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Turkish Missile Programs


Mar 23, 2014
hmm would us sell us f15? in these times I think it is possible because they have f22 abd f15 is an old plane and the russian thread is there.. so some 20 or better 30 f15 would be great for us until we have tfx

Hurshid Celebi

Jul 2, 2015
From 2008, 7 years passed . I am sure we developed and produced missiles with longer range and guidance up to now :

THANKS to Arda M. Orko8

Part III

Contributed by Arda Mevlutoglu
Jul 21, 2008 at 09:13 AM
The third and last section of the thre-part article series deals with tactical missile systems in Turkish inventory, the long-speculated J-600T Yildirim program and tries to give a brief overview on possible future projects as well as current speculations regarding rocket and missile programs of Turkey.

4.1 MGM-140A ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System) Block 1

Except the 760mm MGR-1B Honest John rocket system with 37km range and 2,400km PGM-19 Jupiter MRBM's (Medium Range Ballistic Missile) deployed to Turkey in 1960's by NATO, the MGM-140A ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System) marks an important milestone in Turkish surface-to-surface missile system development history. Not only providing an important tactical asset to KKK (Kara Kuvvetleri Komutanligi; Land Forces Command), the eventual fate of ATACMS procurement and joint production project led Turkey to develop own solutions, signalling the first steps of local investment in Rocket, missile, guidance & control technologies.
First attempts to procure the ATACMS missile systems by joint production through technology transferwere made in the early years of 1990's. Negotitations failed to reach an agreement due to the United States' reluctancy for transfer of technology. After the failure of joint production project, efforts were then diverted to direct procurement of 120 MGM-140A ATACMS Block 1 missiles in two batches of 72 and 48. The LoA (Letter of Agreement) for the sale of the first batch was issued in December 1995, for a cost of USD 50,000,000 and reportedly some associated conditions regarding the deployment of the systems. The missiles were delivered in 1998. Eventually, the procurement of the second batch did not materialize, most probably because of the indigenous artillery rocket and tactical missile projects started.

MGM-140 ATACMS during launch (Photo: via FAS.org)
Designed to replace MGM-52 Lance surface-to-surface missile system, MGM-140 ATACMS is an SRBM (Short Range Ballistic Missile) like its predecessor. From the beginning of development program, which initiated in 1982, it was intended that the missile system should be able to be fired from existing M-270 MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System) launchers and carrying a warhead containing submunitions to a range of more than 150km. ATACMS was developed to attack high value targets behind enemy lines such as SAM (Surface to Air Missile) installations, radar sites, infrastructure facilities, and C&C network nodes.
MGM-140 ATACMS missile design is based on its predecessor, the Lance SRBM. Unlike liquid propellant used in Lance, ATAMCS uses solid propellant. There are four fins at the nozzle section of the missile which are folded in launcher and extended during firing. These fins provide stability and flight control maneuvers. The missile is stored in a launcher pod roughly equal in size to those of six-round M-26 227mm rocket launcher pods. As in M-26, each launcher pod is used once, disposing after launch. Together with the launcher pod, the system is designated as M-39.

MGM-140A ATAMCS Block 1 during launch (Photo: Lockheed Martin)
Guidance and control of MGM-140A ATACMS Block 1 is achieved by an INS (Inertial Navigation System) fed by a ring-laser gyro. Following variants also incorporate GPS (Global Positioning System) aided guidance and control supported by improved fire control systems in the launcher vehicle. Each M-270 vehicle carries a maximum of two MGM-140 missiles.
Manufacturer Vought (now Lockheed Martin)
Warhead type Submunition (950 M-74 APAM)
Fuze M-219A2 Electronic timer
Range, minimum 25km
Range maximum 165km
Diameter 607mm
Length 3.98m
Weight, total 1,673kg
Weight, warhead 560kg
Propellant type
HTPB (Composite)
Rate of Fire
2 missiles in 10 seconds

Table 13: Technical specifications of the MGM-140A ATACMS Block 1 tactical missile system
The MGM-140A missile's flight is controlled via GCS (Guidance and Control Section), which provides all navigation, guidance, autopilot, and internal communications functions for the missile during flight. The system controls determination and calculation of position, attitude, and speed data gathered by internal sensors. Guidance and autopilot functions are provided by software processing within the GCS computer. All internal and external communications of the missile system are executed via GCS software. External communications are basically launch parameter upload from Fire Control System of M-270 launcher vehicle, test parameters from ground test equipment and the commands fed to the fin control actuators for flight control maneuvers

The ATACMS system in KKK played a very crucial role shortly after its introduction to service. During the peak point of Turkey's struggle against seperatist terrorist organization PKK (Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan; Kurdistan Worker's Party), in 1998, Turkey gave an ultimatum to neighboring Syria, which provided safe haven to the terrorist organization's leader Abdullah Ocalan in Damascus as well as logistics, training and weapons. Turkey stated that if Syria refused to expel Ocalan and stop all supporting activities to PKK, "all necessary measures were to be taken". Together with a increased level of activity of Turkish Army's unit alongside the border, ATACMS systems were also deployed to firing positions, supposingly aimed at Syrian SAM and SCUD launching sites as a factor of deterrence.
4.2 Project J: J-600T Yildirim (Thunderbolt)

Without doubt, Project J is the most speculative and controversial weapon system project of Turkey, causing much stir in both internal and international military circles. This effect can be linked to the strategic nature of the weapon system in focus and the mystery surrounded it for years, coupled with an effective disinformation campaign.
The story of Project J, as well as Project Kasirga, goes back to the first half 1990's, when negotiations for the joint production and technology transfer of M-270 MLRS artillery rocket system were failed. After the shelving of the project, Turkey started to seek other alternatives, mainly focused on full sovereignty over critical technologies in order to establish self sufficient missile and guidance technology capability infrastructure. After signing of a contract for the licensed production of WS-1 under the name of Kasirga in 1997, a similar contract was signed with CPMIEC (Chinese Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation) for the B-611 SRBM system in late 1998 covering licensed production of a battery of B-611 with more than 200 missiles, for a reported cost of USD 300,000,000.
An extremely interesting feature of Project J is the associated disinformation campaign conducted throughout the project. J-600T Yildirim was thought to be aredivative of Chines M-7 (CSS-8) surface to surface inertial guided missile which itself was a derivative of HQ-2 SAM system, the CHinese copy of Russian SA-2 Guideline SAM. The main source of this disinformation was an article published in Milliyet newspaper on 14 January 2002. According to this article, The 150km "J" missile, which was produced by the transfer of technology from China was test fired from Sile in 2001. Based on the information provided by "anonymous experts", the article claimed that the missile was very similar to Chinese M-7. The article was supported by a photo of an unknown missile and a drawingof a SA-2 / HQ-2 missile.
For years to come, this article was the main source for claims, analysis and speculations about Project J. The speculations varied widely, ranging from estimates that (although M-7 was an inertial guided missile) Project J incorporated radar, GPS/INS technology to wild guesses about ranges; from 150km to as high as 1,000km. But the truth came to the surface in 2007.

The J-600T was first revealed to the public on 30 August 2007, during Victory Day parade in Ankara. The TRT (Turkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu; Turkish Radio and Television Corporation) commentator announced the system as "Yildirim missile system". During this parade and following two ones in the same year, both launcher and reloading vehicles were shown to the public. Yildirim system was also reported to United Nations Register of Conventional Arms by Turkey in March 2007.

Like Kasirga, Project J from the very start was protected with the highest security measures available. Thus, still few details are known about the project. Even the correct name was not known until very recently. It is now positively known that, from the start, "J" was the code name of the project, which led to unofficial nick-name "Jaguar". The official designation of the missile system is "J-600T" and Yildirim is the late official name of the system. When first appeared, most defence media, such as Greek defence publication ΣΤΡΑΤΗΓΙΚΗ (Stratigiki;Strategy), misidentified the system as "F-600T" hence the code name of the launcher vehicle visible on a plate during the system's first revelation at 30 August Victory Day parade in 2007.

Yildirim's first public appearance caused great excitement in Greek defence circles as well. Greek Stratigiki magazine is apparently one of those which published the story with some false information mixed with the excitement. Note that the missile system is misidentified as F-600T, the designation of the launcher vehicle. The magazine also falsely classified the missile system as MRBM (Medium Range Ballistic Missile), which in fact falls in SRBM(Short Range Ballistic Missile) category.

J-600T Yildirim is a conventional battlefield missile system providing high mobility, designed to attack high value targets such as enemy air defence installations, C3I centers, logistics and infrastructure facilities as well as providing fire support to friendly artillery by expanding the area of effect.

TRT Footage showing the very first Yildirim launchers shown to the public. Not visible in the screen capture, there are three T-300 Sakarya MBRLS launcher vehicles in front of the Yildirim formation.

J-600T design is based on B-611 SRBM developed by CASIC (China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation) as a low cost tactical missile system, with a range up to 250km in improved versions, and as a replacement for the M-11 (CSS-7 and DF-11) missiles in inventory.

