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US Ballistic Missile Defence

Discussion in 'Military Forum' started by Indus Falcon, May 2, 2015.

  1. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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  2. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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    Standard Missile-3 is the world's only ballistic missile killer deployable on land or at sea.
    SM-3® is a defensive weapon used by the U.S. Navy to destroy short- to intermediate-range ballistic missile threats. This 'hit-to-kill' missile interceptor uses an exoatmospheric "kill vehicle," to collide with targets in space, a capability that's been likened to hitting a bullet with a bullet. The massive collision of the kill vehicle hitting its target obliterates the threat completely; explosives are not necessary. The resulting impact is the equivalent of a 10-ton truck traveling at 600 mph.


    Whether on land or at sea, the SM-3 continues to excel in testing. In 2014, the SM-3 Block IB was successfully launched for the first time from an Aegis Ashore testing site in Hawaii. Later in the year, an SM-3 destroyed a short-range ballistic missile target during a highly complex integrated air and missile defense exercise in the Pacific.
    The program has more than 25 successful space intercepts, and more than 200 interceptors have been delivered to U.S. and Japanese navies.

    SM-3 Block IB
    The SM-3 Block IB has an enhanced two-color infrared seeker and upgraded steering and propulsion capability that uses short bursts of precision propulsion to direct the missile toward incoming targets.

    The next-generation SM-3 Block IB became operational in 2014, deploying for the first time on U.S. Navy ships worldwide.

    SM-3 Block IIA
    The new SM-3 Block IIA is being developed in cooperation with Japan and will be deployable on land as well as at sea. It has two distinct new features: larger rocket motors that will allow it to defend broader areas from ballistic missile threats and a larger kinetic warhead.

    SM-3 Block IIA is the centerpiece of the European missile defense system, and Raytheon Company will begin flight testing in 2015 to keep the program on track for 2018 deployment at sea and on land in Poland.

    rtn_234016.jpg

    Raytheon: Standard Missile-3 (SM-3)
     
  3. Desertfalcon

    Desertfalcon PROFESSIONAL

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    Interesting. Haven't heard much about them in the American press.
     
  4. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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    Why missile defense?

    Ballistic missiles have become a serious threat to international security. Missiles are fast, traveling up to 15,000 mph. They can cover long distances, with the most advanced missiles reaching into space and traveling over the North Pole to hit targets. Because they are expensive and can carry only small payloads, rogue countries are more likely to outfit them with weapons of mass destruction.

    Countries must be able to detect a missile launch, track an incoming missile or warhead, and then intercept it.

    The United States and its allies have developed several overlapping systems to stop missile attacks. Raytheon plays a major role in almost every one of them.

    We are, quite simply, the most trusted global partner in missile defense.



    Tracking and Discrimination

    Stopping a missile attack begins with detecting a launch. Space-Tracking and Surveillance System-Demonstrator (STSS-D) satellites carrying Raytheon-built sensors can spot multiple missile launches and beam the information to ships and interceptors.

    Early warnings also come from the Sea-based X-Band Radar (SBX), a nine-story-high radar mounted on a converted oil drilling platform. The AN/TPY-2 radar, a mobile radar mounted on a semi truck chassis, provides warning from sites on land. The Air and Missile Defense Radar increases detection range and adds powerful discrimination accuracy, helping naval forces respond to airborne and ballistic missile threats.

    Raytheon also makes airborne equipment that can detect missile launches, including Airborne Infrared (ABIR) sensors and the Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevator Netted Sensor System (JLENS), a radar system carried by tethered airships.

    Upgraded Early Warning Radars are building-sized radars based in California, Alaska, the United Kingdom and Greenland. They and the AN/TPY-2 radar provide tracking information out to 3,000 miles.

    Working together, these systems provide detailed information about a missile’s type, trajectory and possible target. They can also help identify a warhead if it is accompanied by decoys.

    Interception

    The United States and its allies use overlapping layers of long-range, mid-range and short-range interceptors to shoot down missiles and incoming warheads at a variety of altitudes.

    Aegis: This system is carried on warships. It fires the Raytheon-built Standard Missile family of interceptors. The Standard Missile-3 releases a small, non-explosive “kill warhead” that smashes into missiles in space.

    The United States is developing a land-based version of Aegis that can be deployed in Eastern Europe. Raytheon is also developing advanced versions of the SM-3, known as the IB and IIA variants. The IIA is a joint project with Japan.

    Raytheon is also expanding the capabilities of its sea-based Standard Missile-6 to defend against ballistic missiles in the last phase of their flight.

