaching American territory. He has yet to test an intercontinental ballistic missile, or ICBM, but Pentagon officials believe he is speeding in that direction.

    Marine Lt. Gen. Vincent Stewart, director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, said this week that “left unchecked”, Mr. Kim will eventually succeed.

    The Pentagon has a variety of missile defence systems, but the one designed with a potential North Korean ICBM in mind is perhaps the most technologically challenging. Critics say it also is the least reliable. The basic defensive idea is to fire a rocket into space upon warning of a hostile missile launch. The rocket releases a 5-foot-long device that uses internal guidance systems to steer into the path of the oncoming missile’s warhead, destroying it by force of impact.
     
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  2. victor07

    victor07 FULL MEMBER

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    Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) program, managed by Boeing, has demonstrated capability to defend the U.S. homeland from a small number of intermediate-range or intercontinental missile threats with simple countermeasures? WTF?

    Pentagon upgrades assessment of ability to defend against ICBMs
    Wed Jun 7, 2017 | 6:19pm EDT
    By Phil Stewart | WASHINGTON

    After a successful May test, the Pentagon has upgraded its assessment of its ability to defend the United States against incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles, like the ones North Korea is attempting to develop, according to a memo seen by Reuters on Wednesday.
    The conclusion could add to the U.S. military's view that, although much more work remains on missile defense, it is staying ahead of a mounting threat from North Korea, which has declared its intent to develop an ICBM capable of striking the U.S. mainland.
    Since 2012, the Pentagon's Director of Operational Test and Evaluation had assessed only that the United States had a "limited capability" to defend against a threat like the one from North Korea or Iran using interceptors in the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) program, managed by Boeing Co (BA.N).
    But after successfully intercepting a simulated ICBM last month, the Pentagon office elevated that assessment, the memo, dated June 6, said.
    "GMD has demonstrated capability to defend the U.S. homeland from a small number of intermediate-range or intercontinental missile threats with simple countermeasures," the memo said.
    The May 30 missile test, which experts compare to hitting a bullet with another bullet, involved a simulated launch of a type of ICBM from the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
    The U.S. military then fired a missile to intercept it from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The test ended with a head-on strike, resulting in obliteration.
    It was the first live-fire test against a simulated ICBM, which the military said was made even more complicated by the use of decoys designed to throw off the interceptor.
    Previously, the GMD system had successfully hit its target in only nine of 17 tests since 1999. The last test was in 2014. However, the interceptor technology has been making steady advances. More tests are planned to advance U.S. defense capabilities.
    Vice Admiral Jim Syring, the director of the Missile Defense Agency, told a hearing in Congress he still felt the defense program needed improvement, even though his concerns about reliability had been addressed "in large part" in the past five to six years.
    "It's just not the interceptor, the entire system," he said. "We are not there yet."
    "We have continued work with the redesigned kill vehicle. We have continued work with the reliability of the other components of the system to make it totally reliable," he said. "We are not done yet."
    At the same time, he assured he was confident in his ability to defend the United States.
    The continental United States is around 9,000 km (5,500 miles) from North Korea. ICBMs have a minimum range of about 5,500 km (3,400 miles) but some are designed to travel 10,000 km (6,200 miles) or farther.
    Syring said the ballistic missile defense review now underway would look not only at the capability of the current interceptors but whether more were needed.
    "Where we need to be prudent and constantly vigilant on is what is the capacity increase we can expect from North Korea and what is our capacity needed to meet that threat," he said.

    http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-northkorea-defenses-idUSKBN18Y2YL
     
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  3. yugocrosrb95

    yugocrosrb95 FULL MEMBER

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    GMD's test was rigged tp succeed, they knew everything where, when and how.
     
  4. ouy

    ouy FULL MEMBER

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    Have been working on it for a while. Any constructive criticism is welcomed. :)
     
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  5. ouy

    ouy FULL MEMBER

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    An analysis of mine about the THAAD interceptor and Radar (AN\TPY 2) from a technical standpoint.
    Full analysis:
    goo.gl/kQSmgr
     
  6. LeGenD

    LeGenD ELITE MEMBER

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    From PATRIOT and THAAD to be interoperable to merger in the coming years? [1/2]

    THAAD air-defense system can provide excellent cover to a high-value environment against different types of ballistic missiles which could be armed with WMD.

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    FTT-14 intercept event was significant in terms of its sheer complexity wherein THAAD demonstrated the capability to neutralize an SRBM class target in a Low Endo flight situation.