J-600T Yildirim SRBM. The missile seen is a dummy training round hence the yellow stripes. (Photo: Selim Talu)
Yildirim system is composed of two units: J-600T SRBM and F-600T launcher vehicle, which is based on MAN 26.372 6x6 truck. The very same vehicle is also used in T-122 Sakarya and T-300 Kasirga MBRL (Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher) systems, providing advantage in logistics. Each F-600T carries one J-600T one an open rail-type launcher and can be prepared for launch in less than 25 minutes, with the vehicle ready to move again in less than 5 minutes. The missile is loaded on to F-600T by crane from a reloading vehicle, again a MAN 26.372 6x6.

J-600T Yildirim Reload - Resupply Vehicle (Photo: Selim Talu)

Reload - Resupply Vehicle (left) at the start of loading process (Photo: Selim Talu)

The missile's flight is controlled by an INS (Inertial Navigation System) which feeds trajectory correction command inputs to the four moving wings at the nozzle section. The trajectory data is load onto the missile's Guidance & Control Unit (GCU) (FCS) on board F-600T before the launch. The FCS in F-600T is also supported by BAIKS (Batarya Atis Idare Komputer Sistemi; Battery Fire Control Computer System) and TOMES (Topcu Meteoroloji Sistemi; Artillery Meteorology System). It is reported that the missile is also able to be upgraded with a GPS/INS GCU.

Manufacturer ROKETSAN
Launcher Vehicle
F-600T (Based on MAN 26.372 6x6)
Warhead type TNT+RDX
Fuze Proximity
Range, minimum 80km
Range maximum 150km
Diameter 600mm
Length 6.10m
Weight, total 2,100kg
Weight, warhead 480kg
Propellant type
HTPB (Composite)
Table 14: Technical specifications of the J-600T Yildirim tactical missile system

Each J-600T Yildirim battery consists of one Battery Command & Control Vehicle, 2 Firing Team Command and Control Vehicles, 6 F-600T Launcher Vehicles, 7 Reload - Resupply Vehicles and one Maintenance Vehicle.

It is not exactly known when the deliveries of J-600T started and if still underway. One of the clues on when the deliveries could have started is the writing on the designation plate of F-600T photographed during 30 August 2007 Victory Day Parade. According to the plate, the vehicle was delivered to KKK in 2001, uggesting the system is in service since at least that year. It is reported in Turkish defence media that at least a battery of Yildirim is in service with 58th Artillery Brigade in Polatli, Ankara. The vehicles shown in parades were wearing desert-type camouflage patterns used in armored and mechanized units of KKK deployed in Southern and SouthEastern Anatolia.

Roketsan is reportedly working on an improved version of J-600T, details of which are highly speculative for the moment. Given that the system was first revealed to the public more than 7 years of its introduction to service, it can be expected that information about this improved version, if there is any, is going to remain secret for some time.

Although there is still much confusion on the subject, CPMIEC officials confirmed in IDEF 2007 that B-611M, the improved version of B-611 was not part of the cooperation program under Project J. Roketsan is reportedly working to improve the performance and design of J-600T, alternatives of which could be sealed pod-launcher box design, improved propellant and increased range, and / or different warhead configurations. Improved or different GCUis also a possibility, though there is minimal -if not zero- information or clue on the subject, hence the top secret nature of the system.


An extremely rare and interesting photo showing what seems to be a mixture of T-107 MBRLS launcher cradle and M-20 3.5" bazooka launchers. This particular launcher, which carries 6 M-20 bazooka's, was used in area defence of an outpost in SouthEastern Turkey, against possible terrorist infiltrations. The system was described by the personnel as "noise and smoke as effective as rockets and being heavy as hell". It is not known if this is a serial production / serial modification version (by MKEK) or just a field modification, though the latter isof higher possibility. (Photo: via Arda Mevlutoglu)

As is the case with past developments and exact contents of past projects, Turkey's future plans on rocket & missile technology is subject of intense speculation. One of the main reasons for this is the secrecy shrouded above Kasirga and Yildirim projects and insufficient flow of information to the media by authorities.
Some of the estimates focuson an improved version of J-600T. B-611M is the main candidate as a possible licensed production or basis of a similar design. Though B-611M was not part of Turkish - Chinese missile cooperation, there may indeed be a project to improve the capabilities of J-600T, either based on B-611M or an indigenous design. Possible improvements may include:

    • Increased range
    • Sealed launcher box design
    • Improved INS - GCU design
    • Propellant efficiency
    • Manufacturing techniques optimization
A clue supporting this speculation is Turkish Minister of National Defence, Mr Vecdi Gonul's statement in TBMM (Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi; Turkish Grand National Assembly) in 2006. Mr Gonul said during a session that "Iran is building missiles, so do we. But let's not talk about the range" It is not clear if Mr Gonul was referring to J-600T Yildirim, or an advanced version of it or a completely new type of missile. He did not make any further statements on the issue.

An interesting point that must be taken into account while examining Turkey's rocket and missile production capabilities is the guided missile projects being undertaken in Roketsan. There are three main ongoing projects in Roketsan which can be summarized as follows:
1. OMTAS (Orta Menzilli Tanksavar Sistemi; Medium Range Anti-tank System): Design and development of a medium range guided anti tank weapon by Roketsan in three phases. Project contract was signed on 17 May 2006. The missile's planned maximum range is 5km.

To cover the short term requirement of KKK, 80 9K135 Kornet E launchers with tripods, 800 9M133 Kornet E missiles and 10 training simulators were ordered with an option for 72 9K135 Kornet E launchers and 720 9M133 Kornet E missiles from Rosoboronexport of Russia. The OMTAS project is currently in preliminary design stage.

2. UMTAS (Uzun Menzilli Tanksavar Sistemi; Long Range Anti-tank System): UMTAS project covers the design and development of a long range guided anti tank missile which is to be used from T-129 ATAK attack helicopters. Project contract was signed on 29 September 2005.
UMTAS will be 1,750mm long, 160mm in diameter and will weigh about 35kg's. In physical size, it is similar to Trigat LR, produced by MBDA. The missile is designed to use IIR (Imaging InfraRed) guidance, capable of providing LOBL (Lock On Before Launch) or LOAL (Lock On After Launch) modes followed by a "fire-and-forget" homing phase. The missile is not using guidance wire; communication with the launch helicopter will be conducted with a RF (Radio Frequency) link that will pass seeker imagery back to the gunner. The missile will have a minimum range of 500m and a maximum range of 8km. The tandem warhead is intended to cope with explosive reactive armour.

3. Cirit (Jereed): A laser guided version 2.75" air launched rockets was first considered during the cancelled ATAK project in late 1990's. Roketsan started early preliminary design studies in accordance with the ATAK project, but Cirit gained momentum after the launch of ATAK-II.
Cirit is basically a laser guided version of current 2.75" FFAR's (Folding Fin Aerial Rocket). In size and physical appearance, it shows some resemblence to US APKWS project, though the two designs employ different guidance and control section designs and overall design philosophies. Ground tests of Cirit were completed and helicopter firings are expected to take place in late 2008 or early 2009.
Another interesting development in Turkey regarding to guided weapon systems is the HGSS (Hassas Gudumlu Silah Sistemi; Precision Guided Weapon System) which was first revealed (though on a scale mode) and test fired in Exercise Anatolian Eagle in 2008. The HGSS is reported to be an equivalent of US-made JDAM (Joint Direct Attack Munition) but it is not confirmed if the system has wing kits or not. It is reported to be developed by TUBITAK - SAGE and ASELSAN.
According to the latest developments in indigenous guided system projecst, it can be said that Turkey is investing considerable effort in air launched guided weapon systems. This may be a hint on future projects such as a long range precision guided weapon system such as a cruise missile or a submunition dispenser system. But all these are nothing more than estimates based on current developments.
Turkey is a part of MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime), which is an informal and voluntary association of countries which share the goals of non-proliferation of unmanned delivery systems capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction, and which seek to coordinate national export licensing efforts aimed at preventing their proliferation. The aim of the MTCR is to restrict the proliferation of missiles, complete rocket systems, unmanned air vehicles, and related technology for those systems capable of carrying a 500kg payload at least 300km as well as systems intended for the delivery of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction).
There were speculations on a possible Turkish - Pakistani cooperation on Babur (Hatf VII) cruise missile. This new caused great excitement in Turkish defence enthusiast circles, because of emotions towards Pakistan and the capabilities that babur offer at least on paper. The Babur, which is revealed as Pakistan's answer to Indo-Russian BrahMos cruise missil is considered as being its early stages of design and development. However, the claimed cooperation seems highly unlikely, as Pakistan's technological background for developing a modern-standard cruise missile design based on captured Tomahawk as claimed, is highly questionnable.
Turkey has a long-term strategy on space systems including design and production capability for civilian and military purpose satellites (TurkSAT and GokTurk projects respectively) and establishment of a launch site by mid 2010's. The latter requires R&D stuides and considerable investment in liquid propellant technology as well as trajectory control systems, manufacturing technologies and other associated fields. So far the establihment efforts for a Turkish Space Agency did not give fruits, so it is hard to talk about the presence of a coordination body for these R&D projects. This absence of a higher "umbrella" organization can be considered as an obstacle against development of local technology of advanced guidance & control systems as well as long range missiles.

