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Turkish Navy’s Current Fleet and the Role of Turkish Naval Industrial Capabilities

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Turkish Navy’s Current Fleet and the Role of Turkish Naval Industrial Capabilities
by İbrahim SÜNNETÇİ



As a result of the Presidency of Defence Industries’ (SSB) national and domestic defence equipment policies, which puts the major emphasis on indigenous manufacturing and development, since early 2000 Turkey has been investing heavily into local defence sector capabilities. In the field of naval platforms, the main aim is to be able to carry out the design and system integration of all types of surface and sub-surface naval vessels at local shipyards (military and private sector) using indigenous capabilities. As a result of these efforts, carried out under the supervision and management of the SSB, the procurement authority under the Turkish MoND, the Turkish Naval Shipbuilding Industry has achieved considerable success and is now ready to compete in the international markets with its indigenous solutions such as the MilGem (ADA Class) Corvette, TUZLA Class New Type Patrol Boat, 151 Class high-speed Landing Craft Tank (LCT), BAYRAKTAR Class Landing Ship Tank (LST), MRTP Series Fast Intervention Boats, MOSHIP and the RATSHIP.

Thanks to the contributions of local companies such as Aselsan, AYESAŞ, Havelsan, İŞBİR, MİLSOFT, Meteksan Defence, TÜBİTAK SAGE, TÜBİTAK BİLGEM, TÜBİTAK MAM, Roketsan, MKEK, KBST, STM and Yaltes, which complement the increasing capabilities of the Turkish Naval Shipbuilding Industry, the Turkish Naval Forces (TNF) is developing into a remarkably powerful and increasingly self-sufficient force. As a result of heavy investment and the reliance on local capabilities coupled with the successful cooperation and interaction between the TNF and the Turkish Defence Industry on naval platform projects, the local content ratio reached 70% in 2017.

It should be noted that as part of the restructuring efforts that were launched following the bloody coup attempt, with an amendment that was made on the 1st Article of Law regarding the Ministry of National Defence (MoND) that military factories and shipyards were removed from the structure related to Military Departments and General Staff organization and were affiliated under the MoND with the State of Emergency Decree Law No. 669 issued on 31 July 2016. In this context Naval Shipyards of the Turkish Naval Forces Command (TNFC) such as Istanbul Naval Shipyard, Gölcük Naval Shipyard and İzmir Naval Shipyard, are affiliated under the MoND General Directorate of Shipyards (TGM, established on 25 July 2016 and its General Manager was appointed on 4 January 2017) in 2017. Following the completion of organizational efforts in late 2017, the MoND General Directorate of Shipyards came into operation in January 2018 together with all of its sub-departments. In order to glean benefits from the capabilities of military factories and shipyards, with the State of Emergency Decree Law No. 696, issued on 24 December 2017, Military Factory and Shipyard Management Incorporated Company (ASFAT A.Ş) was established. ASFAT A.Ş was established with the law to contribute to the capabilities of the 27 Military Factories and 3 Military Shipyards within the Turkish MoND and to serve the national defence industry with national facilities. ASFAT is authorized to use a workforce of approximately 20,000 people employed at 30 (27 Military Factories and 3 Military Shipyards) integrated defence industry facilities.,



According to the plans of the Turkish MoND General Directorate of Shipyards (TGM) during the period spanning 2017-2034 a total of 88 naval vessels in various types and including submarines would be constructed in Turkey to meet the requirements of the TNF and Coast Guard.

13 of them would be constructed at Naval Shipyards (2 x ADA Class [3rd and 4th Corvettes], 1 x İ Class Frigate, 1 x TF-2000 ADW Destroyer, 1 x TF-100 Frigate, 6 x Type 214TN REİS Class AIP Submarines and 2 x National Submarines [MilDen]) and 75 of them would be constructed at Private Shipyards (including 3 x İ Class Frigates, 3 TF-2000 Air Defence Warfare Destroyers, 3 TF-100 Frigates, 10 x Turkish Type FPBs, 2 x LHDs, 1 x Spy (SIGINT/ELINT) Ship, 7 x LCTs, 4 x LCACs and 8 x New Generation Mine Hunting Vessels and 6 Mine Counter Measures Vessels. All of these projects are being carried out under the management of the SSB.

In all, as of 1 October 2019 TNF numbers around 150 vessels of various sizes, with a total displacement of over 200,000t, including 22 patrol/intervention boats, 11 mine warfare vessels, 31 auxiliaries and 26 landing craft. TNF’s current surface vessel strength consists of 16 frigates (plus four ‘İ’ Class under construction), 10 corvettes and 19 Harpoon SSM-armed fast patrol boats (FPBs), with a tender out for a further 10 to be produced locally. There are 12 submarines in service, with a further six ‘REİS’ Class Type 214TN under construction at Gölcük Naval Shipyard.

Naval aviation assets comprise 35 naval helicopters (24 S-70B Seahawks and 11 AB212s for anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare (ASW/ASuW), two C-72 (ATR72/600) utility aircraft, six P-235 (CN235-100M) maritime patrol aircraft (MPAs), with a further six ATR72/600 MPAs to enter service in 2020-2021 under the MELTEM-III Program, according to the TNFC’s official website.


There is also one ANKA Block-B medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System with three aircraft, equipped with CMX-15D forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and Aselsan’s SARPER synthetic aperture radar (SAR/GMTI/ISAR) and a BAYRAKTAR TB2-S SİHA/Armed UAV System with five aircraft in the service of the TNF. The contract for the procurement of four ANKA Block-B and eight ANKA-S UAVs (including armed versions) to be equipped with CMX-15D FLIR and SARPER SAR/GMTI/ISAR payloads have already been signed with TUSAŞ and deliveries will start in 2020.


The TNF main surface fleet consists 8 GABYA Class (ex FFG-7 OHP Class), 4 MEKO 200 Track I (YAVUZ Class) and 4 Track IIA and Track IIB (BARBAROS Class) Frigates along with 6 BURAK Class (ex A69 Aviso Class Corvettes) and 4 ADA Class Corvettes and 19 Fast Patrol Boats (4 DOĞAN Class, 4 RÜZGAR Class, 2 YILDIZ Class, 3 KILIÇ-I and 6 KILIÇ-II Class). Contracts for the Test and Training Vessel (TVEG), İSTANBUL/İSTİF Class Frigates, TCG Anadolu (L-400) Multipurpose Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD), Fleet Replenishment Ship (DİMDEG) and two Logistic Support Ships have already been signed and construction efforts have been launched.

Meanwhile the contract for the TF-2000 Air Defence Warfare (ADW) Destroyer Program is expected to be awarded during the early 2020s. In addition to these heavy surface combatants the Turkish Naval Forces Command (TNFC) is also receiving 2 New SAT Boats (deliveries are scheduled to be completed in late 2019) and 8 Fast Patrol Boats (deliveries started in February 2019 and as of 2 October 6 boats have already entered the service of the TNF) from Yonca-Onuk Shipyard under the contracts awarded by the SSB on 6 October 2017. As of 2 October 2019, the TNF’s submarine fleet consists of 4 AY Class, 4 PREVEZE Class and 4 GÜR Class Submarines. The deliveries of Type 214TN REİS Class Submarines will be completed during 2022-2027.

The 3,640-ton GABYA Class Frigates have been modernized locally from May 2007 to August 2012 at Gölcük Naval Shipyard with the integration of indigenously developed GENESIS Combat Management System (CMS), which has greatly enhanced their capabilities compared to the original design (with the GENESIS GABYA Class that can track over 1,000 tactical surface and air targets simultaneously, while in the original configuration only 64 targets can be tracked simultaneously). The GABYA Class Frigates are also equipped with the ASIST landing platform system so that they can accommodate two S-70B SeaHawk ASW/ASuW Naval Helicopters. In order to meet the Anti Air Warfare capability of the TNF, during 2012-2014 four of the GABYA Class Frigates (TCG Gediz, TCG Gökova, TCG Göksu and TCG Giresun) have been upgraded with an 8-cell Mk-41 VLS, located forward of Mk-13 Mod 4 launcher (for RIM-66E5 SM-1 Block VIA missiles) and SMART-S Mk2 3D radar that replaced the AN/SPS-49(V)4 radar. Thanks to the Mk-41 VLS’ quad-pack feature the modernized GABYA Class Frigates and have the 32 RIM-162B Block I Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles (ESSMs) in addition to 36 SM-1 Block VIA missiles. Moreover, their Mk-92 STIR Mod 2 Fire Control System was upgraded to the Mod 12 level. The existing Phalanx Mk-15 Block 0 (Mod 1) CIWSs on board GABYA Class Frigates will be upgraded soon to Block 1B Baseline 2 configuration level. According to current plans four of the GABYA Class Frigates that did not receive Mk-41 VLS and SMART-S the Mk2 radar upgrade will be replaced with TF-2000 ADW Destroyers starting from 2027 and the remaining four frigates upgraded with Mk-41 VLS and SMART-S Mk2 radar will be replaced with TF-100 Frigates after the 2030s.