    [​IMG]

    FTT-14 intercept event was also an important step towards making THAAD and PATRIOT interoperable in real-time conditions.

    There were many THAAD flight test program "firsts" accomplished during FTT-14, including the lowest endo-atmospheric intercept to date; use of fielded THAAD ground segment hardware and software from the THAAD production program; and the first live mission to demonstrate automatic engagement coordination between THAAD and Patriot.

    Link: http://www.defense-aerospace.com/ar...1/lockheed,-subs-comment-thaad-intercept.html

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    "Getting THAAD and Patriot to talk to each other is extremely important in building better operational capability and a better picture of incoming threats."
    - Brig. Gen. Randall McIntire

    Link: https://www.defensenews.com/digital...d-thaad-will-talk-what-does-that-really-mean/

    Additional tests for interoperability were also scheduled, and latest test was conducted on April 6, 2018.

    The Army's two key missile defense systems — Patriot and the Terminal High Altitude Air Defense system — successfully talked in a test conducted by the Missile Defense Agency and the service at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, April 6.

    The Army is planning to tie THAAD and Patriot together within in two years and received a surplus of funding in the recently passed fiscal 2018 omnibus spending bill to proceed with the effort.

    Tying the systems together is critical to establishing a more effective, layered approach to air-and-missile defense and could enhance the development of the Army’s future AMD command-and-control system, the Integrated Air-and-Missile Defense Battle Command System — or IBCS.

    Both THAAD and Patriot picked up a live short-range Lynx missile target using their radars and tracked the target individually, but both systems "exchanged messages through tactical data links and verified interoperability between the weapons systems," according to an MDA statement.


    Link: https://www.defensenews.com/land/20...fense-systems-patriot-and-thaad-talk-in-test/

    "These two weapon systems are vitally important as components of our layered ballistic missile defense system and it is critical that they are able to transmit data and communicate with one another." - Lt. Gen. Samuel Greaves

    [​IMG]

    But US is taking another step; enabling THAAD to use cutting edge PAC-3 MSE interceptors to expand its intercept possibilities against ballistic missiles in Low Endo situations and additional PATRIOT-specific benefits (explained below).

    Relevant tender was posted on 27-10-2017

    The proposed action is for the procurement of THAAD/PATRIOT Advanced Capability (PAC-3) Missile Segmnet Enhancement (MSE) Integration (TMI) and PATRIOT Launch on Remote (LOR) development. The action is to accomplish the development of capabilities in support of THAAD MSE Integration and PATRIOT Launch on Remote; design and implementation of an updated Fire Solution Computer software and architecture; Launcher Interface Network Kit software development activities; and a trade study to assess feasibility of launching a PAC-3 MSE from a THAAD launcher.

    The proposed source for this effort is Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC), 1701 West Marshall Drive, Grand Prairie, Texas, 75051, commercial and government entity (CAGE) code 64059. LMMFC is the developer and producer of the PAC-3 missile segment and support equipment, and the only source with the knowledge, expertise, and a full disclosure technical data package (TOP) to perform this effort. The Government does not have the necessary intellectual property rights to utilize the data for full and open competition.


    Link: https://tenders.globaldatabase.com/tender/thaad-pac-3-mse-integration-and-patriot-launch-of-remote

    Tender awarded to Lockheed Martin on 02-03-2018

    The awarded action is for the procurement of THAAD/PATRIOT Advanced Capability (PAC-3) Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE) Integration (TMI) and PATRIOT Launch on Remote (LOR) development. The action is to accomplish the development of capabilities in support of THAAD MSE Integration and PATRIOT Launch on Remote; design and implementation of an updated Fire Solution Computer software and architecture; Launcher Interface Network Kit software development activities; and a trade study to assess feasibility of launching a PAC-3 MSE from a THAAD launcher.

    The source awarded this effort is Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC), 1701 West Marshall Drive, Grand Prairie, Texas, 75051, commercial and government entity (CAGE) code 64059. LMMFC is the developer and producer of the PAC-3 missile segment and support equipment, and the only source with the knowledge, expertise, and a full disclosure technical data package (TOP) to perform this effort. The Government does not have the necessary intellectual property rights to utilize the data for full and open competition.. Awarded Vendors: LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION. Contract Award Dollar Amount: $173,768,671. Contract Award Date: 2018-03-02.

    Link: https://govtribe.com/opportunity/fe...-and-patriot-launch-of-remote-w31p4q17g0001-1

    Tender-related work is expected to be complete by 28-02-2022

    Work is expected to be complete by Feb. 28, 2022, US Department of defense said in a statement Tuesday.