Being situated in one of the neighborhood of most of the hot spots of the world, Turkey invests huge amounts of money, time and manpower into developing local solutions for defence requirements, remembering lessons learned during the past embargoes in 1970's and 1990's. The threat environment around Turkey is multi-spectral, differing in quality and quantity from sector to sector and to make the situation more difficultto analyze, from time to time.

Military strategy as well as defence procurement roadmap of Turkey is dependant to the threat perception described. Because of the vast modernization of Soviet & Warsaw Pact mechanized and armored units in 1980's in both quailititive and quantitive perspectives, the bloody war between Iran and Iraq and the heavy usage of WMD's, investment in long range rockets by neighboring countries played important factors in decision to invest in developing a local rocket & missile technology infrastructure.

The research and development studiesin rocket and missile technologies have been conducted by foreign assistance, the exact amount and content of which is not fully known for the time being. On the other side, it can safely be pointed out that this amount is decreasing as local industrial experience in missile technologies is increasing by indigenous programs and contributions to international projects.

Future Turkish surface to surface rocket and missile projects thus can be expected to more focus on precision guided, longer range systems, also paving way to more sophisticated solutions to surface and/or air launched cruise missiles.

Jane's Missiles and Rockets
Savunma ve Havacilik (Defence and Aerospace) Magazine
Makephpbb.com http://www.sinodefence.comhttp://www.fas.org
Last Updated ( Aug 04, 2008 at 12:57 AM )
Last edited:

Hurshid Celebi

Jul 2, 2015

Turkish Surface to Surface Rocket and Missile Systems - II
Contributed by Arda Mevlutoglu
Jul 06, 2008 at 12:13 AM
This is the second of three-part article covering artillery rocket and surface to surface missile projects of Turkey. In this article, medium and long range artillery rockets and a number of unrealized projects are covered.

3.4 M-270 MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System)

In the early 1980's, KKK defined it's requirement for a long range artillery rocket system to supplement artillery units and counter the long range MBRL and mechanized threat posed by the Soviet Union and other neighboring countries. Several designs and systems were evaluated and a feasibility study was completed. After the lenghty evaluation process, LTV-made MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System)was selected and an initial contract between the company and Turkey's SSM was signed in late 1987, covering the joint production of 180 M-70 MLRS launcher systems and more than 60,000 rockets. For the production, a Joint Venture was founded by LTV and Turkish companies in 1988.

After the extensive study of the work breakdown structure offered by the United States, SSM came to a conclusion that the industrial benefits and amount of transfer of technology were minimal and not acceptable, the overall project having the risk of contradicting with the long term goals in rocket and missile technology development roadmap. Following the decision to cancel the initial contract, a new project model was defined by LTV and finalized in late 1990 for SSM's approval. Contract negotiations between LTV and SSM took more time than expected and because of the urgency of the requirement, Turkey decided to procure 12 M-270 systems directly from the United States. 12 M-270 launchers and more than 2,000 M-26 227mm rockets plus a training simulator system were procured for USD 21,000,000, deliveries being concluded in mid-1992.

On the other hand, negotiations between LTV and SSM failed, followed by a KKK definition of a final requirement plan covering direct procurement 24 additional M-270 MLRS with MGM-140 ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System) tactical ballistic missile systems. This plan eventually shelved, most probably by the improvements achieved by Turkish companies in artillery rocket systems, notably the cooperation with China and TUBITAK - SAGE's works. It is however not clear which development triggered the other: Indigenous solutions and self confidence gained by local projects or the United States' reluctancy to share M-270 MLRS technology with Turkey. As an example, after the failure of M-26 co-production project, TUBITAK - SAGE reverse engineered the 227mm system and studies eventually resulted with SAGE 227 rocket (qv) that can be fired from M-270 MLRS.

M-270 MLRS during Victory Day Parade in Ankara (Photo: Tolga Yuksel)

The M-270 MLRS or SPLL (Self Propelled Loader / Launcher) as sometimes referred, is a full tracked, self propelled launcher system designed to launch 12 long range artillery rockets in two six-rocket pods or 2 tactical ballistic missiles. It is composed of two main units: M-993 vehicle and M-269 loader / launcher module. The system is designed to have a high rate of fire and short deployment / redeployment times for "shoot-and-scoot" missions. Without leaving the launcher vehicle, the crew of three (driver, gunner and commander) can fire up to 12 227mm rockets in less than 60 seconds. The launcher consists of six rockets, each of which are mounted and controlled in both azimuth and elevation. The firing missions are executed through AN/GYK-37 BCS (Battery Computer System Cannon), a computerized control system with a memory unit, which computes firing data based on the system's location, target location, aiming point, and the effects of meteorological data on the trajectory and re-aims the launcher between firing rounds to improve accuracy. The launcher platform structure provides a self-loading capability.

Number of barrels 2 sets of 6 (=12)
Barrel diameter 227mm
Weight, loaded 24.75tons
Weight, empty
Length, overall 7.06m
Width, overall 2.97m
Height, stowed 2.57m
Height, elevated

Max. gradient 60%
Max. road speed 64km/h
Max. road range 480km
Rate of fire

12 rockets in 60 seconds
Reload time

9 minutes
Crew 3

Table 8: Technical specifications of M-270 MLRS launcher vehicle

M-270 MLRS (Photo: Silivri.net)

The primary rocket used in M-270 ise M-26 227mm rocket with M-77 submunition. Each M-26 rocket warhead contains 644 M77 munitions, which are dispensed above the target in mid-air. The dual-purpose bomblets are armed during freefall and a simple drag ribbon orients the bomblets for impact. Each MLRS launcher can deliver almost 8,000 munitions in less than 60 seconds at ranges exceeding 32km. In addition to MGM-140 ATACMS missile, the launcher is also capable of firing M-28 training free flight rocket, M-26A1 and M-26A2 Extended Range free flight rockets which carry 518 improved munitions to a range of 45km, XM-30 GMLRS (Guided MLRS Rocket), RRPR (Reduced Range Practice Rocket) with a range of 8km to 15km. KKK uses M-26 rockets and M-28 training free flight rockets with MLRS. TUBITAK - SAGE designed SAGE 227's service entry is not confirmed. This can be considered as a possibility, by taking account that KKK's M-26 rockets' are possibly nearing the end of their shelf lives, after more than 16 years since their introduction to service.

Manufacturer Vought (now Lockheed Martin)
Warhead type Submunition (644 M-77 DPICM)
Fuze M-445 Electronic timer
Range, minimum 10km
Range maximum 32km
Diameter 227mm
Propellant type HTPB (Composite)
Length 3.94m
Weight, total 306kg
Weight, warhead 156kg

Table 9: Technical specifications of the M-26 227mmartillery rocket.

A closer view of M-270 (Photo: Tolga Yuksel)

MLRS's missions can be summarized as to complement artillery units by suppression, neutralization and destruction of threat fire support and forward area air defense targets, suppression and destruction of enemy artillery, providing direct and / or indirect fire support for friendly mechanized units. Typical deployment of MLRS is three system per battery in artillery regiments.

3.5 T-300 Kasirga (Hurricane)
The start of Kasirga (Hurricane) project can be traced back to the national efforts started after the US disapproval of M-270 MLRS(Multiple Launch Rocket System) and MGM-140 ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System) co-production program in mid 1990's. After the failure of this program, Turkey started to look at other alternatives. Primary aim was an alternative MLRS system with a higher rocket diameter than T-122 and an intermediate system between howitzers and tactical ballistic missile systems in both firepower and tactical employment parameters.

Chinese WS-1 MBRLS (Photo: via FAS.org)

Several contacts were made with France, Israel and China regarding rocket and missile technology transfer and joint development and / or co-production proposals. China reportedly came up with a good offer in terms of both financial and technological issues. As a result, contracts were signed with CPMIEC (Chinese Precision Machinery Import and Export Company) on joint development and production of WS-1 in 1997 under Kasirga project and B-611 in 1998 under Jaguar project (qv). The Kasirga project with a budget of around USD 250,000,000, covers delivery of a WS-1 battery with a command and control vehicle, six launcher vehicles and six resupply and reloading vehicles plus around 200 rockets directly from China and transfer of technology required for the production of the system. ROKETSAN started production of Kasirga in late 1997 and deliveries started in 1998. Overall 5 batteries were delivered to KKK.