The BARBAROS Class Frigates (Track IIA and Track IIB) were also upgraded locally during the 2012-2015 time frame with the replacement of the old AWS-9/Type 996 surveillance radars that were criticized for their low MTBF figures, with the SMART-S Mk2 and the obsolete 8-cell Mk-29 SeaSparrow launcher with 8-cell Mk-41 VLS for 32 ESSMs on TCG Barbaros (F-244), TCG OruçReis (F-245), while the existing 16-cell Mk-41 VLSs on TCG SalihReis (F-246) and TCG KemalReis (F-247) were upgraded to Baseline VII configuration. Thanks to the Baseline VII upgrade the number of RIM-162B Blok I ESSMs on Track IIB Frigates were increased to 64 (but, due to total weight, capacity and stability issues the frigates usually are armed with a mix of 40 ESSM [32] and SeaSparrow [8] missiles). The Thales SMART-S Mk2 3D radars already installed or to be installed on TNF vessels and have been manufactured under license since 2009 at Aselsan facilities in Ankara. Aselsan also provides T/R modules (over 200 modules have been exported) to Thales for 3D SMART-S Mk2 radars. On April 3, 2018 an Aselsan-Havelsan Business Partnership was signed in an agreement with the Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB, as of 10 July 2018 the name of Undersecretariat for Defence Industries [SSM] was changed to the SSB) for the Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) of the BARBAROS Class Frigates in service of the TNF. The contract became effective on 9 August 2018 (T0 started) and the System Requirements Features meeting was held on the 5th and 6th of February 2019. The TNF currently operates four BARBAROS Class Multipurpose Frigates that entered the service during 1997-2000; TCG Barbaros, TCG OrucReis, TCG SalihReis and TCG KemalReis. Two of them were constructed by the Blohm + Voss Shipyard in Hamburg, Germany, and the remaining two were constructed at the Gölcük Naval Shipyard in Turkey with technical support and material packages provided by the Blohm + Voss Shipyard. Under the contract the MLU upgrade of the first frigate would be completed in November 2022 and deliveries are scheduled to be completed by 2024. Under the contract, the existing Combat Management System (CMS, STACOS Mod 3/TACTICOS with 12 operator consoles) will be replaced by a national network enabled CMS namely ‘ADVENT’, and some of the existing weapons/sensors will be replaced with new ones on a one-to-one basis. In this context, the AWS-06 Dolphin radar is expected to be replaced with Aselsan’s MAR-D AESA radar, Sea Guard CIWS with three Sea Zenith four-barrelled 25mm gun mounts are expected to be replaced with one Phalanx Mk-15 Block 1B Baseline 2 and two of Aselsan’s 25mm STOP stabilized gun systems (at the aft section at starboard and port), the existing AN/SQS-56 hull mounted sonar will be replaced with a new generation Mid-Frequency Band (1kHz-10kHz) active/passive FERSAH (indigenously developed by Aselsan and Armelsan) Sonar System, existing AN/SLQ-25 Nixie Torpedo Decoy/Defence System will be replaced with Aselsan’s HIZIR Torpedo Defence System, Aselsan’s ARES-2NC Radar ESM and AREAS-2NC Naval Electronic Attack (EA) Systems will replace the existing Cutlas-1B ESM, and Scorpion-B EA Systems and an indigenous 127mm (5/54) Gun Fire Control System will be integrated on the vessels. The BARBAROS Class Frigates will also be integrated with Aselsan’s Lazer Warning System, PIRI-KATS IRST System and a dual-band Fire Control Radar (AKR-D Block-B1/B2, X and Ka-Band radar with 120km range) for the ESSM. The BARBAROS Class Frigate MLU Contract also includes an option for the integration of Armelsan’s ARAS-2023 Diver Detection Sonar System on four vessels. The MLU is designed to extend the BARBAROS Class Frigates’ operational life until 2040s when they are planned to be replaced by TF-100 Frigates.

The YAVUZ Class Frigates are receiving very limited upgrades which are mainly focused on the replacement of the existing Racal Cutlas-B1 Radar ESM System with Aselsan’s ARES-2NC Radar ESM System and the replacement of the existing decoy launcher with the Aselsan Decoy Launcher ASELDAS under the MEHS-Yavuz (National Electronic Warfare Suit for YAVUZ Class) Program. In 2018, Aselsan secured a contract to deliver an undisclosed number of AREAS-2NC EA Systems to replace the existing Scorpion-B EA System. It is not yet clear whether the contract covers both YAVUZ and BARBAROS Class Frigates or if it just covers the BARBAROS Class. According to Aselsan, the prototype AREAS-2NC EA System (on board YAVUZ Class TCG Fatih Frigate) and which is integrated with ARES-2NC ESM, was tested successfully during the NATO NEMO - Naval Electromagnetic Operations held in Antalya, Turkey during 30 October – 4 November 2017. The AREAS-2NC EA System features an RF solid state amplifier and a mechanically directed stabilized dish antenna structure. The first MEHS was integrated on the TCG Fatih Frigate and the Sea Acceptance Tests were completed in December 2017. Integration efforts on the remaining three frigates were completed in 2018.



As a major example of the successful cooperation and interaction between the Turkish Navy and the Turkish Defence Industry, the MilGem (National Ship) Project represents a milestone in the development of Turkey’s indigenous capability to design, build and integrate naval vessels. Under the MilGem Project four ADA Class Corvettes were constructed at the Istanbul Naval Shipyard. The first ship of ADA Class Corvettes, the TCG Heybeliada (F-511) was commissioned on 27 September 2011, and the second vessel the TCG Büyükada (F-512) was commissioned on 27 September 2013, and the third vessel, the TCG Burgazada (F-513) was commissioned on 4 November 2018 and the last vessel, the TCG Kınalıada (F-514) was commissioned on 29 September 2019. TCG Burgazada was launched in June 2016 and TCG Kınalıada was launched on 3 July 2017. Compared to the first two ships, the second and third corvettes are slightly updated and integrated with network enabled CMS ‘ADVENT’ (replacing the existing GENESIS CMS on board first two ships), Aselsan’s HIZIR Torpedo Defence System (replacing the existing Ultra Electronics Sea Sentor Surface Ship Torpedo Defence System), SeaEye-AHTAPOT EO Reconnaissance and Surveillance System (replacing AselFLIR-300D) and AKR-D Block B-1/2 Fire Control Radar System (replacing STING EO). ADVENT CMS will be first integrated on the TCG Kınalıada Corvette and then the existing CMS onboard the TCG Burgazada and will be upgraded to the ADVENT level. The third vessel, the TCG Burgazada (F-513) and the fourth vessel, theTCG Kınalıada (F-514) are also stated to feature a more powerful main propulsion system (since the MTU diesel engines are same this power uprate can stem from deploying a more powerful gas turbine on the ships such as the LM2500+ versus the LM2500).



The TCG Burgazada (F-513) and the TCG Kınalıada (F-514) also feature RAM Block-II missiles compared to RAM Block-IA/HAS missiles deployed on the first two ADA Class Corvettes. The TCG Kınalıada is the first ship in the TNF inventory fitted with indigenous ATMACA Block I (with an active RF seeker) Anti-Ship Guided Missiles with land attack capability. Roketsan’s indigenous ATMACA Anti-Ship Guided Missile was displayed for the first time at the IDEF ‘19 Fair. Designed as a long-range weapon system to be used onboard modern naval platforms under any weather conditions, the ATMACA Anti-Ship Guided Missile, with high-precision strike capability, can be used against both surface and coastal targets. The missile has a range of over 220 km and utilizes GPS (Global Positioning System) and INS (Inertial Navigation System) guidance. Equipped with an Aselsan built Active Radar Seeker, the ATMACA missile has sea-skimming capability and uses Barometric and Radar altimeters to navigate towards its target. On the 25th of September 2019 via its official twitter page, the SSB disclosed that a new live firing test with the ATMACA (without a live warhead) missile was recently conducted successfully. According to a short video shared by the SSB on its official twitter account, during the terminal phase, the ATMACA missile performed sea-skimming capability and flew at an altitude of 0.93 m just before hitting the fixed floating surface target.

The MilGem concept enabled domestic production and development of critical technological systems such as; GENESIS (the version on the TCG BAYRAKTAR LST runs on around 3.9 million lines of code of software and can track a tactical surface of over 2,500 as well as air targets, simultaneously) and ADVENT CMS (the version to be deployed on the TCG Anadolu LHD will run around up to 6 million lines of code), the YAKAMOS hull mounted medium frequency active/passive sonar family, 76mm gun fire control system, LPI radar, 12.7mm STAMP stabilized gun system, degaussing system, IR signature management system and laser warning system. While the TCG Heybeliada was constructed with a 65% local content rate, this figure has been increased to 70% in terms of the value of the materials used in the construction and outfitting of the vessels and to 80% on an item basis on the following vessels. The ADA Class Corvettes have a mono-hull, displacement-type hull form. Their overall length is 99.5 meters, maximum beam is 14.4m, displacement is 2,300 tons (2,450 tons with a full load) and their range at an economic speed is around 3,500 nautical miles. The ADA Class Corvettes accommodate a 10-ton helicopter (S-70B SeaHawk) with platform, hangar and extensive service and handling equipment. With their 32MW Main Propulsion System (in CODAG configuration), consists of a one gas turbine (LM2500) and two diesel engines (MTU 16V595TE90), the ADA Class Corvettes can reach 31 knots.