    Ground-based Midcourse Defense: This system uses large, powerful Ground-Based Interceptor missiles launched from underground silos in Alaska and California. The interceptors carry Raytheon’s Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle, which uses sensors and small thrusters to slam itself into warheads. GBIs can reach targets at the highest point in their arc, known as the mid-course phase of flight.

    Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD): This land-based system is designed to shoot down threats as they descend from outer space into the upper atmosphere. A Raytheon-built AN/TPY-2 radar detects the threat launch, then guides them toward their targets.

    Patriot:This short-range system uses a truck-size radar and launcher. It can fire either the Guided Enhanced Missile (GEM-T), which carries an explosive charge, or the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile, which destroys threats by slamming into them. A new version of the PAC-3 missile, known as the Missile Segment Enhancement, adds a more powerful motor and larger fins.

    The Patriot can also defend against aircraft and cruise missiles. Twelve countries use the Patriot system.

    Hawk XXI: A short-range system used by 17 nations, the Hawk XXI can defend against aircraft, cruise missiles and tactical ballistic missiles. It works seamlessly with the Patriot or NASAMS systems.

    National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System: NASAMS can fire three different Raytheon missiles: the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile, the AMRAAM and the AIM-9X.

    Iron Dome:This system uses small missiles to provide protection against rockets, artillery and mortars. Raytheon has signed an agreement with Israel’s Rafael Advanced Defense Systems to market the system in the United States.

    Raytheon: Missile Defense Overview

    Standard Missile-2
    Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) is the world's premier fleet-area air defense weapon, providing increased intercept range, high- and low-intercept capability, and performance against advanced and anti-ship missile threats. Its primary mission is fleet-area air defense and ship self-defense, but it has also demonstrated an extended-area air defense protection capability.

    The SM-2 also has a secondary anti-surface ship mission, and it uses tail controls and a solid-fuel rocket motor for propulsion and maneuverability. SM-2 has an extensive area- and self-defense flight test history with more than 2,500 successful flight tests from domestic and international platforms.

    The most advanced variant, the SM-2 Block IV, has successfully intercepted and destroyed short-range ballistic missile targets, demonstrating the weapon's ability to stop ballistic missile threats in their final phases of flight. Work on the SM-2 Block IV proved vital in positioning our Standard Missile-6 to take on its new sea-based terminal defense role.

    The SM-2 family continues to grow internationally: Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain and Taiwan have deployed surface combatants; Australia's Air Warfare Destroyer will employ SM-2; and several other navies are in the process of defining requirements and ship configurations to support SM-2 applications.

    Raytheon: Standard Missile-2



    Standard Missile-6

    Sophisticated Fleet Air Defense
    SM-6™ leverages the legacy Standard Missile airframe and propulsion elements, while incorporating the advanced signal processing and guidance control capabilities of our Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM®). Deployed on cruisers and destroyers, SM-6 will provide Joint Force and Strike Force Commanders fleet air defense against fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and land-attack anti-ship cruise missiles in flight, both over sea and land.


    Standard Missile-6 Sea-based Testing.

    SM-6 is a key component in the U.S. Navy's Naval Integrated Fire Control – Counter Air (NIFC-CA) providing the surface Navy with an increased battlespace against over-the-horizon anti-air warfare threats.

    "The SM-6 is the newest addition to Raytheon's highly successful Standard Missile family of missiles," said Wes Kremer, vice president of Air and Missile Defense Systems product line. "This missile can use both active and semiactive modes, giving the warfighter an enhanced ability to intercept beyond-line-of-sight targets."

    SM-6 has also been selected to fulfill the U.S. Navy's Sea-Based Terminal (SBT) role and will provide defense against ballistic missiles in their terminal phase of flight, succeeding the SM-2 Blk IV missile. The initial version of the SBT, Increment 1, is to enter service around 2015, with a subsequent version, called Increment 2, to enter service around 2018

    "The SM-6 represents the cutting-edge compilation of decades of best practices,” said Mike Campisi, Raytheon's SM-6 senior program director. "It's been a model program from concept through development and testing. We've delivered on time and on budget at every step in the process."


    Raytheon: Standard Missile-6 (SM-6)
     
  5. C130

    C130 ELITE MEMBER

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    waste of money.

    we should be buying the next gen SSBN and Ballistic missiles

    you launch a nuke at us you'll have 5 coming back you in return.
     
  6. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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    Well that is one way of looking at it. But I believe, in comparison to your suggestion, this is a cheaper option.
     