T-300 Kasirga MBRLS during Victory Day parade, 30 August 2006 (Photo: Ceyhun Pursak)

Speculations about Turkey conducting some sort of cooperation on missile systems with China was largely circulating in internet media, discussion forums and sites in early 2000's. Important Turkish newspapers like Milliyet and Cumhuriyet also published some reports on missile cooperation with China. There was considerable confusion and disinformation by the presence of TUBITAK - SAGE & MKEK made TOROS series of long range artillery rockets (qv), false and / or exagerrated newspaper reports and false analyses and estimates based on Turkish defense projects from various sources.

But the confirmation of a long range artillery rocket system in Turkish inventory came from a very different source: The then-Defense Minister of Greece, Mr. Spilyos Spilyotopulos.

During the NATO summit in Istanbul in June 2004, Mr. Spilyotopulos came with a package of Confidence Building Measures to the Turkish side including Turkey's removal of 10 military bridges in Meric (Evros) River, reduction of the Zodiac-type fast assault boats used by Turkish SAT (Sualti Taarruz; Underwater Demolition) by 50 percent, reduction of defense budgets by a certain ratio bilaterally and finally "the removal of Chinese made long range artillery rockets in Gokceada (Imbros) Island". This was the first public mention of a Chinese made rocket system in Turkish inventory. Until then, Turkish defense enthusiast forums like "turkordusu" had found out that the specific system in question was the WS-1 by some analysis and estimates, but the required confirmation came out from this unexpected source.

Having the mysterious curtains removed a little, Kasirga was to be revealed soon. The system was first displayed to the public during the Victory Day parade in Ankara, August 30th, 2006.

T-300 Kasirga MBRLS. There was much confusion about the exact "father" of Kasirga project, estimates switching between WS-1 and WS-1B, even WS-2 . It turned out that WS-1B was not involved in the Kasirga project. (Photo: Selim Talu)

There was widespread confusion on Kasirga - WS-1 connection, since CPMIEC has another WS-1 variant, WS-1B with a longer range and improved flight control system. Some analysts claimed that Kasirga was based on WS-1B while there were also claims on Kasirga being WS-1 and Jaguar as WS-1B. These turned out to be false, since the details of the cooperation aggreement between Turkey and China emerged to the public in late 2007, early 2008. It is understood that WS-1B was not a part of the cooperation, although ROKETSAN'S development work on TR-300 to improve the characteristics of the rocket can be considered as a high possibility given the company's experience in composite propellants and advanced manufacture techniques.

Kasirga reloading and resupply vehicle (Photo: Selim Talu)

Designated as T-300 Kasirga, this MBRL system is based on Chinese WS-1 (Wei Shi; Guardian), with some modifications on the design. In many respects the launcher is very similar to the WS-1. In KKK service, the 302mm system provides long range fire support with the T-122 system covering shorter ranges out to 40 km with the latest extended range rockets and filling the gap between howitzers and tactical missiles.

Chinese WS-1 MBRLS during reloading process. (Photo: via FAS.org)

The T-300 Kasirga MBRLS is comprised of two key parts: The launcher system (T-300) and the rocket, TR-300. The T-300 MBRLS is based on MAN 26.372 6×6 10t cross-country tactical truck chassis which is used by KKK as a platform for T-122 and J-600T. Designated as F-302T, the launcher vehicle's cabin windows are provided with shutters which are lowered before the rockets are launched. F-302T has a fully enclosed forward control cabin to the immediate rear of which is the APU (Auxilliary Power Unit) and additional fully enclosed crew space. Inside the control cabin there are fire control system, GPS (Global Positioning System), Air Conditioning unit, secure communications systems and datalink systems.

Launcher vehicle MAN 6x6 26.372
Number of barrels 4
Barrel length 5m
Barrel diameter 302mm
Weight, loaded ~23tons
Length, overall 9.20m
Width, overall 2.50m
Height, overall 3.10m
Elevation range 0° - 60°
Azimuth range
-30° - +30°
Max. gradient 60%
Max. road speed 70km/h
Max. road range 950km
Crew 3

Table 10: Technical specifications of F-302T launcher vehicle

A 12.7mm machine gun is mounted on the cabin roof for self defense. Mounted at the very rear of the chassis is a power operated turntable on which is mounted the four tube rocket launcher with a traverse of 30 degrees left and right with elevation limits from 0 to plus 60 degrees. To provide a more stable firing platform, four hydraulic stabilisers are lowered to the ground. One of these is positioned to the rear of the cab on either side with the other two at the very rear of the chassis. Combat weight, complete with four rockets, is being quoted as 23t and the rockets can be fired in a complete salvo of four rockets with an interval of six seconds between launch or one rocket can be fired at a time.

Manufacturer ROKETSAN
Warhead type Blast Fragmentation
Explosive type TNT+RDX
Fuze Proximity
Range, minimum 40km
Range maximum (with drag ring) 80km
Range, maximum (without drag ring)
Diameter 302mm
Propellant type HTPB (Composite)
Length 4.70m
Weight, total 524kg
Weight, warhead 150kg


Table 11: Technical specifications of the T-302 Kasirga 302mm artillery rocket.

A typical Kasirga battery is composed of a Command and Control Vehicle, 6-9 launcher vehicles (F-302T) and 6-9 resupply and reloading vehicles, all based on MAN 26.372 6x6 chassis. Each launcher vehicle has four cylindrical tubes for the TR-300 rocket. Each rocket is 4.52m long, has a diameter of 302mm and weighs 520kg at launch, 150kg of which is the warhead.

T-300 Kasirga resupply and reloading vehicle (Photo: via warriorsoul.4t.com)

The TR-300 rocket has four fixed fins and reaches a maximum flight altitude of 30,000m with a maximum speed of Mach 3.6. Maximum range is quoted as 80km with a minimum range of 20 to 30km with a CEP (Circular Error Probable) of ~1% of range. The rockets use a composite solid propellant system (HTPB) and are fitted with a Blast Fragmentation warhead consisting of 26,000 steel balls.

T-300 Kasirga MBRLS (Photo: SSM)

Currently, KKK has a total of 6 batteries of T-300 Kasirga system in service. The press releases by the Turkish Joint Chief of Staff during Operation Gunes in February 2008 had underlined the extensive use of long range fire support systems, suggesting the use of T-300 in the operation. However no confirmaton or visual material such as a photo or video footage was released or leaked to public.

The T-300 system and TR-300 is being promoted by ROKETSAN in various international defense exhibitions and offered for export. It is reported that the export possibility is rather high in Middle East market. Given the past successes of ROKETSAN in United Arab Emirates, this country may well be the export customer of T-300 Kasirga.

3.6 TUBITAK - SAGE Projects: SAGE 227, SAGE 227F PARS, SAGE 230A (TOROS 230A) & SAGE 260A (TOROS 260A)

TUBITAK - SAGE's work on artillery rocket systems started in the first half of 1980's. Initial programs like G-67 and SAGE 71 short range artillery rocket projects were undertaken as internal research and development studies, being fed by own budget of the institution.

When it became evident that KKK was in need of a family of artillery rockets, TUBITAK - SAGE, securing budget from MSB (Milli Savunma Bakanligi; Ministry of National Defence) and extensive support of TSK, began working on longer range and higher caliber rockets. During these studies, cooperation with MKEK was made and the results were 107mm Anadolu and 122mm Mizrak rockets. Both entered serial production, however ROKETSAN later undertook serial production of extended range 107mm TR-107 and 122mm TR-122 and SR-122 series of rockets.

After the failure of joint production program of M-270 MLRS and M-26 227mm rockets, SAGE started work on a reverse-engineered M-26 rocket as a basis of medium range artillery rocket program. This eventually led SAGE to develop SAGE 227 rocket, a 227mm rocket that can be fired from M-270 MLRS launchers. One of the primary objectives of SAGE 227 project is to become self sufficient in ammunition of M-270 system with a more advanced rocket. SAGE developed three versions of SAGE 227 apart from the baseline design: 227B, 227C and 227D, all having HPTB based solid composite propellant, but differing in warhead and aerodynamic characteristics. Prototypes were produced in early 1990's but it is not confirmed whether these rockets were even test fired or not. There are widespread reports in Turkish media that "the first Turkish rocket was test-fired in Konya Karapinar test range on 13 February 1995". As the unclassified rocket development history of SAGE is taken into acount, this date coincides with SAGE 227 project, since PARS rocket was not ever test fired and TOROS project kicked off in 1995.

Investing more in rocket and missile technology, SAGE started work on inertial guidance systems in its METU Guidance laboratory in 1993 by the financial support of SSM. All research and development works were focused on an experimental project designated as SAGE 227F PARS (Programlanabilir Ataletsel Roket Sistemi; Programmable Inertial Rocket System) Started in January 1996, PARS was from the start defined as a "proof-of-concept" program to study the feasibility to develop an indigenous guided rocket system with a range interval of 15km- 45km, and form the know-how base of guidance and control technologies. Several other defence companies like ASELSAN and AYESAS also participated in the program, which was concluded in December 1998. An interesting feature of the project is, all the electronics and sensor systems used in PARS are COTS (Commercial Off-TheShelf) products.

PARS guided rocket prototype. Note the moving control fins in the guidance & control section of the rocket.