The I Class Frigate Program was launched to construct four frigates, the extended and enhanced version of ADA Class Corvettes which are to replace the aging YAVUZ Class Frigates in the mid-2020s. Istanbul Naval Shipyard is responsible for the construction of the prototype ship. Construction of the first ship of the class, the TCG Istanbul (F-515), was officially launched on January 19, 2017 at Istanbul Naval Shipyard with a steel cutting ceremony. The TCG Istanbul Frigate was scheduled to be operational in 2021, but this deadline has been extended to the second half of 2023 due to delays in assigning a Main Contractor company to carry out subsystems, materials and services procurement and to manage the Project. The other three sister ships (the TCG Izmir, TCG İzmit and the TCG Içel), which were planned to be constructed in private shipyards, were scheduled to follow in the years 2022, 2023 and 2024, but again at least a one-year extension is expected in these time schedules. For the series construction of sister ships, a tender was launched and Dearsan and TAIS were shortlisted in late 2016. But since then, we must assume that either no selection has been made between these two bidders or that the result has not yet been publicized up to this point. The contractual negotiations with STM, assigned by the SSB as the Main Contractor Company for the I Class Frigate Program were completed in late 2018 and the contract was signed in early 2019 and became effective on 27 September 2019. According to President ERDOĞAN’s second 100-Day Action Plan, which was disclosed on 13 December 2018, the contract for the first I Class Frigate should be signed during the first quarter of 2019. The I Class Frigates will have around a 50% increased fuel capacity and a cruising range capability that is comparable to ADA Class Corvettes. In line with the changing and developing requirements of the TNFC, the I Class Frigates will be equipped with a 16-cell Mk-41 VLS (behind the 76mm Super Rapid main gun on the bow) for a total of 64 ESSM Block I and Block II missiles, 16 Harpoon Block II and indigenously developed ATMACA Block I and Block II surface to surface/land attack missiles, Aselsan’s FERSAH hull mounted medium frequency active/passive sonar system, AKREP (AKR-D Block B-1/2) Fire Control Radar, SeaEye-AHTAPOT EO Reconnaissance and Surveillance System, PIRI-KATS IRST System, KULAÇ Echo Sounder System (depth measurement equipment), MILPARS Electromagnetic Log System, Underwater Telephone, ALPER LPI Radar, a pair of 25mm STOP stabilized gun systems, HIZIR Torpedo Defence System, ARES-2N Radar ESM and the new generation AREAS-2N Radar EA System with AESA antenna array, as well as with Havelsan’s GENSIS ADVENT CMS. Can be integrated with a wide variety of sensors and weapons.

The ADVENT is a powerful and scalable C4I System that provides planning, tactical picture compilation, decision-making and weapons control to meet current and emergent threats. The SSB has assigned Roketsan for the procurement of Mk-41 VLSs from the US and awarded a contract on 14 February 2018 for the procurement of 4 Mk-41 Vertical Launch Systems for the I Class Frigates. The contract became effective on 15 March 2018 and Interface Working Group Meetings were held in June 2018 and January 2019. The I Class Frigates will have a mono-hull, displacement-type hull form. Their overall length is 113.2 meters, maximum beam is 14.42m, draft is 4.05m, and displacement is 2,966 tons. The I Class Frigates will be able to achieve over 29 knots and will have a range of 6,570nm at an economic speed (14 knots) powered by two MTU 20V 4000 M93L diesel engines (driving two shafts) and a LM2500 gas turbine (in CODAG configuration).

TAIS (Turkish Associated International Shipyards) is executing the construction of the TCG Ufuk (A-591) Test and Training Vessel (TVEG) for the Turkish Naval Forces Command (TNFC) under a contract signed between STM (Main Contractor) and the SSB which was awarded on 30 December 2016. The TVEG has a similar hull (having a mono-hull, displacement-type hull form) and superstructure design with the ADA Class Corvettes however it is equipped with a different type of Main Propulsion System (MPS). Contrary to CODAG configuration (two 595 Series MTU 16V595TE90 diesel engines and a LM2500 gas turbine generator) used in the ADA Class, the TVEG has a CODAD propulsion system (with only two MTU 20V 4000 M93L diesel engines, which also were selected for the I Class frigates). İŞBİR on the other hand, also delivered the power group of four generators each with a 750kW power capacity and were installed within an acoustic capsule for the TVEG. The TCG Ufuk TVEG will also have a different sensor and electronic equipment layout than the ADA Class Corvettes. The ADA Class Corvettes are equipped with a hangar and a helicopter deck with a single landing spot to accommodate one S-70B SeaHawk ASW/ASuW helicopter. However, on the TVEG even the helicopter deck has been retained and the hangar will be modified to accommodate unspecified electronic equipment and an undisclosed number of operator consoles. To act as “Turkey’s Eyes and Ears in the Sea” the TCG Ufuk TVEG was launched on 9 February 2019 at Tuzla Shipyard with the participation of President Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN, Minister of National Defence Hulusi AKAR, Minister of Industry and Technology Mustafa VARANK and President of Defence Industries Prof. İsmail DEMİR. Following the completion of ongoing fitting and testing phases that will last 40-months, the TCG Ufuk will be delivered to the TNFC on 31 July 2020. At his address during launching ceremony President Recep Tayyip ERDOĞAN underlined that the TCG Ufuk is the 5th MILGEM vessel after the TCG Kınalıada Corvette. ERDOĞAN stated that with a maximum speed of 18 knots and a 10-ton helicopter platform, the ‘Ufuk’ Corvette is Turkey’s first intelligence ship developed and built with national resources and capabilities. ERDOĞAN said: “Today, with the ‘Ufuk’ Corvette, we acquire this capability that only a few countries have in the world.” The TCG Ufuk (A-591), with its command control, electronic systems, test, and training system equipment to be provided by Aselsan, is intended to be used in signal and electronic intelligence missions (SIGINT/ELINT) in addition to the Test and Training Vessel requirements of the TNFC. The vessel will have a length of 99.5 meters, a beam of 14.4 meters, a maximum speed of 18 knots and endurance of 45 days.

To replace four of the GABYA Class Frigates that did not receive Mk-41 VLS and SMART-S Mk2 radar upgrades the TNFC initiated a project called TF-2000 to construct a total of seven destroyers fitted with enhanced anti-air weapon and sensor systems. The main aim of this project is to acquire fleet area air defence capability. Designed by the TNFC Design Project Office the TF-2000 Air Defence Warfare (ADW) Destroyer will have an overall length of 166m, a displacement of 7,000 tons, an overall beam of 21.5m and draught of 4.96m. To be powered by two diesel engines (driving two shafts) and two gas turbines (in CODOG configuration) the TF-2000 ADW Destroyers will be able to achieve over 28 knots. Under the TF-2000 ADW Destroyer Program construction of the first ship of the class, will take place at Istanbul Naval Shipyard while the remaining three sister ships are planned to be constructed at private shipyards. According to the TNFC, the first ship of TF-2000 ADW Destroyers is scheduled to be commissioned in 2027. The main sensor of the TF-2000 ADW Destroyers called CAFRAD, of which a prototype has been under development since 2013. Under Phase-I of the Multifunctional Phased Array Radar (ÇAFRAD) Program a US$79 Million (TL200 Million) contract was signed between the SSB and Main Contractor Aselsan on 1 August 2013. Phase-I covers the design, development manufacture and testing of the CAFRAD Radar System Technology Demonstrator Prototype. The CAFRAD Suite comprises three separate new generation radars (CFR, AYR and UMR) based on the most advanced Gallium Nitride (GaN) Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) sensor technology with multiple digitally formed beams, fully solid state Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules and digital signal processing, up to 12 fixed-panel radar antennas (it depends the configuration of UMR, which has both a single face rotating antenna and a four fixed-panel configuration) and a non-rotating AESA type IFF antenna subsystem. The ÇFR (multifunctional radar) and AYR (illumination radar) are in X-Band configuration, whereas the long-range (450km+) search radar UMR operates in S-Band. The TF-2000 ADW Destroyer scaled model (stated to have a 90% similarity with the final configuration) displayed at the TNFC stand during IDEF ‘19 Fair features a fixed-panel version of the UMR and it was located around the bridge. A scaled model of the ÇAFRAD System to be utilized in TF-2020 Anti-Air Warfare Destroyers was also displayed during IDEF ‘19 at Aselsan’s stand. Each fixed panel of the ÇFR and AYR consists of around 5,000 Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules. The four fixed-panel X-Band ÇFR antennas are located over the mast of the integrated antenna in the ÇAFRAD System over the TF-2000 model and a total of 8 antennas were located around the bridge. The relatively smaller of these antennas at the top section are AYR antennas, while the bigger ones at the bottom are long-range S-Band UMR antennas. In line with the information we received, the ÇAFRAD System to be integrated on the TF-2000 ADW Destroyers will be in the similar structure with the configuration displayed on the TF-2000 scaled model. Activities to assess the utilization of a scaled version of ÇAFRAD on I Class Frigates such as the EL/M-2248 MF-STAR AESA radar utilized on Israel’s SAAR-5 and SAAR-6 corvettes continue. Design, development, manufacture and qualification of Technology Demonstration Prototype of ÇAFRAD, composed of a single-face, fixed-panel and scaled (what is implied with scaling is related with the number of internal modules contained rather the size of the antenna) versions of Multi-Functional Radar (ÇFR-1) and Illuminating Radar (AYR-1) along with the IFF System with a non-rotating AESA type IFF antenna subsystem was completed in September 2017. The Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs) of the ÇAFRAD prototype on the Technology Demonstration Prototype (TGP) Tower were carried out during the first quarter of 2018 and then the ÇAFRAD TGP Tower was integrated on the flight deck of a GABYA Class Frigate (TCG Göksu), with RIM-162B Block I ESSM capability.

Integration efforts including ÇAFRAD’s integration to the ESSM System and GENESIS CMS on board the ship was completed in November 2018. The TCG Göksu (F-497) Frigate first sailed with its CAFRAD TGP tower on 24 November in the Gulf of Izmit and in the Marmara Sea and on December 3 transiting the Bosphorus towards the Black Sea for testing purposes. Live firing tests with the RIM-162B Block I ESSM integrated ÇAFRAD TGP on board the TCG Göksu Frigate were carried out on 11 December 2018 in the Black Sea. During the tests the CFR-1 radar successfully detected TUSAŞ’s ŞİMŞEK High Speed Target Drone, simulating an air target, and it was destroyed by a RIM-162B Block I ESSM guided by an AYR-1 radar. Even if the size of the CFR-1 and AYR-1radar panels used in the tests appeared to be the same size as the radar panels to be manufactured as part of the Mass Production Phase, the number of T/R modules inside them were less than required. Following the completion of the ÇAFRAD Program Phase-I, the contract for Phase-II is expected to be signed in 2019. Phase-II of the CAFRAD Program will cover the development of multi-face antenna versions of CFR and the AYR and the development of UMR (to be based on the S-Band Early Warning Radar System [EIRS] of the Turkish Air Force) and their integration to the ÇAFRAD Suite. According to the SSB’s official website under contract, Phase-II deliveries will start in 2023. The TF-2000 ADW Destroyers will also feature a number of indigenous sensor systems such as ADVENT CMS, new version of HIZIR Torpedo Defence System with a Towed Array containing both low frequency active (DUFAS, Low Frequency Active Sonar to replace the Towed Decoy) and passive sonar arrays/transducers and the YAKAMOS-L low frequency hull mounted active/passive sonar, and weapon systems such as 35mm GÖKDENİZ CIWS, HİSAR-A short, HİSAR-Nokta medium and SİPER (formerly known as HİSAR-U) long-range air defence missiles. The TF-2000 ADW Destroyers are also expected to be fitted with the naval variant of the Enhanced Long-Range Area Air and Missile Defence System (GUMS/UMBFSS, with BMD capability and EuroSam has been selected as the technical support provider) missile systems to be fired from national VLSs.