  7. C130

    C130 ELITE MEMBER

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    my opinion is anti-ballistic missiles aren't a deterrent but actually emboldens the enemy to develop more and better ballistic missiles.

    MAD is the only sure way to prevent the use of such weapons in war.
     
  8. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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    Well BMD systems (till now) do have an inherent flaw, they can be overwhelmed by dummy's.

    Example, Country A keeps firing sucds or useless rockets, Country B keeps defending with SM3's or it's equivalent, after a volley of 40 or 50 dummy's, Country A fires the real WMD and the BMD (of Country B) by that time is out of SM3's

    SO yes, in this particular scenario MAD is the only way to keep WMD's at bay.

    On the flip side, for greedy politicians BMD is cheaper.

    @Desertfalcon What do you say?
     
  9. Desertfalcon

    Desertfalcon PROFESSIONAL

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    It nevertheless, drives up the cost of having an effective ballistic missile force. Just the threat of one in the 1980's, (When it really wan't technically feasible.), broke Soviet resolve in trying to out-build us.
     
  10. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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    Lets not forget the F15 launched satellite killer missile (1985), that played an important part in stopping space based weapons.
     
  11. Transhumanist

    Transhumanist FULL MEMBER

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    That used to be the case, but discriminating seekers have been around for a while. Decoys mimic, but not perfectly, the signature, flight profile and weight of an actual warhead, but they have differences that are determinable too.

    Radar can differentiate between a warhead and a decoy or dummy warhead by measuring the properties of the internal chemical make-up, i.e. the warhead itself versus filler materials such as dense metals to give the dummy similar weight.

    Decoys aren't perfect, they can be uncovered. Penetration aids too, though they are primarily radar blockers to prevent the decoys from being located while still in space. Penetration aids, such as balloons lose their effectiveness when inside of a medium.

    Discriminating Seeker

    As of 1996 the first discriminating interceptor demo was planned to take place in FY01. It will take advantage of the fly-along bus in a BMD core program test. Additional tests were planned in FY02 and FY03. The first test was to observe the target, decoys, and debris and perform real-time discrimination between them. One or both of the later tests may employ the discriminating seeker as the primary interceptor seeker.

    In FY 2002 the Midcourse Counter-Countermeasures effort under 0603175C BMD Technology initiated advanced development of discriminating seeker components including multicolor focal plane arrays and laser radars. A Discriminating Seeker would be developed that is able to accurately discriminate emerging countermeasures, decoys, and re-entry vehicles. The technologies under development are multi-spectral infrared focal plane arrays, ultra compact laser radar (ladar), high-speed miniature processors, and data fusion algorithms. These components would be integrated into a lightweight Track-Via-Missile seeker after development and demonstration.

    At greater distances (400 to 800 kilometers [250 to 500 miles]), the focal plan arrays would acquire the target cluster and perform simple discriminations. At shorter distances (less than 400 kilometers [250 miles]) the focal plan arrays and ladar would work together to accurately discriminate and track the target. The multi-spectral infrared focal plane arrays can accurately measure thermal characteristics of non-gray-body re-entry vehicles and decoys.

    Ladar actively illuminate the target with a laser and measures backscattered Doppler-shifted radiation to calculate target range, velocity, and angular rates. Ladar does not rely on external illumination or emitted radiation from the target. Ladar substantially increases the number of target features measurable and significantly improves discrimination and aim point selection. Ladar could be applied to early deployment phase to track threat cloud dispersal. Ladar would assist in boost phase functions of hard body/plume discrimination and final aim-point selection.

    After development and testing of the individual technology components of the seeker, the components would be integrated into a lightweight Track-Via-Missile seeker.

    Ballistic missile defense (BMD) interceptors must discriminate between real targets and other objects such as decoys and debris for effectiveness in an ECM environment, or against reentry vehicles accompanied by decoys. An interceptor employing these technologies used in an architecture including ground-based radar and space-based infrared satellites, can protect U.S. cities from ballistic missile attack and protect our fighting forces from theater ballistic missiles. Simulation results show that depending upon the attack scenario, the single shot kill probability increases by as much as a factor of 9 after addition of advanced interceptor discrimination capability (i.e., Pk increases from 0.1 to 0.9). An interceptor mass growth of 25 percent will occur and the interceptor alone will be more expensive than without advanced discrimination. However, the system cost will decrease because of a reduction in number of required interceptors. Instead of shooting two or three interceptors at each target to meet the system effectiveness requirements, only one shot will be needed.