    The contract is to accomplish the development of capabilities in support of THAAD MSE Integration and PATRIOT Launch on Remote; design and implementation of an updated Fire Solution Computer software and architecture; Launcher Interface Network Kit software development activities; and a trade study to assess feasibility of launching a PAC-3 MSE from a THAAD launcher, according to the tender published in October 2017.


    Link: https://www.defenseworld.net/news/2...0_for_THAAD__PATRIOT_MSE_Integration_Contract

    [​IMG]

    This integration will transform THAAD into an IAMD platform to cope with increasingly complex threats in the near future.

    ---

    PAC-3 interceptor class emerged from 20+ years of investments, experiments, trials and battlefield-related experiences around the world.

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    Evolution of the PATRIOT family of interceptors, and resultant flexibility in PATRIOT battery configurations (M901; M902; M903) highlighted below.



    [​IMG]

    PAC-3 interceptor class enable a PATRIOT battery to be equipped with a much higher count of high-quality interceptors, thanks to advances in the 'miniaturization' aspect of rocket technologies, and the resultant battery configurations (M902; M903) are much harder to overwhelm accordingly.

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    PATRIOT M902 battery configuration for reference below, equipped with a mix of PAC-2 GEM-T interceptors (LR-SAM against a wide range of airbreathing targets) and PAC-3 CRI interceptors (point defense against complex threats).

    [​IMG]

    PAC-2 GEM-T provide long-range target engagement envelope to a PATRIOT battery, just in case.

    Maximum range = 160 KM (versus aircraft and UAV)
    Maximum ceiling = 24 KM
    Speed = MACH 5+



    PAC-2 GEM-T is also optimized for BMD missions, and can produce HTK results.

    [​IMG]

    PATRIOT SAVES LIVES BY DOWNING MORE THAN 100 BALLISTIC MISSILES IN COMBAT

    Since January 1st, 2015, Raytheon's Patriot integrated air and missile defense system has shot down more than 100 tactical ballistic missiles in combat operations around the world. More than 90 of those intercepts involved the low-cost Raytheon made Guidance Enhanced Missile family of interceptors. Patriot employs multiple interceptor missiles to destroy ballistic and cruise missiles, aircraft and drones. Guidance Enhanced Missiles work by flying at extremely fast speeds to close with the threat and detonating a blast-fragmentation warhead at precisely the right moment. "No single interceptor is a silver bullet," said Tom Laliberty, Raytheon vice president of Integrated Air and Missile Defense. "Using a mix of defensive missiles increases cost-effectiveness and gives commanders operational flexibility to choose the right interceptor at the right time."


    Full read: https://www.raytheon.com/sites/default/files/2018-05/European Missile Defence Update_May2018_0.pdf
     
    Last edited: Jun 29, 2019
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  7. LeGenD

    LeGenD ELITE MEMBER

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    From PATRIOT and THAAD to be interoperable to merger in the coming years? [2/2]

    [​IMG]

    PAC-3 interceptor class make it possible for a PATRIOT battery to defeat increasingly complex threats such as MaRV released by ballistic missile(s), ballistic missile with countermeasures, mass attacks, and additional forms of highly maneuverable threats; complex DT/OT-11 and DT/OT-12 intercept events scheduled for PAC-3 interceptor class in 2004 were very telling.

    DT/OT-12 intercept event for reference.

    "The mission sequence was a two missile ripple-fire against the modified PAAT, closely followed by a two missile ripple-fire against the Storm target. Once the targets were intercepted and destroyed, the two remaining PAC-3s executed a preplanned self-destruct sequence."

    Link: http://www.spacedaily.com/news/bmdo-04zl.html



    A PAC-3 CRI interceptor defeated a PAC derivative simulating a target of very high Gs in a show of spectacular maneuvers (PAAT phenomenon); objective was to stress-test the PAC-3 CRI interceptor by pushing it to its limits during the course of its development.



    A PAC-3 CRI interceptor defeated Perishing II MaRV (also identified as STORM MTTV) in another clash of impressive maneuvers.

    The Storm Maneuvering Tactical Target Vehicle (MTTV) rocket, which performed its mission as planned, was used as a target to test the Patriot missile defense system.

    "It has been an extraordinarily busy and successful two-week period for our launch teams, culminating with the successful MTTV launch for the Missile Defense Agency," said Mr. Ron Grabe, Executive Vice President and General Manager of the Company's Launch Systems Group.