Under the Multipurpose Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD) Project Contract signed on 1 June 2015 between the SSB and Sedef Shipbuilding Inc. (Sedef Shipyard), the Keel Laying Ceremony of the TCG Anadolu (L-400) LHD was held on 30 April 2016 at Sedef Shipyard in Tuzla, Istanbul. Under the contract the project activities (T0) started as of 18 September 2015. The provisional acceptance of the TCG Anadolu LHD is planned to take place in the T0+67th month (April 2021) and following the 12-month warranty period, the final acceptance of the TCG Anadolu LHD is scheduled to be completed in the T0+79th month (April 2022). The TCG Anadolu LHD is planned to be constructed with a 68% domestic contribution rate. The main Contract for the Multipurpose Amphibious Assault Ship Project includes the procurement of one LHD, four Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM, the Navantia design four LCM-1E will be constructed at Sedef Shipyard), two Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel (LCVP), two Rigid-hulled Inflatable Boats (RHIB), and one Commander Boat for guidance purposes. The total cost of the project is expected to be at the €1,250 Billion level. The design, construction, system integration, performance and timely delivery of the TCG Anadolu LHD are under the responsibility of Sedef Shipyard. Although no special training was required for the construction of the ship, a group from Sedef Shipyard was sent to the Spanish Navantia Shipyard and Sedef Shipyard engineers worked together with Navantia engineers during the design work. Within the scope of the project, a Navantia Office was established at Sedef Shipyard and a special secure (encrypted, no outside access to information) information exchange line was installed. On 30 April 2019 while it was in dry dock a fire broke out in a rope stacking room of the TCG Anadolu LHD. Though no injuries or fatalities were reported in the incident, according to our sources deformation occurred in the under-ramp and deck sections of the ship due to high heat. The Harbour Acceptance Tests (HAT) for the TCG Anadolu LHD are scheduled to start in 2019. The TCG Anadolu LHD is designed to operate even in sea state 6 conditions and even the design of the elevators on the ship has been updated and tested according to this requirement. At the request of the TNFC, unlike the other sister ships in service, the Central Steel Fender, (two rows of parallel steel curtains) will not be located in the well deck of the TCG Anadolu LHD.

The ship will consist of 114 blocks, each weighing at least 200 tons. 11,900 tons of steel plates will be used in the construction of the ship and 1,000 tons of these plates will be made of ballistic steel. While ballistic steel will be procured from abroad as it is not produced in Turkey, 10,900 tons of steel plates will be supplied from Erdemir Demir Çelik AŞ from Turkey. 4,500 ballast pipes, 454 vertical hatches and 650 panel doors are used in the construction of the ship. There are more than 1,000 enclosed spaces, 11 decks and 9 elevators on board the vessel. The Navantia product Integrated Platform Management System (EPKİS/IPMS) onboard the vessel will have 30,000 control and monitoring points. (EPKIS/IPMS used in HMAS Canberra and HMAS Adelaide LHD Ships has 64,000 control and monitoring points while Juan Carlos-I LHD has 50,000 control and monitoring points). Approximately 1,000-1,200 personnel from Sedef Shipyard including 400 engineers work in the construction of the ship. However, with the outsourced workers, an average of 1,400-1,500 people in total work in the construction of the ship in 2 shifts every day. If necessary, the working pace can be planned in three shifts. The TCG Anadolu will be equipped with a CODAD (with five MAN 16V32/40 Diesel Engines) type Electric Drive/Propulsion System, unlike other sister ships featuring Electrical Drive/Propulsion System in CODAG configuration (with two MAN 16V32/40 Diesel Engines and one LM2500 Gas Turbine). The Electric Drive/Propulsion System of the vessel with 40,000kW power generation capacity will incorporate two Siemens product eSiPOD propellers each with an 11MW capacity and 360-degree rotation capability and two bow propellers each with a 1,500kW capacity. The TCG Anadolu LHD is a single-hull steel ship, based on a Navantia Shipyard design platform with combat systems integrated by Aselsan-Havelsan Business Partnership. The TCG Anadolu is based on the Navantia Atlas LHD 26,000 design like the Juan Carlos-I (L-61) in the service of the Spanish Navy and the Canberra Class LHDs, HMAS Canberra (L-02) and HMAS Adelaide (L-01) in the service of the Royal Australian Navy. The vessel is planned to be constructed at 230.8m with a full displacement of 27,436 tons. The TCG Anadolu will feature a 202m long flight deck with 6 landing spots on it and is expected to have a maximum waterline length of 207.2m, a beam of 32m, maximum speed of 20.5 knots (at full load displacement), an economical speed of 16 knots and a maximum range of 7,000nm + 2,000nm at economical speed. The LHD will have a total height of 58m with a design draft (the distance from the bottom of the keel to the waterline) of 7.07m, the floodable well deck will have a draft of 10.20m and the flight deck of the vessel will have a depth of 27.5m with a total height of 20m from the waterline. The TCG Anadolu LHD will be integrated with a pair of Armelsan’s ARAS-2023 Diver Detection Sonar Systems.

The DİMDEG Project was launched in order to meet the Turkish Naval Forces Command’s new generation Fleet Replenishment Ship requirement, and to satisfy the fuel and water transport and supply the needs of surface units in the open seas around the world. On 10 July 2018 Sefine Shipyard secured a contract from the Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB) to construct a Fleet Replenishment Ship (DİMDEG) for the Turkish Navy. According to the contract schedule the DİMDEG will be delivered to the TNF in 58 months following the effective date of the contract. The DİMDEG is planned to enter Turkish Naval Forces service in 2024. The Project comprises two phases: Preliminary Design and Detailed Design & Construction. The ship’s preliminary design has been carried out by the Turkish Naval Forces Command’s Design Project Office (DPO) located at Istanbul Naval Shipyard, while some activities/tests required for the design phase have been performed by STM under a contract awarded by the SSB on 1 October 2012. For the Detailed Design & Construction Phase a tender was launched and in May 2016 and the SSB received proposals from Sedef Shipyard and Sefine Shipyard. During DIEC’s 31 January 2018 meeting Sefine Shipyard was selected under the DİMDEG Project and the SSB was given a green light to start contractual negotiations with the company. On 25 January 2019 Sefine Shipyard signed a contract with the Aselsan-Havelsan Business Partnership for the procurement and integration of combat systems (KKMSES, including Havelsan’s ADVENT CMS and Ship Data Distribution System, Ship Information System and Message Operating System, Aselsan’s MAR-D radar, 25mm STOP system, KIRLANGIÇ EO/IR Reconnaissance & Surveillance System, SatCom system, and GÖKDENİZ or Phalanx Mk-15 Block 1B Baseline 2 CIWS) for the DİMDEG. The DİMDEG will have an overall length of 194.8 meters, a height of 7.2 meters, displacement of 22,000 tons and a beam of 24.4 meters. The DİMDEG Fleet Replenishment Ship will be powered by two gas turbines and two diesel engines and will have maximum speed of 24 knots, endurance of 40 days (minimum) and a maximum range of 4,500nm. According to an SSB statement that was issued on 13 July 2018, many Turkish companies including Aselsan, Havelsan and Turkish Loyd will take part in the DİMDEG Project and the ship will be integrated with the ADVENT Combat management System. “The Industrial Participation and Offset (IP/O) commitment in the DİMDEG Project will be realized with a rate over 77%” the Presidency said in a statement.