Airframe design being based on SAGE 227, as the designation implies, PARS was in fact a laboratory model, being a testbed for experimental studies. It assisted SAGE to form considerable technological experience and infrastructure, which proved to be extremely helpful in HGSS (Hassas Gudumlu Silah Sistemi; Precision Guided Weapon System) project and several other guided rocket and missile system designs.

PARS prototype in TUBITAK - SAGE guidance and control laboratory. (Photo: TUBITAK - SAGE)

Probably the most controversial and popular project of SAGE is TOROS (Topcu Roketi Sistemi; Artillery Rocket System), which is a series of two artillery rockets: SAGE 230A (TOROS 230A) and SAGE 260A (TOROS 260A), 230mm and 260mm in diameter respectively. Often confused as a joint project with China and even with "Project J", TOROS, as well as SAGE 227 series of rockets, is an indigenous program of TUBITAK - SAGE.

TOROS project was started in 1995, again triggered by the failure of MLRS joint production program and frustration by the United States' reluctancy to share technology. Initially funded by TUBITAK's own budget, TOROS became a joint project of SAGE and MKEK in 1996. Preliminary design studies were completed in the same year and ground tests were conducted in 1997. The first tests of TOROS was conducted on 15 April 1999, involving firing of two SAGE 230A prototypes, designated as Bosna (Bosnia) and Kosova (Kosovo) from Sile test range to Black Sea. The tests were claimed to be extremely succesful, reportedly encouraging SAGE to proceed with the development of SAGE 260A. Following the test of SAGE 230A, TOROS project was revealed to public in late 1999. The first test of SAGE 260A took place on 10 February 2000, again in Sile test range and also with SAGE 230A firings, in front of press. These tests attracted considerable attention from both internal and international public.

SAGE 260A during launch in tests conducted in 2000, from Sile test range. Note the discarded sabots released immediately after the rocket left the launcher tube (Photo: TUBITAK - SAGE)

The TOROS system consists of five sub-systems: Launcher vehicle, logistics vehicle and maintenance vehicle based on a 6×6 truck chassis, command and control vehicle on a 4 × 4 chassis and the TOROS unguided surface-to-surface rockets.

SAGE 230A is a 230mm artillery rocket with a reported range of 65km, while SAGE 260A is 260mm in diameter and with 100km range. Both have HPTB based composite propellants. SAGE 230A is fired from two sets of six launchers and SAGE 260A from two sets of four. Both rockets have composite airframes and blast fragmentation warheads. The rockets have four wrap around fins at the rear which unfold after launch with sabots towards the front which are discarded after launch. A fin detent system is fitted to reduce wind dispersion of the rockets.

SAGE 230A (TOROS 230A) rockets (Photo: TUBITAK - SAGE)

The rockets are transported and launched from pods with composite sealed launch tubes. The 230mm launcher pod contains six rockets and the 260mm pod contains four rockets. The pods are mounted on a turntable installed on the rear of the launch platform with powered elevation and traverse. Each launcher would have two pods of TOROS rockets. Launcher reloading time is given as around 12 minutes.

Warhead type Blast Fragmentation
Explosive type TNT+RDX
Range, minimum 20km 25km
Range, maximum
65km 110km
Diameter 230mm 260mm
Propellant type HTPB (Composite)
Length 4.10m 4.80m
Weight, total 330kg 485kg
Weight, warhead 120kg 145kg


Table 12: Technical specifications of SAGE 230A and SAGE 260A TOROS artillery rockets.

There is one prototype launcher vehicle of TOROS, and interestingly, this system is based on Serbian made FAP 2026 BS 6x6 truck chassis, also used in M-77 Oganj MBRLS. In serial production, the launcher chassis would be MAN 6x6 26.281 or 26.372.

A typical TOROS rocket launcher battery would consist of six launchers, each supplied by an resupply / reloading vehicle. Each firing platform would have an advanced GPS and inertial navigation system to reduce into action times and improve target response times. There would be a command post mounted on a 4x4 tactical truck or wheeled armored personnel carrier equipped with GPS / INS, secure communications systems, datalink and meteorological measurement systems.

TUBITAK - SAGE personnel in front of FAP 2226 launcher vehicle with two pods of quadruple TOROS 260A launcher pods. In the foreground, to the left there is a SAGE 260A rocket on its launcher pod, to right there is 230A with launcher. (Photo: TUBITAK - SAGE)

Final validation work on TOROS project was concluded in early 2000's and the system was reported to be ready for serial production. So far, TOROS has not entered production and service. It is speculated that with M-270 MLRS systems nearing the end of their service period, TOROS project may be resurrected and put into serial production. If that would be the case, the main contractor of the project needs to be defined, since ROKETSAN has become the main center of technology and production of rocket and missiles in Turkey, while on the other hand TOROS was a joint project of TUBITAK and MKEK.


Jane's Armour and Artillery
Savunma ve Havacilik (Defence and Aerospace) Magazine
Last Updated ( Jul 28, 2008 at 09:13 PM )

Hurshid Celebi

Jul 2, 2015

Turkish Surface to Surface Rocket and Missile Systems - I
Contributed by Arda Mevlutoglu
Jun 25, 2008 at 06:01 PM
Being situated in the junction of Middle East, Caucasus and Balkans, Turkey can easily be described to be in a geopolitically harsh environment. This directly affects Turkey's threat perception and thus military doctrine and long-term defence procurement policies.

Following the US arms embargo in the second half of 1970's because of 1974 Cyprus intervention, Turkey decided to build up own national defence industry to be self sufficient in most, if not all, key fields and systems required to keep the army's deterrence and the ability to operate even in harsh sanctions. In addition, the heat of the Cold War in early 1980's, the savage war between Iran and Iraq and almost all neighboring countries' massive investment to weapons of mass destruction, NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) weapons triggered Turkey to start a long-term rocket and missile technology program.

This three-part article aims to give a general overview of the current capabilities in rocket and missile technologies and future plans of Turkey as well as providing near history background to help understand the main motives and experiences behind those projects. It is mostly a compilation of open source materiel, supported by first and second hand experiences and observations.


The arms embargo imposed upon Turkey after 1974 Cyprus War is considered as a critical milestone in the re-forming of Turkish defence industry, which was in some sort of hybernation after Turkey's entrance to NATO (Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization). The embargo and the following difficulties to maintain the almost completely US-based military mechanism of TSK (Turk Silahli Kuvvetleri; Turkish Armed Forces) gave inspiration and courage to build up a national defense industry capable of providing most, if not all, critical weapon systems and spare parts to TSK, thus decreasing dependancy to foreign systems.

The height of Cold War during early 1980's, the savage war between Iran and Iraq between 1980 - 1988 and finally rocket, missile and CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) programs of neighboring countries resulted in the transformation of the threat perception of Turkey. By the dissolution of Warsaw Pact and Soviet Union and the expansionist policies of Saddam's Iraq undoubtedly contributed to the said transformation. This new threat environment caused Turkey to concentrate onnew programs and projects in rockets and missiles.

This article tries to give an overview of Turkey's near history, current capabilities and future on rocket and missile technology.


Apart from some major contractors such as ASELSAN (Askeri Elektronik Sanayii; Military Electronics Industries), KaleKalip, Baris Elektronik and research institutions and universities such as ITU (Istanbul Technical University) and METU (Middle East Technical University); there are three key actors in rocket and missile technologies in Turkish defense sector, namely the TUBITAK - SAGE, MKEK and ROKETSAN.


Established in 1972, SAGE (Savunma Sanayii Arastirma Gelistirme Enstitusu; Defense Industries Research and Development Institute) is active in three locations: METU (Middle East Technical University) Guidance Control Laboratory, Ankara Subsonic Wind Tunnel and Lalahan Site, which is 30 km away from the city center of Ankara. The Institute is a part of TUBITAK (Turkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Arastirma Kurumu; Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) and specializes in the field of defense industry.

The main function of SAGE is to perform research and development activities for defense systems including engineering and prototype production, starting with their fundamental research and conceptual design. Most of the projects are performed in coordination with related defense institutions.

The main activities of TUBITAK - SAGE can be listed as follows:

• Development of guided and unguided ammunition systems and related subsystems,
• Software development in areas of specialization such as fire command and control, flight simulations, etc,
• Inspection and measurement services,
• Consultancy services.