    "We are very proud of our record of supporting MDA's flight test programs with the most reliable target vehicles in the industry. We look forward to our future missions that will help MDA develop, test and deploy effective missile defense systems."

    Orbital provided and tested the rocket's guidance and separation systems, performed all vehicle design, production and integration activities and conducted all launch day mission operations.

    The MTTV rocket is a single stage vehicle which uses a retired U.S. government rocket engine from the Minuteman ICBM program and a modified Pershing II reentry vehicle.


    Link: http://www.spacedaily.com/news/bmdo-04zl.html

    [​IMG]

    PAC-3 interceptor class was subjected to a complex testing regime incorporating challenging targets simulating different types of airborne threats (MaRV; supersonic cruise missiles; terrain-hugging cruise missiles; TBMs operating in different trajectories; UAV and vice versa), and results are self-explanatory.



    PAC-3 MSE is a big leap from the already impressive PAC-3 CRI.

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    It shall be noted that actual target engagement envelope of PAC-3 MSE is classified, and figures floating in the public domain are understated.

    "The MSE's exact range and altitude capabilities against various types of targets are classified, but it's clear that the updated missile will allow MIM-104 Patriot batteries to cover far more area and have greater defensive capabilities against tactical ballistic missiles than its progenitors. The upgrades to the missile's motor, control system, software, front-end thermal protection, among other modifications, result in a far more effective weapon." - Tyler Rogoway

    Related: https://www.defensenews.com/land/20...tance-record-to-defeat-threat-target-in-test/

    In fact, target engagement envelope of PAC-3 MSE is constrained by PATRIOT's AN/MPG-65 radar system even though this radar system is a leap from the older PATRIOT's AN/MPG-53 radar system.

    "Today that missile outperforms the organic Patriot radar, and so that is going to allow us to get more value out of Patriot missile from the integration. That is going to allow us to be more efficient with how we defend things, and that is going to allow us to increase the battlespace." - Brig. Gen. Randall McIntire

    [​IMG]

    THAAD's powerful AN/TPY-2 radar system can extract the most out of PAC-3 MSE on the other hand.

    Another important consideration for an air-defense system is its ability to distinguish real threats from countermeasures in a high-clutter environment; a ballistic missile can have sufficient room to accommodate and release different types of countermeasures to complicate BMD possibilities. PATRIOT's AN/MPG-65 radar system was particularly optimized for this end:

    "The ultimate step is PAC-3-Configuration 3, which introduces an upgraded AN-MPQ-65 radar to increase detection in high-clutter environments, and to improve discrimination of closely spaced objects (better decoy recognition)." - Andreas Parsch

    THAAD was also stress-tested in the FET-01 intercept event on similar grounds; it was presented a cutting-edge MRBM class target (MRBM-T3) which deployed unknown countermeasures (classified) in the process.

    MRBM-T3 at a glance.

    [​IMG]

    MRBM-T3 is a cutting-edge ballistic missile design with capabilities which are largely classified and concealed in the public domain. This target can simulate flight characteristics of cutting-edge ASBM and release countermeasures on top - extremely difficult to defeat.

    [​IMG]

    Type-1 targets are simple baseline configurations.

    Type-2 targets have increased capability or complexity.

    Type-3 targets have unique configurations.

    MRBM-T3:

    - simulated flight characteristics of the Chinese DF-21D ASBM in the FTM-27 E1 intercept event for an Arleigh Burke class destroyer on December 14, 2016.

    Link: https://defense-update.com/20161215_df21d_target.html

    "During FTM-27 Event 1, in December 2016, an Aegis Baseline 9.C1 destroyer (which hosts the Aegis BMD 5.0 Capability Upgrade) engaged a complex medium-range ballistic missile target with a salvo of two SM-6 Dual I missiles. FTM-27 Event 1 was the first demonstration of Aegis BMD Sea-Based Terminal capability against complex ballistic missile targets." - DOT&E

    - and released unknown countermeasures in the FET-01 intercept event to stress-test THAAD's target discrimination capabilities on July 30, 2017. The target also released an MaRV to stress-test THAAD further.

    "In FET-01, the MDA demonstrated THAAD's ability to discriminate and intercept an RV from a separating MRBM target with countermeasures at an endo-atmospheric altitude. The MDA will use these data to improve interceptor seeker algorithms and to validate modeling and simulation." - DOT&E

    [​IMG]

    I suspect that MRBM-T3 feature a cutting-edge MaRV and MDA does not want people to take a closer look at it (practice of covering it out in the open).

    THAAD was able to defeat this extremely challenging target in a Low Endo flight situation (refer to Intercept Tests photo above).