Under a contract awarded by the SSB in April 2014, Aselsan completed the delivery of 13 Ku-Band SatCom Terminals to be integrated on FPBs in the TNF inventory. Acceptance of the first batch of Ku-Band terminals was completed in April 2017. Under the contract Aselsan will deliver over 30 Ku-Band SatCom terminals to the TNF for the integration on various naval platforms. Under the KASUMSİS Project contract awarded on 7 May 2015 Aselsan is also producing and integrating 9 X-Band AcroSat SatCom terminals for 3 KILIÇ-I and 6 KILIÇ-II Class FPBs. In accordance with the Program schedule FAT of the first batch of KASUMSİS X-Band SatCom terminals took place in late 2018 and integration efforts on KILIÇ-I and KILIÇ-II Class FPBs were launched in 2019. The KILIÇ-II Class TCG Meltem FPB is the first boat integrated with a KASUMSİS X-Band SatCom terminal. Aselsan’s KASUMSİS X-Band SatCom terminal was tested successfully during the Deniz Kurdu 2019 Naval Exercise. To replace aging FPBs in the TNF inventory, the Turkish Type Fast Patrol Boat (FPB) Program was launched in 2013. Under the Program a total of 10 FPBs (4 firm and 6 optional) will be constructed at private shipyards to replace four DOĞAN, four RÜZGAR and two YILDIZ Class FPBs. The aim of the Program is to develop highly agile indigenous platforms, able to create a surprise effect thanks to their high speed and capability to conduct efficient surface combat through high strike power. Under the Program the SSB issued an RFI document to local shipyards on 25 July 2013. After receiving over 10 responses to the RFI document, a feasibility study was initiated, the result of which were already submitted to the TNFC, which is still working on the Turkish Type FPB Program’s Technical Specifications. Each will be expected to cost around US$150 Million. The Turkish Type FPBs will have an indigenous design, and the SSB and the TNFC will own all the intellectual property rights, and will feature high speed, high strike power (8 RGM-84 Harpoon/ATMACA Block I SSMs, 1 x 76mm Super Rapid main gun, 1 x 21-cell Mk49 Mod 3 RAM launcher and 2 x 12,7mm STAMP systems) and ‘stealth’ (with reduced Radar Cross Section [RCS], Infrared [IR] Signature, Magnetic Signature and Acoustic Signature [Underwater Noise Level]). Turkish Type FPBs are required to be able to conduct operations in high sea state conditions. According to the information we obtained during IDEF ‘19 the requirements defined for the Turkish Type FPB Program were revised in 2018. In this context, for example, the speed requirement of the Turkish Type FPBs was reduced from 60 knots to45 knots. STM developed the FAC-55 design to meet the TNFC’s requirement and Dearsan plans to offer the Norwegian Skjold Class FPB design. With a length of nearly 47.6m, beam of 13.5m and height of 15m, the Skjold Class FPBs have an air -shield catamaran hull design and features 8 Surface-to-Surface Missiles and the 76mm Super Rapid main gun with a range of around 12 km. The Skjold Class FPBs with a quite low RCS figure is capable of reaching a speed up to 60 knots in sea state 0 and 45 knots in sea state 3 with the help of the main propulsion system in CODAG configuration.

Turkish Naval Shipbuilding Industry companies are also active in the field of under surface warfare. Under a contract awarded on 30 March 2011, the system and equipment modernization of two AY Class (Type 209/1200) Diesel-Electric Submarines (TCG Doğanay [S-351] and TCG Dolunay [S-352]) in the service of the TNF were performed by STM in cooperation with Gölcük Naval Shipyard. Modernization efforts, launched in November 2012 at Gölcük Naval Shipyard, covered replacement of existing DR2000U ESM with ARES-2SC Radar ESM, surveillance (BS-19) and attack periscopes (ASC-18) with SERO-250S and SERO-250A periscope sets and aging INS with Raytheon’s Inertial Navigation System. Following the completion of the modernization efforts the TCG Dolunay was re-delivered to the TNF on 9 April 2014 and the TCG Doğanay on 22 April 2015. Meanwhile under a US$1,78 Million contract awarded in 2016 Aselsan developed a national intercept sonar in a 9-month schedule named ASIST (Aselsan Intercept Sonar System) for three of four AY Class Submarines and carried out acceptance tests in June 2017. Following the integration efforts, the Harbor Acceptance Tests (HAT) and Sea Acceptance Tests (SAT) of the first ASIST sonar on-board the TCG Batiray (S-349) submarine was completed in December 2017. As of June 2018, three of the four Ay Class Submarines are operating with Aselsan’s ASIST intercept sonar. The Submarine Intercept Passive Sonar (IPS) manufactured by Meteksan Defence was installed to one of the four AY Class submarines in the TNFC’s service. The Meteksan IPS equipped AY Class submarine took part in the Deniz Kurdu 2019 Naval Exercise. The Intercept Sonar System is located at the back part of the sail in AY Class Submarines, and in PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines it is located inside the hatch bulging out at the nose section. The acoustic detection sensors and low-noise front-end electronic units of the Intercept Passive Sonar and the Intercept Data Ranging Sonar that will be used aboard PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines are being designed and produced indigenously by Meteksan Defence. Meteksan Defence’s MSH-01 hydrophones and their equivalents are retained as spare parts for the AY and PREVEZE Class Submarines’ Cylindrical Hydrophone Arrays, Passive Ranging Sonars and Own Noise Measuring Systems.

Currently two different modernization projects composed of MÜREN CMS Implementation and Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) Program are being conducted in parallel for PREVEZE Class Submarines. Initially the MÜREN CMS PREVEZE Class Implementation Project was launched, and this Project covers a total of four submarines. Under the MÜREN Integrated Underwater Combat Management System (CMS) Program, which is carried out in cooperation between the TNFC’s Research Center Command (ARMERKOM) and TÜBİTAK BİLGEM, two (TCG Doğanay and TCG Dolunay) of four AY Class Submarines in the service of the TNF have been integrated with national Submarine CMS dubbed “MÜREN” under a contract signed in 2016 between TÜBİTAK BİLGEM and the TNFC. The contract for the AY Class covers the deliveries of 1 Ground Station System and 2 Submarine Systems. Within the scope of the Project conducted under the cooperation of the ARMERKOM of the TNFC, Gölcük Naval Shipyard and TÜBİTAK BİLGEM, modern heavyweight torpedo firing capability, target motion analyses (TMA) capability via sonar, periscope and ESM data, track management capability and an indigenous weapon control unit capability have been added to the AY Class Submarines. The Project was completed in 2.5 years and the activities under warranty are currently ongoing. MÜREN CMS is currently operational on the TCG Doğanay (S-351) and the TCG Dolunay (S-352) Submarines. According to the information we received, 8 torpedoes were launched in 2018 as part of the test campaign. With these tests Turkey became the first country in the world that successfully fired a DM2A4 heavyweight torpedo from a Type 209/1200 Class Submarine. As Mk-48 Mod 6AT and AKYA Heavy Weight Torpedoes are not identified within the scope of this project, only DM2A4 SeeHecht Heavyweight Torpedoes could be launched by MÜREN CMS. With MÜREN CMS, AY Class Submarines can perform 4 different heavyweight torpedo engagement simultaneously. Under the second phase of the MÜREN CMS Program, for which the contract was signed in August 2017, the dry-end section of ISUS-83/2 CMS on-board one of four PREVEZE Class (Type 209/1400) Diesel-Electric Submarines in the TNFC’s service will be modernized with MÜREN CMS and the modernization effort is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2023. In addition to DM2A4 SeeHecht, Mk-48 Mod 6AT and AKYA Heavyweight Torpedoes can be also launched by MÜREN CMS on board PREVEZE Class Submarines. The first torpedo firing test with a MÜREN CMS equipped PREVEZE Class Submarine is expected to take place in late 2020 or early 2021. Due to the lack of space on the submarine the Combat Information Center (CIC) the MÜREN CMS runs on only two interchangeable operator consoles. In case there is a breakdown in one of the consoles, the software could be transferred to another console. These consoles are manufactured by AYESAŞ. Under the Project, for the AY Class Submarines, AYESAŞ designed and delivered a special console that needed to fit into a very limited area. Due to the success it achieved, another contract was signed in 2018 under the MÜREN CMS PREVEZE Class Implementation Project. As the sub-contractor of TÜBİTAK BİLGEM, YALTES will be developing and delivering the requested operator consoles, electronic cabinets, combat data/video networks and Local Launching Panels for the PREVEZE Class Submarines. The existing equipment currently on the CIC of PREVEZE Class Submarines will be emptied completely, the ISUS-83/2 CMS will be replaced with the MÜREN CMS. The contract for the PREVEZE Class covers the deliveries of 1 Ground Station System and 4 Submarine Systems. After the completion of modernization of the prototype PREVEZE Class Submarine, series modernization of the remaining three submarines will be carried by a local company. Under the MÜREN CMS PREVEZE Class Implementation Project on 31 July 2018 a contract entitled “Sonar Subsystem Procurement for Integration into the MÜREN CMS aboard PREVEZE Class Submarines” was signed between TÜBİTAK BİLGEM and Meteksan Defence for the local development and manufacture of electronic and signal processing hardware and software of the sonar and underwater acoustic systems, which constitutes the important part of MÜREN CMS to be integrated on PREVEZE Class Submarines. MÜREN Submarine CMS for the GÜR Class Submarines will be designed and to be integrated on the platforms under a separate contract during the second half of the 2020s. In addition, Meteksan Defence has also indigenously developed the sensor elements of the Flank Array Sonars of existing submarines (PREVEZE and GÜR Class), and these sensors have reached the Sea Acceptance Test (SAT) phase. Once the qualification phase has been completed, they will become available for use as spare parts.

On February 8, 2019, the Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB) and a joint venture formed by STM-Aselsan-Havelsan-ASFAT (including KBST as a subcontractor) signed a contract on the Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) of four PREVEZE Class (Type 209/1400) Diesel-Electric Submarines commissioned between 1984-1999. Contract became effective (To started) on 17 July 2019. Following the completion of their MLU modernization efforts the PREVEZE Class Submarines will be re-delivered to the TNF in 2024, 2025, 2026 and 2027 respectively. Within the scope of the PREVEZE Class Submarine Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) Program, acoustic sensors, which are the basic and most important sensor group of a submarine, will be replaced with more modern, more effective and indigenous sensors. In this context, by changing wet-end units of the Cylindrical Hydrophone Array, Passive Ranging Sonar, Flank Array Sonar (FAS), Intercept Sonar, Active Sonar and Own Noise Measurement Systems, the acoustic capabilities of our PREVEZE Class submarines will be improved. Acoustic Sensors of PREVEZE Class Submarines will be provided by Aselsan and Meteksan Defence. The indigenously developed AKYA heavyweight torpedo and ATMACA Block I guided anti-ship missiles are likely to be integrated on the PREVEZE Class Submarines under the MLU/MÜREN SYS modernization efforts. On 5 August 2019 HENSOLDT Optronics GmbH announced that it had received a contract from Savunma Teknolojileri Mühendislik (STM) under the PREVEZE Class MLU Project to upgrade existing search and attack periscopes onboard four PREVEZE Class Submarines. Under this contract, HENSOLDT Optronics will provide a total of four SERO 420 Attack Periscopes and four SERO 430 Search Periscopes to replace L3 KEO (formerly known as Kollmorgen)’s Model 76 Search and Attack Periscopes ordered in 1987 and integrated on the submarines during early 1990s. The MLU is designed to extend the operational life of the PREVEZE Class Submarines until the 2040s when they are planned to be replaced by MİLDENs.