TUBITAK - SAGE conducts these activities in the below listed facilities which are distributed to the aforementioned three locations:

• Rocket Motor Ground Test Facilities
• Flight Test Facilities
• Mechanical Production and Assembly Facilities
• Chemical Production Facilities
• Quality Control Facilities
• Warhead and Ammunition Arena Test Facility
• Ankara Subsonic Wind Tunnel
• Materials Laboratory
• Chemistry Laboratory
• Flight Mechanics Laboratory
• Ballistics Laboratories
• Structural Mechanics Laboratory
• Guidance and Control Laboratory
• Sledge Rail Test Facilities

In coordination with KKK (Kara Kuvvetleri Komutanligi; Land Forces Command), TUBITAK - SAGE has conducted several projects, most notable ones of which are:

• TOROS 230 Medium range artillery rocket (qv),
• TOROS 260 Long range artillery rocket (qv),
• Anti-tank rockets,
• Mine clearing rockets,
• 81mm advanced mortar ammunition,
• Artillery ammunition,
• GPS aided inertial navigation systems,
• Air to surface munitions and missile systems

2.2 MKEK

MKEK (Makina ve Kimya Endustrisi Kurumu; Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation) has its roots in Ottoman Empire, as far as 15th Century. The Ottoman Arms industry, which was administered through Tophane-i Amire starting from the second half of 15th century, which was later reorganized as the Tophane Musavirligi (Arsenal of Ordonance and Artillery Marshalship) between 1832 and 1908, and in Harbiye Nezareti (the Ministry of War). The General Directorate of Military Factories was established subsequent to the period of 1919-1923.

The said facilities were reorganized in 1950 under the name of Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi Kurumu. The company has the legal entity, and the capital paid by the government completely, under the Law No.5591, for the purpose of producing most of equipment and tool requirement of the Turkish Armed Forces.

Today MKEK has 12 production facilities and around 7000 personnel, and focuses on four main groups of activities as follows:

• Ammunition group
• Rocket group
• Weapon group
• Explosives / powders and pyrotechnic products

These activities are conducted in a total of 11 facilities dispersed mainly around Ankara and Kirikkale:

• Ammunition Factory (Kirikkale)
• Brass Factory (Kirikkale)
• Heavy Weapons And Steel Factory (Kirikkale)
• Machinery and Gas Mask Factory (Ankara)
• Medium Caliber Weapons Factory (Cankiri)
• Nitrocellulose Factory (Kirikkale)
• Pyrotechnics Factory (Ankara)
• Rocket & Explosive Factory (Ankara)
• Scrap Plant (Ankara)
• Small Arms Ammunition Factory (Ankara)
• Small Arms Weapon Factory (Kirikkale)

MKEK has a wide range of products from pistols to 5.56mm and 7.62mm assault rifles to mortars, aircraft munition and most recently, 155mm T-155 Panter towed howitzer. The company also produces 107mm and 122mm artillery rockets (qv).


Established in 1988 upon a decision of SSM (Savunma Sanayii Mustesarligi; Defence Industry Executive Committee), ROKETSAN is mainly focused on design, development and production of guided and unguided rocket and missile systems and related subsystems. Some of it's main shareholders are TSKGV (Turk Silahli Kuvvetleri'ni Guclendirme Vakfi; Turkish Armed Forces Foundation), ASELSAN and MKEK.

Research, design and development activities are coordinated bu MuGe Directorate (Muhendislik ve Gelistirme; Engineering & Development). This directorate has several project groups for specific expertise areas:

• Internal ballistics
• Structural design
• Thermal design
• Mechanical design
• Guidance & control
• Flight mechanics
• Operational effectiveness analysis
• Aerodynamics
• Weapon systems engineering
• Software engineering
• Systems engineering
• Propellant technologies
• Material technologies
• Composite structures
• Material characterisation
• Warhead technologiesROKETSAN has a composite propellant production line based on Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB). HTPB based composite solid propellant is used as the basic propellant for many rockets and missiles where high ballistic and mechanical performance against extreme environmental conditions is required. A number of critical components required for rocket and missile systems are also produced at ROKETSAN's mechanical, plastic and composite part manufacturing lines.

ROKETSAN's most prominent products are surface-to-surface missile and artillery rocket systems, which are J-600T tactical ballistic missile system; T-107, T-122 and T-300 Kasirga (Hurricane) artillery rocket systems (qv).

ROKETSAN Hall in IDEF 2007 defense and aerospace exhibition held in Ankara, 22-25 May 2007. From left to right exhibited systems are: T-122 122mm artillery rocket system, 122mm modified artillery rocket launcher system, triple 20-round 107mm artillery rocket launcher system on a stabilised platform designed for installation on tactical vehicles, ESSM missile mock-up, ASW (Anti Submarine Warfare) mortar launcher system mock-up and on the stand, three different versions of 122mm and TR-300 Kasirga artillery rocket mock-ups. (Photo: via Arda Mevlutoglu)

ROKETSAN participated in three important international projects in air defence field:

The first program of ROKETSAN was the production of launch and flight motors of Stinger missiles for the European consortium. The company developed air defence computer simulation programs and took part in the feasibility phase SHORAD / VSHORAD (Short Range Air Defence / Very Short Range Air Defence) program of NATO.

The second major international project is ESSM (Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile). ROKETSAN took part in the design and production of the flight termination unit of ESSM in the Engineering and Manufacturing Development Phase. The company currently produces various parts such as thrust vector control, warhead and control sections.

The most current project is the modernization of Rapier short range air defence systems of Turkish Air Force. Final integration of Rapier Mk2 missiles is accomplished and tested by ROKETSAN. The company is also the sole producer of actuators of these missiles.

ROKETSAN is the main contractor of indigenous medium and long range anti-tank guided missile projects, OMTAS (Orta Menzilli Tanksavar Sistemi; Medium Range Anti-tank System) and UMTAS (Uzun Menzilli Tanksavar Sistemi; Long Range Anti-tank System). OMTAS will be used from 4x4 armored tactical vehicles while the latter is primarily being developed for the T-129 ATAK attack helicopters which will be co-produced by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) and Agusta-Westland.

One of the newest research and development projects of ROKETSAN is Cirit (Jereed) 2.75" laser guided rocket system for T-129 attack helicopters. Consisting of a laser seeker, guidance and control unit and moving surfaces installed on a 2.75" unguided rocket, Cirit is expected to enter serial production in 2009.


3.1 RA-7040

Design and development studies for a 2.75" surface-to-surface rocket system were started in MKEK - ELROKSAN division in early 1980's. First firing test were executed in 1983. By using different rocket designs, considerable range values were achieved, but found not satisfactory by the KKK, because the long term aim was to get a system comparable with the US made M-270 MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System).

As the designation implies, RA-7040 (Roket Atar - 7040; Rocket Launcher - 7040) is a Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher (MBRL) system for 70mm (2.75") rockets, capable of carrying 40 rounds. It was designed and produced by MKEK, Cansas division and is in service with KKK.

MKEK RA-7040 70mm Multi-barrel artillery rocket system. Note the firing control unit in the open box. (Photo: MKEK)

RA-7040 MBRL system is basically a 40-round launcher box mounted on a two wheel trailer with hydrolically operated stabiliser jacks and firing control unit. The trailer can be mounted to jeeps and wheeled tactical vehicles; there is also a version mounted in the back of a Land Rover 4x4 vehicle instead of a trailer. The total weight of the launcher without rockets is approximately 1,300kg. The launcher has a full 360° traverse capability and is controlled by a remote-control device with 25m of cable.

RA-7040 trailed by a Jeep (Photo: via internet)

RA-7040 uses Mk40 Mod3 and Mk4 Mod10 2.75" rockets with M-151 (anti-personnel), M-229 (anti-personnel), M-427 (anti-personnel), flechette, Mk5 and Mk427 (anti-armour) and M-156 (smoke) warheads and M-423 point detonating or M-429 proximity fuzes. The same rockets are also used from aircraft and helicopters.

RA-7040 (Photo: SSM)

It is reported that the system is effective through a 40-round salvo on a 200m x 300m area target at it's maximum range. This performace is very much similar to that of an Indonesian 70mm MBRL system, NDL-40.

Diameter 70mm (2.75 inches)
Length 1,400mm
Warhead weight 9,300g (M-151)
Burning time 1.42 seconds
Solid, double base (N5)
Maximum range
Operating temperatures -54°C - +65°C
Rate of fire 40 rockets in 10 - 40 seconds

Table 1: Technical specifications of the rockets used in RA-7040 MRL system

RA-7040 mounted on Land Rover 110 4x4 chassis

Though seeming insignificant, in fact, RA-7040 MBRLS is mostly regarded as an important project, since it is one of the very first succesful artillery rocket system programs undertaken in Turkey by utilizing local capabilities. The project was completed in early 90's and entered inservice in yet unconfirmed numbers. However, most sources indicate 22 - 24 launchers delivered in trailer configuration. Other than the above mentioned Land Rover mounted version, no other alternative design studies were released to public, if any were done at all.

3.2 T-107

The development studies of 107mm and 122mm artillery rocket systems started in the early 1990's, after a cooperation aggrement between MKEK and TUBITAK - SAGE was signed under the supervision of MSB (Milli Savunma Bakanligi; Ministry of National Defence)and SSM. According to the cooperation framework, SAGE was to conduct research and development studies on short and medium range artillery rockets and MKEK was to undertake the production process, using double base propellant technology gained by the licensed production of M72 LAW (Light Anti-Tank Weapon) started in late 1970's. The results were 107mm Anadolu rocket with a 8km of range and 122mm Mizrak (Spear) rocket with 20km of range produced in MKEK - ELROKSAN division (Elmadag Roket Sanayii; Elmadag Rocket Industries).