    The technologies necessary for interceptor discrimination are: lightweight laser radar, simultaneous multispectral LWIR focal plane arrays, highly uniform focal plane arrays, and data fusion techniques to combine the outputs of active and passive sensors. The Advanced Discriminating Interceptor Program will develop and demonstrate these technologies in lab tests and low cost interceptor flight tests. Systems benefiting from this technology are the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle, THAAD, CORPS SAM, and the Navy Theater Wide Interceptor.
     
  12. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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    The inherent flaw (in BMD) still remains. What if, the perpetrator fires 50 actual WMD missiles, and the defender only has 30 available BMD missiles, then what? MAD comes into play then, doesn't it?
     
    Last edited: May 2, 2015
  13. Transhumanist

    Transhumanist FULL MEMBER

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    That flaw is a different scenario though, different from the discussion on penetration aids/decoys and the ability to ascertain the validity of a warhead versus a decoy, but it does have credence and thus we do see the MAD doctrine come into effect... for larger powers. BMD works against limit adversaries who can't field long-range missiles, large warhead programs or who's missile force is smaller than the defending nations countermeasures. But as costs come down and technologies like lasers and long-rod kinetic perpetrators - as used on rail-guns, come on line, the balance once more shifts to the defender as these technologies allow for more rapid engagements at more limited costs. Both are being explored as counter-missile defense, lasers for destabilizing the flight profiles of missiles and warheads, rail-guns for kinetic destruction.

    However, in the end we will see the cycle repeat. Where once nuclear weapons were the deterrent of choice, they have been accounted for and countermeasures are being implemented, after being theorized and developed (these would be our BMD systems for aerial delivery and radio-logical detection systems for ground movement), something else will take their place.

    Perhaps the famed RFG - the Rod from God?

    [​IMG]

    Perhaps an HGV - Hypersonic glide vehicle (a modern iteration of the 1980's MARV concept seen on the Pershing II)

    [​IMG]

    Something new will change the calculus. But nuclear delivery systems are being accounted for and while current countermeasures are limited by cost, $40.9 billion for the US GMD program (in FY 2013 dollars), this wont always be the case. Massive, overwhelming strikes work today as defenses are limited, though sensors can discriminate between warheads and decoys on nuclear missile. I wouldn't count on the same strategy working forever though. History has proven that fallacious.
     
    Last edited: May 2, 2015
  14. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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    MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY


    Raytheon Missile Systems Co., Tucson, Arizona, was awarded a $559,206,957 not-to-exceed sole-source undefinitized contract action (UCA) which contemplates a hybrid contract structure containing fixed-price incentive firm, firm-fixed-price, and cost reimbursable contract line items. Under this contract action, the contractor will procure an initial quantity of 44 Standard Missile-3 Block IB all-up rounds (AURs) and related activities. The contractor will also provide the work required to produce and deliver the third stage rocket motor reliability growth/design enhancements. Upon definitization of the UCA, the government intends to purchase additional missiles up to a total quantity of 52 AURs. Work will be performed in Tucson, Arizona, and Huntsville, Alabama, with an expected completion date of April 28, 2018. Fiscal 2015 defense-wide procurement funds in the amount of $401,753,989 are being obligated at time of award. One offer was solicited with one offer received. The Missile Defense Agency, Dahlgren, Virginia, is the contracting activity (HQ0276-15-C-0005).

    Defense.gov Contracts for Thursday, April 30, 2015
     
  15. Indus Falcon

    Indus Falcon SENIOR MEMBER

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    Raytheon Wins USD 559 Mln Standard Missile Order
    06.05.2015

    tandard-Missile-Order.jpg

    The Missile Defense Agency awarded Raytheon Company an undefinitized contract action for a fiscal year 2015 contract valued at $559,2 million for Standard Missile-3 Block IBs, which are guided missiles used by the U.S. Navy to provide regional defense against short- to intermediate-range ballistic missile threats.

    Under this contract action, which was announced April 30 by the Department of Defense, Raytheon will deliver an initial quantity of 44 Standard Missile-3 Block IB all-up rounds and provide the work required to produce and deliver the third stage rocket motor reliability growth and design enhancements.

    The government expressed its intention to purchase additional missiles up to a total quantity of 52.

    Final assembly of the SM-3 Block IB takes place at Raytheon’s state-of-the-art SM-6 and SM-3 all-up-round production facility at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Ala.

    Deployed at sea for the first time in 2014, the SM-3 Block IB is on track for land-based deployment in Romania this year in line with the second phase of the Phased Adaptive Approach, the U.S.’s plan for missile defense in Europe.

    Raytheon Wins USD 559 Mln Standard Missile Order | Naval Today