According to the current schedule the PREVEZE Class Submarines will be replaced with National Submarine (MİLDEN) Submarines starting from the second half of 2030s. Featuring a teardrop shape two-deck hull design, “X” tailplane and shrouded screw (although the propulsion looks like a pumpjet at first glance, we assume that a more basic six or seven blade shrouded screw [Kort Nozzle] will be used) the MİLDEN is expected to have an overall length of between 70m to 80m and submerge displacement of between 2,500t – 3,000t. MİLDEN submarines will be powered by a hybrid propulsion system composing 6 PEM Fuel Cell Modules (able to generate 300kW+ power), Methanol Reformer System and Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) sets. In this context in 2018 the SSB launched the Submarine Propulsion System Components Development Project and invited Aspilsan, Roketsan, TÜBİTAK MAM (as subcontractor) and Vestel Defence to submit their bids. Companies submitted their bids in September 2018 to the SSB and contractual negotiations related to their bids were carried out during the 2019 summer season. As per the SSB’s Best and Final Offer (BAFO) request the bidders are currently (as of September 2019) preparing to submit their BAFOs to the SSB. Under the Submarine Propulsion System Components Development Project, the Main Contractor is expected to be selected before the end of 2019 and the contract is expected to be signed in January 2020. The pairing of LIBs and PEM Fuel Cell Modules supported by a Methanol Reformer System could result in a highly capable and versatile submarine that features extreme endurance, very quiet operation, fast acceleration and high dash speeds. But such a hybrid design would also come at greater cost and complexity.

The AY, PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines have been equipped with Aselsan’s Torpedo Countermeasure System (TCMS) dubbed “ZARGANA” along with the ZOKA Anti-Torpedo Acoustic Decoy Family (comprising stationary jammers and target emulator decoys, the self-propelled version of target emulator decoy is under development) with with up-to-date signal processing capability under the DAKA (Acoustic Decoy System for Submarines) Project. Under the Project, valued at TL45 Million during 15 April 2008 – 1 October 2014 Aselsan manufactured a total of 4 ZARGANA TCMSs along with 280 ZOKA torpedo decoys for the AY Class submarines, and 8 ZARGANA TCMSs along with 360 ZOKA torpedo decoys for the PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines. In AY, PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines the ZOKA decoys (LAPİN, MERCAN, ÇİPURA and ÇAÇA in 10cm diameter and 50cm and 100cm length) are launched via inboard signal ejector tubes. Whereas the self-propelled LİPSÖZ (target emulator) and EŞKİNA (jammer) decoys are in a 12.5cm diameter and a 120cm length needed for the ZARGANA Submarine Decoy Launcher for launching from PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines. Under a contract valued at TL34 Million and awarded in January 2015 Aselsan developed a 6-tube ZARGANA Submarine Decoy Launcher to be fitted externally to the pressure hull for the PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines. This makes it relatively easy to install and reload because the pressure hull itself does not need to be pierced and then repaired. Thanks to its full integration into the submarine’s CMS the ZARGANA Launcher shortens reaction time considerably compared to the signal ejector tube launching option. Each of the PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines will be integrated with a total of 4 ZARGANA Launchers (2 at port and 2 at the starboard side). The ZARGANA Launcher can be effectively used up to depths of 400m and since there is no release of gas into the water the submarine’s stealthy acoustic performance is maintained during launcher/decoy deployment and helps it to escape. Under the Prototyping Phase Aselsan will integrate ZARGANA Submarine Decoy Launchers first on a PREVEZE and then on a GÜR Class Submarine that serve as the prototype platform and then the remaining PREVEZE and GÜR Class Submarines will be modernized under the Series Modernization Phase. According to Aselsan, ZARGANA Submarine Decoy Launchers will be first integrated on the TGC Anafartalar (3rd ship of PREVEZE Class) and then on the TCG Burakreis (3rd ship of GÜR Class). The company has already completed manufacture and the Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs) of ZARGANA Launchers to be integrated on the TCG Anafartalar and the TCG Burakreis. According to the Program schedule the integration efforts on the first prototype submarine (TCG Anafartalar) should have been started in March 2018 and integration on all of 8 submarines should be completed by the end of 2019. However, this schedule does not seem achievable. According to Aselsan’s 2017 Almanac the FATs of prototype ZARGANA Submarine Decoy Launchers to be integrated on the first prototype submarine were completed successfully in November 2017. Meanwhile according to Aselsan’s monthly bulletin’s September 2018 issue, the FATs of the second set of ZARGANA Launchers to be integrated on the TCG Burakreis were completed successfully during 30 July – 1 August 2018. As of May 2019, prototype ZARGANA Submarine Decoy Launchers were successfully integrated on the TCG Anafartalar Submarine, the Harbor Acceptance Tests (HAT) and Sea Acceptance Tests (SAT) with the TCG Anafartalar Submarine are scheduled to be completed before the end of 2019.


Under the New Type Submarine Project (NTSP) valued at Euro2,060 Billion a total of six REİS Class Type 214TN Submarines will be constructed at Gölcük Naval Shipyard. Construction of the four submarines are currently ongoing. The construction of the first submarine, the TCG PiriReis, started in October 2015 (it is expected to be launched in December 2019), the second one (TCG HızırReis) started in 2016 and construction of the third submarine the TCG MuratReis was officially started on 25 February 2018 with a first welding ceremony. At a ceremony held on 4 November 2018, the 4th REİS Class submarine the TCG AydınReis (S-333)’s first welding was conducted by President ERDOĞAN. The 5th REİS Class Submarine the TCG SeydialiReis’ first welding ceremony is expected to take place in December 2019. The REİS Class Type 214TN AIP submarines are scheduled to be commissioned between 2022 and 2027. The Type 214TN REİS Class submarines, to be the first AIP-equipped submarines operated by the TNF, will replace four AY Class (Type 209/1200) diesel/electric powered submarines. Featuring ISUS-90/72 CMS the single hull REİS Class Type 214TN Submarines originally were planned to have an overall length of 67.6m, height of 13.1m, an overall beam of 6.3m and hull draught of 6.8m and would have a submerged displacement of 2,042 tons (surface displacement is 1,855 tons). However, later their dimensions and displacement were increased. The overall length of the Type 214TN AIP Submarines have been increased by 0.75m and is now stands at 68.35m (2.05m longer than CERBE Class), with the other key dimensions being a height of 13.1m (without periscope masts), beam of 6.3m and draught 6.8m. According to current technical features the REİS Class Submarines will have surface displacement of 1,856 tons and a submerged displacement of 2.042 tons. The REİS Class Submarines will be armed with Mk-48 Mod 6AT and DM2A4 heavy weight torpedoes as well as Harpoon Block I/II and IDAS missiles. The indigenously developed AKYA heavyweight torpedo and ATMACA Block I/II guided missiles are likely to be integrated on the platforms in coming years. At the beginning of the NTSP Program, the submarine class to be constructed was called “CERBE”, but later in 2014 a revision was made in submarine dimensions to meet the TNF’s requirements and to overcome technical problems witnessed at HDW design. Speaking at a National Submarine (MİLDEN) Workshop on 15 June 2017 the then Turkish Naval Forces Commander Admiral Bulent BOSTANOĞLU underlined that Turkish Naval Forces engineers have found five major design flaws in Type 214TN Submarines and developed solutions for them. The resulting submarine, longer and heavier than CERBE, was renamed the REİS Class.

Local companies are also developing indigenous weapon systems to meet the TNF’s requirements in close cooperation with the ARMERKOM such as the AKYA heavyweight torpedo, ORKA lightweight torpedo, TORK hard-kill torpedo countermeasure system (anti-torpedo torpedo, first phase of sea trials with sonar array have been completed in early September 2018), ATMACA Block I (with active RF seeker) and Blok II (with dual seeker [active RF and IIR homing]) surface to surface & land attack missiles and GEZGİN cruise missile as well as bottom mines with fiberglass fuselages (under the MALAMAN Project awarded on December 1, 2011, KBST-MKEK-TÜBİTAK SAGE developed the prototype and contract for the series production phase which was recently awarded) and the mobile naval mine (under the MAYTOR/WATOZZ Project awarded in 2016 to Albayrak Savunma) against submarines and surface targets. The SIDA (Armed Unmanned Naval Vehicle) being developed under the MAYTOR/WATOZZ Project features the shape of a stingray and is made of titanium and aluminium with a silicone-coated outer surface covered with signal absorbing paint. It has two cameras fitted into the eye sockets of the stingray and can cruise at a maximum speed of 5.5 knots for up to 12 hours. Featuring three integrated engines the SIDA underwater vehicle, a mobile naval mine, can be used for surveillance or assault missions. It can carry an undisclosed weight of explosives and is controlled by encrypted acoustic sound waves.