T-107 107mm MBRL System (Photo: SSM)

The launcher system, designated as T-107, is in fact a reverse engineered copy of China's Type 63 MBRLS produced by NORINCO(Chinese North Industries Corp.), as seems to be the case with Mizrak 107mm rocket being a derivative of Chinese-made Type 63-II 107mm rocket. The Type 63 MBRLS is a system, being in service with a large number of countries and also reverse-engineered by Iran (Fadgr), North Korea (VTT-323) and South Africa (RO-107).

T-107 MBRL System (Photo: SSM)

The T-107 is a 12-round lightweight towed artillery rocket system designed to be used in support of infantry and commando units. The system is promoted to be easily disassembled with basic hand tools and having the capability to be carried in rough terrain, especially for fire support missions of commando units. The launcher has three banks of four 107mm barrels and is mounted on a rubber-tyred split pole-type carriage. When in firing position, the wheels are removed and the launcher is supported by the two trails at the rear which are fitted with spades, which are carried on the top of the trails when travelling, and two short legs in the front of the carriage. Vehicle mounted applications are also possible, as is the case with Otokar 4x4 Cobra, AM General HMMWV, etc.

Number of barrels 12
Barrel diameter 107mm
Barrel length 880mm
Weight, empty 385kg
Weight, loaded 620kg
Elevation range 0° - 60°
Azimuth range -15° - 15°
Launcher length (in travelling mode) 2.60m
Launcher width (in travelling mode) 1.40m
Launcher height (in travelling mode) 1.20m
Rate of fire
12 rockets in 7 - 9 seconds
Reload time 3 minutes

Table 2: Technical specifications of T-107 MBRL system

Otokar Cobra 4x4 armored vehicle with T-107 MBRL system installed. Note the 40mm grenade launcher. (Photo: Otokar)
In addition to the MKEK produced Anadolu, the T-107 system also employs TR-107 series of 107mm spin stabilised rockets, TR-107, TRB-107, designed and produced by ROKETSAN. Both rockets can be fired from different types of 107mm MBRL systems as well. The TR-107 rocket has a reduced smoke solid propellant to provide the extended range. It is fitted with High Explosive (HE) warhead consisting of 500 fragments, which is activated with a point detonating fuze. TRB-107 has proximity fuze which detonates a Steel Ball(SB) warhead with some 2,800 steel balls, which makes the weapon effective against dispersed soft targets such as enemy personnel and encampments.

Anadolu TR-107 TRB-107
Warhead type High Explosive Blast Fragmentation
Explosive type TNT TNT+RDX
Fuze Point detonation Proximity
Range, minimum 3km
Range maximum 8km 11km
Diameter 107mm
Propellant type N5 (Double base) HTPB Composite)
Length 840mm
Weight, total 18.80kg 19.50kg
Weight, warhead 8.50kg 8.40kg

Table 3: Technical specifications of 107mm rockets used by the T-107 MBRL system.

T-107 during firing tests (Photo: SSM)

MKEK delivered at least 48 T-107 MBRL units to KKK and production is underway in KKK's 3. ABMK (3. Ana Bakim Merkezi Komutanligi; 3rd Main Maintenance Center Command). T-107 systemsare being used in battery level sized units of commando and infantry battalions. Each MBRL battery consists of 2 fire teams with four launchers. Typical missions of 107mm MBRL batteries include general support, maneouver fire support and in some cases direct fire support. Almost all of the missions are executed by individual fire teams. Since introduction into service, T-107 has seen extensive use in Southeastern Turkey during internal security operations against seperatist terrorist organization, PKK. Because of it's high mobility, the system is popular among commando units.

Video footage showing a T-107 artillery rocket battery of a mountain commando battalion in Cukurca, Hakkari, firing against a PKK camp from a forward base close to Turkish - Iraqi border during Turkish Army's incursion into Northern Iraq under "Operation Gunes", February 2008. Turkish Joint Chief of Staff frequently reported in press releases extensive use of "long range fire support systems" in coordination with air strikes conducted by Turkish Air Force F-16C/D's and F-4E 2020's during the operation, suggesting T-122 and T-300 systems (qv). However, the above photos are the only released & unclassified visual material of artillery rocket systems used in the operation. Note the 155mm/52 T-155 Firtina (Thunder) self propelled howitzers in the background. (Footage: IHA News Agency)
One of the notable applications of T-107 is the HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) mounted twin 12-round launcher design. The system was first shown to the public during IDEX Defence Exhibition held in Abu Dhabi in 2005. It was reported that the launcher was developed for an undisclosed country in the Middle East, hence the desert camouflage of the vehicle. ROKETSAN's strong relations and export successes in the United Arab Emirates suggests that this country may well be the customer. It was reported that the primary mission of the vehicle would be providing rapid fire support to special forces units.

The most prominent feature of the proposed system is it's computerized fire control and launcher stabilization systems. The fire control system is fed by an INS (Inertial Navigation System) unit, which dramatically reduces reaction time of the launcher well under one minute. The TR-107 family as well as other 107mm rockets can be fired from the launcher.

T-107 mounted on AM General HMMWV chassis (Photo: ROKETSAN)
3.3 T-122 Sakarya
The second fruit of the cooperation aggreement between MKEK and TUBITAK - SAGE in the early 1990's was the 122mm medium range artillery rocket project. By using the double based solid propellant technology of MKEK, SAGE developed a 122mm artillery rocket designated as Mizrak (Spear) with 20km range: Some sources claim that considerable technological assistance was received from Romania to some extent during the design and development of Mizrak and possibly of the launcher system.

After the conclusion of design and development of the 122m rocket, for the launcher system two proposals were evaluated. TUBITAK - SAGE with MKEK - CANSAS division offered the Bora design, which very much resembled Yugoslavian M-77 Oganj MBRLS, especially by the reloading system of the launcher, while ROKETSAN with KaleKalip offered the Sakarya design. Eventually ROKETSAN & KaleKalip's design was selected by the advantage of the computerized fire control system by Savronik and hyro-pneumatically controlled launcher. The prototype 122mm MBRLS on a MAN 26.281 6x6 tactical vehicle was first revealed to public in 1995 and fire tests were executed the same year in Karapinar Firing Range, Konya. Limited series production systems were delivered to KKK for evaluation in 1996 and full scale production deliveries commenced in 1997.

MKEK Cansas - TUBITAK SAGE proposal, T-122 Bora for the 122mm MBRLS project. The launcher design was considerably changed in the prototype vehicle. (Drawing: MKEK, via Arda Mevlutoglu)

MKEK Cansas - TUBITAK SAGE T-122 Bora prototype. Note the interesting launcher box design. The extension is supposed to house crane system for ease of reloading. (Photo: SSM)

T-122 Sakarya MBRLS on MAN 26.281 6x6 chassis seen in a parade during 30 August Victory Day celebrations, 2004 (Photo: Tolga Yuksel)

It is worth noting that by the self confidence gained after the succesful development of Mizrak and then the launcher system, Turkey rejected an attractive offer made by Germany including the transfer of around 130 110mm LARS (Light Artillery Rocket System) MBRL systems under CFE (Conventional Forces in Europe) Treaty in mid 1990's.

The T-122 Sakarya MBRL System is an autonomous, artillery rocket system used for indirect fire support mission during day and night, and in all weather conditions against area targets, mostly with "hit-and-run" style attacks. There are two versions of T-122 MBRLS in KKK service: MAN 26.281 6x6 (earlier production models) and MAN 26.372 6x6 mounted systems; the latter is also the launcher vehicle of T-300 Kasirga (qv).

T-122 Sakarya MBRLS during firing tests (Photo: ROKETSAN)

Launcher vehicle MAN 6x6 26.281 or MAN 6x6 26.372
Number of barrels 2 sets of 20 (=40)
Barrel length 3m
Barrel diameter 122mm
Weight, loaded ~22.20tons
Length, overall 9.20m
Width, overall 2.50m
Height, overall 3.10m
Elevation range 0° - 55°
Azimuth range
-110° - +110°
Rate of fire 40 rockets in 80 seconds
Max. gradient 60%
Max. road speed 75km/h
Max. road range 970km
Crew 5

Table 4: Technical specifications of T-122 Sakarya MBRL System

There are two banks of 20-round tubes on the launcher, which is hydraulically traversed and elevated with a panoramic M-115 sight mounted to the left of the launcher. The rockets can be fired singly or in salvo. A full salvo of 40 rockets can be launched in 80 seconds. Reloading is via a hydraulic loading crane which is mounted on the launcher. When deployed in the firing position, four stabilisers are lowered to the ground under hydraulic control to provide a more stable firing platform.