    Emphasis mine. If this merger materialize, THAAD might transform into the most effective and capable surface mobile IMAD platform in the world, better than the upcoming Russian S-500.

    --- --- ---

    @The Deterrent
    @Fawadqasim1
    @Irfan Baloch
    @Oscar
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    Last edited: Jun 29, 2019
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  8. Yaseen1

    Yaseen1 SENIOR MEMBER

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    patriot has failed against cruise missile and is unable to intercept iran cruise missiles hitting saudi airports multiple times ,these cruise missiles are not in barrages but in small numbers ,imagine what will happen when russian or chinese more complex cruise missiles are fired.s400 is much better than u.s patriot system
     
  9. LeGenD

    LeGenD ELITE MEMBER

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    Terrain-hugging cruise missiles can 'hide' in the ground clutter which can affect visibility of radar systems on the surface.

    [​IMG]

    1. S-400 system failed to shoot down a single terrain-hugging cruise missile in Syria in spite of numerous chances.

    However, on April 6, 2017, in retaliation for a chemical weapons attack on Khan Sheykhoun that killed nearly 100 Syrian civilians, two U.S. Navy destroyers fired 59 BGM-109 Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles at Shayrat air base.

    On their way to the target, most of the missiles in question passed over the Tartous area and then through the so-called “Homs Gap” – a depression between the mountains of western Syria and those in Lebanon – only 50 kilometers south of Hmemmem. Nevertheless, the Russian radars completely failed to detect them.


    FYI: https://warisboring.com/russias-air-defenses-in-syria-have-some-big-problems/

    2. Terrain-hugging cruise missiles always have a good shot at slipping through surface defenses via carefully programmed routes and approach their desired targets. However, if a desired target is shielded by a PATRIOT battery equipped with PAC-3 class interceptors, the battery will take care of the incoming threats.

    EXAMPLE:-

    During a test of the U.S. Army's Integrated Air and Missile Defense System (AIAMD) on Nov. 12 at White Sands Missile Range, a MQM 107 drone simulating as a cruise missile tried to avoid detection from the Patriot air defense system by flying below its radar coverage.

    [​IMG]

    But the trick wasn't successful and the target drone was shot down by a PAC-3 interceptor after a firing solution was generated by the AIAMD using composite track data from multiple radars.

    One of the two Sentinel radars connected to the Integrated Fire Control Network (IFCN) relayed the position of the target to the Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS). The IBCS then commanded a remote Patriot PAC-3 launcher to engage the drone through the IFCN.


    Link: http://alert5.com/2015/11/15/mqm-10...t-by-flying-low-but-was-shot-down-eventually/

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    MQM-107D drone at a glance.

    [​IMG]

    The MQM-107A is powered by a Teledyne CAE J402-CA-700 turbojet in a nacelle under the fuselage, and is launched from a zero-length launcher with the help of a single solid-propellant rocket booster. The target can fly preprogrammed missions, but can also be controlled from the ground through a radio command guidance system. The Streaker's flight envelope includes speeds from about 370 km/h (200 kts) to 926 km/h (500 kts), constant high-g turns, and flight at very low altitudes.

    Information taken from the directory of US missiles and rockets (Andreas Parsch).

    ---

    In order to intercept terrain-hugging cruise missiles, a calculative multi-radar setup is necessary for which a good grasp of the geographical environment (where they will be stationed) is essential, and and the radar systems should not only complement each other with their respective FOV but also take cues from each other to guide interceptors. And radar systems should be technically up to the task as well (every radar system is not technically up to the task and produce weapons-grade lock on incoming cruise missiles).

    Keep in mind that KSA haven't deployed PATRIOT defense systems everywhere (these are expensive and limited in number). Secondly, a PATRIOT battery stationed in Mecca have PAC-3 class interceptors.

    FYI: https://www.janes.com/article/82511/saudi-patriot-pac-3-capability-confirmed

    This particular battery did not let anything slip through as far as I am aware. However, other batteries might be old M901 configurations.

    Do keep in mind that PATRIOT defense systems in KSA have prevented a great deal of death and destruction in there, keeping in full view the sheer amount of firepower the heavily armed Houthi rebels have subjected numerous locations in KSA to, since 2015. 100+ intercepts is very impressive showing from surface mobile air-defense systems.

    My posts highlight the very best of PATRIOT configurations, and in American hands no less.

    ---

    S-400 intercept record in Syria = 0
    S-300 intercept record in Syria = 0

    Not much to boast about. :whistle:
     
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