Conclusion

With credit to the greater participation of the Turkish Naval Shipbuilding Industry and local defence industry companies that complement the increasing capabilities of the Turkish Naval Shipbuilding Industry, as a result of strategies and policies supporting domestic industry that have been implemented by the SSB within the last 20 years, the increase of R&D activities for indigenous products and solutions thanks to the R&D support provided by the Government, the Turkish Naval Forces (TNF) have been able to induct several national systems and platforms during last decade. With the support of the domestic shipbuilding and defence industries the TNF is without a doubt developing into a remarkably powerful and increasingly self-sufficient regional military power and seeks to impose a naval superiority in the Mediterranean. The developing domestic shipbuilding and defence industry is now ready, experienced and eager to take a leading role in the TNF’s future modernization efforts. Once the on-going procurement and modernization programs that based on domestic production of indigenous solutions are completed, the TNF will be robust and a worthy deterrent as it has never been before. As one of the most respected, powerful and capable navies in the Mediterranean and actively protecting Turkey’s maritime rights and interests in the Turkish EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone), TNF warships wave the Turkish flag with great pride on the worldwide seas from the Sea of Japan to the Baltic Sea, from the Persian Gulf to the Somali Basin, from Gibraltar to Panama, and from the North Atlantic to the Indian Ocean

for more , please visit : https://www.defenceturkey.com/en/co...of-turkish-naval-industrial-capabilities-3632

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THE TURKISH NAVY IN AN ERA OF GREAT POWER COMPETITION
RYAN GINGERAS
APRIL 30, 2019



On a dry dock just within eyeshot of the city of Istanbul, large rigs tower over the partially completed hull of the Anadolu, Turkey’s first light aircraft carrier. The ship is modeled on the Spanish carrier Juan Carlos I and is set to be delivered to the Turkish navy at the end of 2020. Once in service, the Anadolu will augment a naval force that is expanding and modernizing by leaps and bounds. Media sources suggest that a total of 24 new ships, including four frigates, will be put to sea by the time Turkey celebrates its centennial in 2023. Complementing these new construction projects is an ambitious plan to retrofit existing ships and submarines with new propulsion, navigation, detection and weapons systems. Most of these upgrades, commentators emphasize, derive from Turkish contractors.

The Turkish navy’s transformation resonates strongly with the political and social leanings of Turkey’s sitting president, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The construction of the Anadolu, the final cost of which remains unclear, is in line with his government’s longstanding agenda of sponsoring large-scale capital projects aimed at demonstrating the country’s sophistication and global standing. An expanded, modernized fleet adds further muscle to Erdoğan’s increasingly aggressive posturing in foreign affairs, giving Turkey the ability to further its foreign policy interests across the Mediterranean and elsewhere. Emphasis upon the employment of Turkish-owned companies in the production of new platforms and technologies reflects the acutely nationalistic tenor of his administration. His advancement of the Turkish defense industry also echoes the synergistic relationship between native manufacturers (particularly those involved in Turkey’s export market) and the government’s new-found assertiveness on the global stage. The navy’s growth is lastly, and most importantly, emblematic of Turkish aspirations to become more untethered in pursuing the country’s national interests. Once the Anadolu slips into the water, Erdoğan will undoubtedly declare Turkey ready to assert itself on the high seas without anyone impinging upon its independence or freedom of action.

Amid increased discussion of world affairs as defined by great power competition, Turkey is often overlooked. Ankara’s ties to NATO, and its diminutive role within global affairs for much of the 20th century, has led many foreign commentators to see Turkey as a secondary power, a power whose interests generally align closely to its Western allies. A cursory look at the editorial pages of the country’s most prominent newspaper, however, tells a very different story. From the perspective of the country’s most prominent media personalities, Turkey is at most a few steps away from joining the ranks of the world’s most powerful states. Attaining such a status, for many leading commentators, is not wishful thinking but rather a birthright that past governments had forsaken. Erdoğan stands out as the most vocal champion of this conviction, making it a hallmark of his administration. While one may be forgiven for overlooking these assertions as nothing more than electioneering, it is clear many within Turkey’s political establishment believe that the country is close to standing shoulder to shoulder with other greater powers. The Turkish navy’s reformation represents an acute example of this emerging worldview, a worldview that increasingly paints the United States as a rival, and at times an adversary, in the path to Turkey’s ascendency on the global stage.

History, Nationalism, and Perceptions of the Turkish Navy

Children who attend public school in Turkey learn that they are the descendants of one of history’s greatest naval powers. Turkish schoolchildren are raised and educated to think of their country as a main character in the making of the modern world. Central to this perception is the emergence of the Ottoman Empire as a hub of commercial wealth and imperial might. The empire, according to elementary and high school curriculum guidelines, dominated the Mediterranean Sea for more than two centuries. While Europeans may have forayed across the Atlantic, Ottoman naval forces demonstrated the empire’s military and economic might through long campaigns along the east African coast and across in the Indian ocean (at one point sending a military expedition as far east as Aceh in Indonesia). Such lessons naturally include discussions of Piri Reis, an Ottoman admiral and navigator who compiled one of the most detailed maps of the Atlantic world in the early 1500s.

The emotive appeal of this view of the past forms an important element of how many Turkish policymakers see the present and future of the country (and, by extension, its navy). For Erdoğan and other senior leaders, Turks have long been denied their rightful inheritance as the heirs of the Ottoman sultans. The empire’s retreat from global prominence was less the fault of its rulers as it was the consequence of Western exploitation. European hegemony over the Ottoman Empire, according to this reading of history, was only partially the result of its superiority in military, commercial, or maritime affairs. Rather, it was through Europe’s manipulation of the empire’s economy and domestic politics that Western diplomats, traders, and missionaries gained an upper hand over the Ottoman state. Instead of reviving the country’s preeminence as a world power, Turkey’s founder, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, engendered a foreign policy that was more parochial and deferential in its outlook. His successors, according to many contemporary critics, chose to sublimate Turkey’s sovereignty and international interests in exchange for European and American protection and support. Erdoğan has repeatedly insisted that Turkey has been undermined by the United States and other NATO allies. Among the most consistent tropes of his speeches since the 2016 coup attempt has been his belief that Turkey is experiencing a “second war of independence.” In alluding to the country’s post-World War I struggle against foreign occupation, Erdoğan has regularly implied that Turks will again liberate themselves from Western influence and help reverse the West’s subjugation of the Middle East and the Islamic world at large.

The writings of Erdoğan’s former foreign minister, Ahmet Davutoğlu, have had the greatest influence upon Erdoğan’s worldview and his consequential approach towards the navy. In his magnum opus, Strategic Depth, Davutoğlu proposed that the country’s history and geographic location constituted the basis for a far more robust Turkish foreign policy. Turkey’s imperial past, he maintained, makes it a predestine naval power. Yet despite their territorial hold over the straits bridging the Black Sea and the Aegean, and their history of ruling lands stretching across the Mediterranean, Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf, Turkey’s rulers have generally failed to leverage these strengths over the last two centuries. In abdicating the country’s “hidden potential” as a naval power, both the Ottomans and the republican governments wasted opportunities to play a more determinative role in global politics as well as their own defense. Turkey’s imperial heritage and contemporary interests, he argued, should compel Ankara to take a more active role within the “sea basins” within its near abroad. Davutoğlu’s original vision, penned in 2001, foresaw a future where economics and shared strategic interests would guide Turkey’s interactions with competing powers. Though he cites the U.S. naval theorist Alfred Thayer Mahan with much affection, Davutoğlu’s musings offered no concrete guidance as to how the Turkish navy should specifically help Turkey realize its innate potential.

Regional Rivalries, Trade, and Domestic Politics

Three present-day trends have helped refine Davutoğlu’s initial projections upon Turkey’s foreign policy and maritime ambitions. Arguably the most important factor at work today is the precipitous rise in regional tensions within Turkey’s near abroad. Syria’s civil war encapsulates many of Turkey’s most profound fears regarding the country’s security. The rise of a successful, emphatically nationalistic Kurdish movement in Syria, coupled with the involvement of various powers and proxies in the conflict, has compelled Ankara to take greater initiative in asserting its place in regional affairs. Several of the actors involved in the Syrian conflict, such as the United States, Russia, Iran, and Saudi Arabia, possess overall strategic goals and interests that conflict with Ankara’s current security priorities. This clash of rivaling interests can also be seen in other areas Ankara views as its maritime periphery, such as Cyprus, Libya, Qatar, and the Crimea. Outside of Syria, the most ambitious forum for Turkey’s proactive security policies lies on the Horn of Africa. For the last decade, private Turkish interests have helped bolster growing military and commercial ties with the governments of Djibouti, Sudan, and Somalia (an effort that has intentionally caused some discomfort in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). Protecting Turkey’s trade and energy interests has also exercised an increasingly strong influence over its current strategic planning. With more than 87 percent of the country’s trade conducted via maritime ports of entry, and a number of transnational pipelines passing through Turkish territorial waters, the country’s naval capabilities have come to figure more prominently in contemporary Turkish thinking. A desire to stake a claim to natural gas deposits off the coast of Cyprus has especially stirred the attention of policymakers in Ankara. The commencement of Turkish drilling operations, as well as rumored plans for the building of a new Turkish naval base in northern Cyprus, are among the most recent signs that planners intend to project greater influence over the eastern Mediterranean.



Still other economic factors have helped shape the nature of Turkish naval policy. Turkey’s plans to build and deploy the carrier Anadolu is but one indication of Ankara’s overall push to develop and expand its national defense industry. Although lawmakers have long nurtured a desire to make Turkey less dependent upon foreign weaponry and technology, Erdoğan’s government has dramatically increased defense spending and has worked diligently to promote state cooperation with native defense contractors. According to a survey conducted by one of the country’s leading defense industry associations, spending on research and development has tripled since 2007, topping more than $1.2 billion during the last fiscal year. This surge in capital investment has produced a number of projects principally meant to augment the Turkish navy. In addition to a new line of frigates and corvettes, known as the MILGEM program, local contractors have come to supply the fleet with a new array of torpedoes, missiles, and sensory equipment. Complementing this commitment to modernizing the Turkish navy has been Ankara’s promotion of its defense industry abroad. Although dwarfed by comparable products meant for land operations, international sales of naval hardware have taken far greater importance in recent years (most notably with Pakistan’s plans to purchase four MILGEM frigates in the coming years).