T-122 Sakarya MBRLS (Photo: Tolga Yuksel)
ROKETSAN promotes the tactical advantages of T-122 as:

• Enters the battle field and takes firing position in several minutes
• Fulfills its mission independently or under battery organisation of six T-122 MBRL's
• Completes the firing mission of 40 rockets in 80 seconds
• Delivers 740kg of warhead in a ripple firing
• Creates harassment on 500m x 500m target area using 40 high explosive warheads within 3-40km range
• Creates surprise effect with short response time without "Adjust Fire"
• Is operated by 5 men crew in regular usage or 3 men crew in emergency case.

T-122 Sakarya MBRLS mounted on MAN 26.372 6x6 chassis (Photo: silivri.net)
The firing mission of the launcher is controlled with an onboard FCS (Fire Control Computer) which is assigned to: • Accomplish Built In Test (BIT) before and during firing,
• Calculate firing data automatically for 122 mm rockets with different warheads using a precise flight simulation software,
• Automatically aim and stow the launcher,
• Fire the rockets in single or ripple in 2 sec. intervals,
• Store up to 20 target locations,
• Utilize metorological information in METCM or equivalent formats.

Negotitiations between KKK and ROKETSAN are underway for sealed launcher pods, which are specifically designed to resist severe environmental conditions such as high or low temperature, humidity, sand, etc. These maintenance free pods are loaded at factory level. The rocket fuses are set remotely by the FCS.

Sealed launcher pod design of ROKETSAN, on display at IDEF 2007 exhibition (Photo: trmilitary.com, via Arda Mevlutoglu)

The T-122 is capable of firing MKEK produced Mizrak and ROKETSAN produced TR-122, TRB-122, TRK-122, SR-122, SRB-122 and SRK-122 as well as other 122mm rockets. Technical specifications of the rockets used by T-122 are given below:

Mizrak TR-122 TRB-122 TRK-122 SR-122 SRB-122 SRK-122
Warhead type High Explosive Blast Fragmentation Submunition (50+ Anti Personnel / Anti Materiel Mines) High Explosive Blast Fragmentation Submunition (50+ Anti Personnel / Anti Materiel Mines)
Explosive type TNT TNT+RDX RDX/wax TNT+RDX RDX/wax
Point detonation Proximity Electonic Timer Point detonation Proximity Electronic Timer
Range, minimum 3km 10km 16km 3km
Range maximum 20km 40km 30+km 20km
Diameter 122mm
Propellant type N5 (Double base) HTPB (Composite) N5 (Double base)
Length 2.87m 2.90m 3.24m 2.90m 3.20m
Weight, total 67.50kg 65,90kg 71.60kg 66.70kg 69.25kg
Weight, warhead 18.70kg 18.60kg 22.90kg 18.60kg 22.70kg

Table 5: Technical specifications of 122mm rockets used by the T-122 Sakarya MBRL System.

T-122 Sakarya MBRLS on MAN 26.372 6x6 with desert camouflage patern on display at IDEF 2007 exhibition (Photo: trmilitary.com, via Arda Mevlutoglu)
The serial production of T-122 Sakarya MBRLS is continuing and as of 2008, more than 72 system has been delivered to KKK, including more than 18 systems to KTBK (Kibris Turk Baris Kuvvetleri Komutanligi; Cyprus Turkish Peace Corps). Current plans include procurement of sealed launcher pods and TRK / SRK series of rockets with submunitions. T-122 Sakarya is deployed either in artillery rocket battalions in artillery regiments of corps sized units or as batteries under mechanized or armored brigades with missions including suppression of enemy artillery, supporting muzzled artillery fire, providing direct fire support into depths of enemy lines and engaginghigh value targets such as air defence systems, command & control centers, supply lines, etc.
T-122 Sakarya MBRLS of KTBK (Kibris Turk Baris Kuvvetleri Komutanligi; Cyprus Turkish Peace Corps) on MAN 26.372 6x6 chassis during Victory Day Parade in Lefkosa (Nicosia), 30 August 2007 (Photo: mucahit.net)
ROKETSAN achieved successful export of TR-122 series to United Arab Emirates with the sale of 10,000 TRB-122 and TRK-122 rockets to be used from Italian made FIROS-25 122mm MBRLS. The company also promotes different versions of T-107, T-122 and T-300 in Middle Eastern market.


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Apr 18, 2010
hmm would us sell us f15? in these times I think it is possible because they have f22 abd f15 is an old plane and the russian thread is there.. so some 20 or better 30 f15 would be great for us until we have tfx
of course US would sell us F15s... the real question is that "would we buy them?" and the answer is "probably not" :D

I've been talking about Russia becoming a new threat and that certain measures should be taken to respond that threat since 2008 Ossetian war... It took a diplomatic crisis for the people to listen to me

we lack vision as a nation

Which is sad

xenon54 out

Jun 2, 2013
Hisar A and O systems took about
10 years to develop maybe Hisar U will take longer. We need ballistic missile defence fast but it will take another 10 years for that.

No shame in getting more F-16 or other aircraft, the u.s is thinking about acquiring more 4.5 generation jets because F-35 is too expensive and not ready.

The air force needs to be like the Israeli one in size, 350+ modern fighter aircraft. We have ~240 F-16,s plus ~45 well upgraded F4,s. That is not enough for Russia. As our military planners stated earlier we need heavy emphasis on Air Force and navy but you can't just talk and not spend. We need to be spending $25 billion a year not $15-18 billion.

Long range cruise missiles that can takeout threatening Russian air and naval bases must be acquired. I think some used patriots need to be acquired as well until Hisar U is ready. Even if patriots arrive in 5 years that's good because hisar u will take at least 10 years. Right now we are depending on American aegis equipped destroyers for ballistic missile defense. If you look they always have a destroyer like that in our area.

F-35 Too Expensive: US Air Force Might Buy 72 New F-15 or F-16 Fighter Jets | The Diplomat

We still want to over haul our whole armored force, and the navy. Current budget is not sufficient and that really does show, the army is completely out dated, we are a driving Cold War museum. Tulpar is ready but there are no orders, 6x6 and 8x8 are not being acquired yet. It will be years until the navy is updated. So far we got new patrol boats and 2 corvettes. Very little progress in the military field over the past decade from the inventory aspect if you look objectively. Btw I am talking inventory not what we are able to produce or planning to procure in 10 years. (platforms)We need more toys asap. Look at the threats we face.
US is spending 3-4% of its GDP on Military while Turkey has 2%, there is room upwards if you ask me.

Hurshid Celebi

Jul 2, 2015

Launcher Production for NSM Missile « Roketsan
Launcher Production for NSM Missile

Under the agreement concluded between Kongsberg (Norway) company and Roketsan, qualification and series production of Naval Strike Missile (NSM) Launcher are realized

Radar Systems | Capabilities | ASELSAN

SMART-S Mk2 Naval 3-D Search Radar
ASELSANCapabilitiesRadar Systems

The SMART-S Mk2 is a three dimensional, multi-beam naval search radar for medium to long range surface and air surveillance. The radar offers capability to provide guidance to fire-and-forget type guided artillery and medium range artillery, as well as approach guidance to UAV's and helicopters close to the vessel. The system offers operational flexibility and preserves its superior performance even under challenging conditions involving combined environmental conditions and multiple target types.

Sea-proven on multiple platforms, the SMART-S Mk2 has been the naval search radar of choice for many navies worldwide.


Sep 13, 2014
Baby on board :D

Milli füzeye hangi radar takılacak?
Uzun menzilli hava savunma sisteminde en az füze kadar önemli bir diğer unsur ise radar. HİSAR hava savunma sisteminde radarı kim geliştiriyor?

Havadan gelen tehdidi algılayacak ve hassas füzelerini harekete geçirecek radar sistemi, Aselsan ve TÜBİTAK işbirliği ile geliştiriliyor. Bu radar, TF-2000 Hava Savunma Fırkateyni için geliştirdiği ÇAFRAD’ın (Çok Amaçlı Faz Güdümlü Radar) geliştirilmiş bir modeli olacak.

Sözleşmesi 2013 yılında imzalanan ve tamamlanmak üzere olduğu belirtilen ÇAFRAD sisteminin mevcut ya da gelişmiş halinin uzun menzilli hava savunma sistemi için de üretilmesi ve uzun menzilli füzelere entegre edilmesi bekleniyor.


Aselsan’ın alçak ve orta irtifa füzeleri Hisar A ve Hisar O’nun devamı olacak Türkiye’nin milli uzun menzilli füzesi hazır. Uzunca bir süredir Ar-Ge çalışmaları yürütülen uzun menzilli füzenin alt yapısı tamamlandı. Çalışmalar; Savunma Sanayii İcra Komitesi kararıyla başlatılacak.

Aselsan ve Roketsan, 2011'de Savunma Sanayii İcra Komitesi'nde alınan karar uyarınca alçak ve orta irtifa füzeleri geliştirdi. Hisar A ve Hisar O füzeleri halen test aşamasında bulunuyor. Testlerin tamamlanmasının ardından alçak ve orta irtifada milli füzelerimiz TSK envanterine girecek.

Kaynak: Kokpit Aero

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