Domestic politics also plays an outsized role in the forging of Turkey’s new naval policy. Since coming into power in 2002, Erdoğan has promoted large-scale capital investment projects as the touchstone of his administration. Investment in mass public works, particularly in the transport sector, has contributed extensively to his popular appeal and electoral successes. As expositions of the country’s improved prosperity, large-scale construction projects have also provided the Turkish president high-profile venues to herald the country’s growing strength and material capacity. The lauding of the country’s improved defensive capabilities has also provided Erdoğan a basis from which to promote his belief that Turkey is country besieged by conspiratorial foreign and domestic forces. If Turkey did not invest in its military, he told a crowd in 2017, the government would be unable to conduct foreign operations or combat terrorism due to “the covert embargoes applied to our country today.” Yet in his quest to see Turkey utilize only “national and native” sources of supply and design, Erdoğan has also used public investment as a means to consolidate power and punish dissent. The most notable case of his politicization of the defense sector was the government’s decision to cancel a $2 billion contract with the Koç construction conglomerate, which was originally tasked with building the first wave of MILGEM vessels. News that a Koç-owned hotel had harbored protestors during the 2013 Gezi Park demonstrations fed widespread speculation that Erdoğan preferred that defense contracts be awarded to more politically reliable firms. The owner of Sedef Shipbuilding Yard, which is currently completing construction on the Anadolu, has long been rumored to be close to Erdoğan and his Justice and Development Party government.

Great Power Competition and the Future of U.S.-Turkish Relations

As a matter of official policy, the Turkish Naval Forces does not envision radical changes to its mission. Turkey’s overall foreign policy goals, according to its 2015 strategic outlook statement, remain grounded in three basic principles: “stability, cooperation and continentally-oriented projection.” Nothing within the navy’s actions or public statements suggest that it plans to deviate from its current commitments to NATO. More specifically, there are no indications the Turkish navy sees the United States as anything other than an ally and partner. Yet recent actions and statements do suggest a change in posture may be forthcoming. In March, the Turkish Armed Forces staged their largest maritime exercise in modern history. While Turkey’s state-run news agency cast the maneuvers as contributing ”to the shared goals of NATO,” Russian ships later joined the exercises. One former Turkish admiral emphasized that the “Blue Homeland” exercises constituted a message to the United States and other Western powers. The West, he argued, was intent upon blocking Turkey’s access to the energy-rich Mediterranean and “did not want Turkey to join the maritime club of the developed world.” Even greater vitriol can be found in the editorial pages of pro-government newspapers or from watching popular television commentators. Turkey’s modernizing navy, as one commentator put it, stands ready “for war against the fait accompli attempts of Greece and the Greek administration of Cyprus to expand their occupation efforts in the Aegean and the Mediterranean.” Far harsher words and intensions are cast towards the United States, which is generally depicted in the Turkish press as a state hell-bent on undermining Turkey’s sovereignty and interests. With the two countries at loggerheads over Washington’s alliance with Syria’s Kurds, some pundits have openly speculated as to possible military clashes between Turkish and U.S. forces. Should Turkey face off against American troops in northeastern Syria, one former Turkish general recently argued, “they’ll say no and maybe resist a little but they won’t enter into armed combat with the Turkish army over such a small region.” Even in the absence of direct conflict, leading members of Turkey’s foreign policy community tend to see the future as one where the United States and its Western allies are relegated to the sidelines. The world’s future, as one noted expert recently put it, will surely look “more global, more African, more Latin American, more Asian and more Turkish.”

As the hull of the Anadolu continues to rise above the sea’s horizon, it certainly appears that Erdoğan and other senior leaders bank on the ability of the Turkish navy to take a more forceful role on the open ocean. Whether those aspirations are indeed attainable depend upon several factors. When the modernization of the navy began, Turkey boasted a growing economy and stronger currency. After the lira’s recent downturn, the country’s financial stability increasingly looks at risk. Despite statements to the contrary, Ankara’s ability to continue its revamping of its navy also rests on maintaining strong relations with its NATO partners. The Anadolu, for example, was commissioned as a platform used to deploy its expected fleet of F-35 fighters. As of this spring, it is unclear whether Turkey will ever receive the 100 planes it was originally promised. Whether the Turkish navy can truly operate independently of its allies is yet another unanswered question. With much of its fleet composed of new, limitedly tested platforms and technology, it remains to be seen how well Turkish vessels can sustain long deployments or combat operations completely on its own. For this reason, experts still rate the Turkish navy as “an essentially littoral force.”

Yet even if one accounts for these potential limitations, it is likely that Turkish aspirations for greater global influence will endure. In spite of the contentiousness of his rule, Erdoğan has had an indelible effect upon how large numbers of Turks see their country’s future. The revisionism of his worldview, an outlook that casts Turkey as a spited global-power-in-waiting, resonates strongly among citizens at various ends of the country’s political spectrum. Though foreign analysts and policymakers may not include Turkey among other contemporary “great powers,” Turkish political leaders and opinion makers possess no qualms in ranking their country’s long-term potential alongside the likes of Russia, China, and the United States. What that means for the United States is not entirely clear. While Ankara and Washington remain bound together through NATO and other bilateral ties, the desire to match or overtake the United States as a regional and global actor serves as a powerful source of inspiration in Turkey. In the long run, these impulses will likely lead to greater conflict between the two historic allies.


Ryan Gingeras is a professor in the Department of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School and an expert on Turkish, Balkan, and Middle East history. He is the author of five books, including the forthcoming Eternal Dawn: Turkey in the Age of Atatürk. He has published on a wide variety of topics related to history and politics in such journals as Foreign Affairs, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Middle East Journal, Iranian Studies, Diplomatic History, Past & Present, and Journal of Contemporary European History.

source: https://warontherocks.com/2019/04/the-turkish-navy-in-an-era-of-great-power-competition/
 

cabatli_53

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during the terminal phase, the ATMACA missile performed sea-skimming capability and flew at an altitude of 0.93 m just before hitting the fixed floating surface target.
Sea skimming capability while flying less than 1m in terminal phase will make Atmaca an overkill for enemy assets.

the mobile naval mine (under the MAYTOR/WATOZZ Project awarded in 2016 to Albayrak Savunma) against submarines and surface targets.
It is new for me as well. I didn’t know Albayrak group have been awarded to develop MAYTOR/WATOZZ.

 

dBSPL

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Sea skimming capability while flying less than 1m in terminal phase will make Atmaca an overkill for enemy assets.



It is new for me as well. I didn’t know Albayrak group have been awarded to develop MAYTOR/WATOZZ.

This could be one of the worst publicity I've ever seen in my life.However, it has a very innovative (underwater swarm attack/tracking) idea. Just that those who set up this video don't realize where their idea might work right now.

It may be an important "asymmetric measure" against submarine and patrol boats in areas such as the passages or in the areas consisting of island and cliffs where the sonar fixations are difficult.Or it can be developed as an autonomous UUV around coastal waters against sub-water infiltration operations.
 

cabatli_53

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This could be one of the worst publicity I've ever seen in my life.However, it has a very innovative (underwater swarm attack/tracking) idea. Just that those who set up this video don't realize where their idea might work right now.

It may be an important "asymmetric measure" against submarine and patrol boats in areas such as the passages or in the areas consisting of island and cliffs where the sonar fixations are difficult.Or it can be developed as an autonomous UUV around coastal waters against sub-water infiltration operations.
Bro, If Albayrak group develops a working SIDA prototype carrying 20-30kg explosive each (I have serious suspects), It will be a game changer. I think the Watoz will be droped into sea by a surface ship and They will wait until their sonars detect a hostile target. It is no need to lay down them on the seabed. They can wait somewhere inside the water in low energy consumption mode. When a submarine (for exm) is detected, The operators will give command to perform a swarm attack to hostile target. They are going to switch on active mode from hiding positions. The WATOZ can be triggered with hostile acoustic signals of a sonar as well. No threat can escape ıf Turkey can manage to develop it. Aegean sea has natural passages where the surface ships frequently use them. Planting 30-40 of them into those passages may cause nightmare for any ship.
 

dBSPL

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Bro, If Albayrak group develops a working SIDA prototype carrying 20-30kg explosive each (I have serious suspects), It will be a game changer. I think the Watoz will be droped into sea by a surface ship and They will wait until their sonars detect a hostile target. It is no need to lay down them on the seabed. They can wait somewhere inside the water in low energy consumption mode. When a submarine (for exm) is detected, The operators will give command to perform a swarm attack to hostile target. They are going to switch on active mode from hiding positions. The WATOZ can be triggered with hostile acoustic signals of a sonar as well. No threat can escape ıf Turkey can manage to develop it. Aegean sea has natural passages where the surface ships frequently use them. Planting 30-40 of them into those passages may cause nightmare for any ship.
What size of vehicle they can fit a 30-kg warhead with an unconventional propulsion system? There will be many CM and communication subsystems on the same vehicle. It will also require very serious battery space.

That's good in theory, but I'm not sure it's a feasible solution. You will either grow the UUVs considerably and turn them into very expensive instruments, or they will be doctrinalized in a much more limited scope as disposable instruments.
 

cabatli_53

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weapon systems such as 35mm GÖKDENİZ CIWS, HİSAR-A short, HİSAR-Nokta medium and SİPER (formerly known as HİSAR-U) long-range air defence missiles.
upload_2019-10-19_17-24-58.jpeg


This part of article is also important. The rules of games can not be written If you don’t develop and produce national striking and defensive systems combined into national network centric combat management system receiving needed environmental informations from national radar, sonar, sensor and systems. In recent days, The final tests of Hisar-A completed and missile passed into serial production.

 

Oublious

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I have read the article, but still i am thinking our navy is not wher it has to be. A country with 3 side with sea, we need bigger navy.
 

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