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The Mapilla Rampage in Malabar Under British Rule: Dispelling Historical Myths

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The firsthand accounts of the Mapilla atrocities in Malabar under British rule exposes another chapter of whitewashed history

The Mapilla Rampage in Malabar Under British Rule: Dispelling Historical Myths



When the British East India Company wrested Malabar from Tipu Sultan who signed the Treaties of Srirangapattana dated 22 February and 18 March, 1792 respectively, they found this tiny region splintered into charred and smouldering driblets of principalities and pseudo kingdoms in the wake of Tipu’s death march of fanaticism. Once prosperous cities and towns were now deserted and abandoned. Zamindars and landowners and traders had fled, and vast tracts of once-smiling, lush green fields were discoloured with the congealed blood of thousands of Hindus who had been butchered by the pious barbarian from Mysore.

In this bleak landscape of all-encompassing wreckage and ruin, only one people thrived: the Mapillas who had now reorganised themselves as scavenging bandits pillaging even in the aftermath of war.

Reorganising Malabar

The first task of the British is to reorganise the administrative geography of Malabar, bring order and stability to the region, and stamp their supreme authority in unambiguous terms. And so they divide the geography into Northern and Southern divisions of Malabar separated by the Turasseri River.

Then they divide Northern Malabar into the following chief districts and principalities:

  1. Chirakkal, seat of the Kolathiri dynasty
  2. Kottayam to which Waynad is attached
  3. Kadattanad
  4. A Petty township in Kannur, which is ruled by a Mapilla family, who are now British vassals
  5. Iruvalinad, Kurangot, and Randattara
Southern Malabar comprises these major districts and principalities:

  1. Kurumbranad, ruled by a Raja who is now subordinate to the British
  2. Payyanad, Vadakkampuram, and the northern and eastern regions of Kozhikode.
  3. Ernad, Cheranad, Malappuram, Karimpula, Nedunganad and Ponnani, or in general, the region known as Valluvanad.
  4. Payyormala, Pulavayi, Beypore, Parappanad, and Chavakkad.
  5. Significant parts of the original Palakkad kingdom.
All of these areas are ruled by the existing lineages of Rajas and Samuris. The following areas are directly controlled by the British.

  1. Thalassery and the all-strategic island of Dharmadam.
  2. The Chetwai (or Chettuva) Island.
  3. The Anchuthengu (Anjengo) fort.
Thus, the erstwhile formidable states of Travancore, Kozhikode, Cochin and Valluvanad now have a permanent British Resident in their respective courts who combines in himself the roles of a spy, diplomat, and police who dictates terms to the ruler.

Simultaneously, the British also initiate a series of one-sided commercial agreements with their vassals which enable them to eventually monopolise all trade in this spice-rich region. The namesake Rajas and Samuris are now reduced to a status slightly higher than that of revenue collectors on behalf of the East India Company. However, one happy outcome of the total British takeover of Malabar is the fact that they outlaw and thereby cut off another lucrative revenue stream that the Mapillas had enjoyed for nearly four hundred years: slave trade in children.

Jungle Mapillas

The British annexation of Malabar has come as an additional blow to the Mapillas who are now incessantly seething with rage and reeling under the humiliation of being reduced to powerlessness and penury. They have now become servants and farm labour and are engaged in menial jobs under Hindu chieftains and zamindars and rich businessmen. They are scattered throughout Malabar and their concentration is particularly strong in the Vellatiri district. Out here, one strain of Mapillas acquire a separate identity: jungle Mapillas, a source of dread to the Hindus and a permanent nuisance to the British. They lurk in the darkness of the jungles on the outskirts and would mount savage, surprise assaults with lightning speed, and in general, had converted the entire area into a lawless tract. Even the Raja, a Nair, was powerless to prevent or punish them. They were not a unified and homogenous group but small tribes united under a bloodthirsty chief and impelled by religious fanaticism. Their typical targets included Hindu villagers—both landowners and farmers.

The most notorious chiefs of these jungle Mapillas are Haidros, and the dreaded Elampulasseri Unni Mutta (or Mussa) Muppan who has a standing force of hundred semi-barbaric Mapillas armed and ready. He lives in a fortified house at a place called Tereangnanor deep in the jungles. Over time, his terror has grown to such proportions that the East India Company’s military gives him a friendly warning to cease and desist. He haughtily dares them justifying his plundering and murdering activities in this fashion: “give me and my followers a pension equal to what we get through robbery. My followers have no means of earning a living apart from pillaging this region.”

A common and familiar theme that occurs in the popular (read: secular), mainstream narratives about the history of Mapillas is to justify their murdering and plundering sprees by blaming the Hindu zamindars who had apparently pushed them into poverty. However, this narrative conveniently omits the fact that there were greater numbers of Hindus who like the Mapillas also worked as labourers and did other menial jobs. They were poor alike and there is no evidence to show that they resorted to plunder and murder.

The British decide to call Unni Mutta’s bluff. Major Dow gives him an ultimatum, which he rebuffs again. And then, Captain Burchall marches with a solid force and surrounds his fortified mansion. After a short fight, Unni Mutta escapes but his men are caught and imprisoned and his ill-gotten lands are confiscated.

A Little-Known Legacy of Pazhassi Raja

Which brings us to the inspiring tale of Pazhassi Raja, the indomitable fighter who gave equal opportunity offence to both the British and the Mapilla menace. The 2009 Malayalam biopic on him entitled Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja plays the secularist trumpet and dances to the Communist drumbeat by portraying him merely as a great warrior who fought only against the British.

Primary records tell a different story.

By 1793, Pazhassi Raja has not only eclipsed his weakling uncle Kurumbranad Raja by the dint of his Kshatra, he has transformed the Padinyara Kovilakam (or western palace) of Kottayam as a seat that radiated power, pride, and self-respect. The headquarters of the Padinyara Kovilakam is Pazhassi, now a village in Mattannur. Unlike his uncle, Pazhassi Raja is fully aware of the menace that the Mapillas pose and deals with them with an iron fist. He also deals with the British on equal terms, a fact they are wary of.

Pazhassi Raja

In April 1793, Pazhassi Raja demolishes a mosque that had been erected in the bazaar of Kottayam. This is seen by the British as an act of defiance but they do nothing. And then in September, the Mapillas supplicate the Raja and beg his permission to build (or renovate) a mosque in Kodoli. He in turn asked them to give him a substantial gift. They agreed but reneged on it and proceeded to build the mosque without his permission. Pazhassi Raja then sent a small force to seize the Mapilla chief, Talib Kutti Ali who killed one of the Raja’s men. He was in turn killed. The enraged Raja then dispatched a small army which massacred about ten Mapillas at Kodoli.

This then is a notable theme in Pazhassi Raja’s brief but uncompromising life and legacy. As long as he was alive, the Mapillas in his dominions didn’t dare commit the kind of atrocities they unleashed elsewhere in Malabar. Perhaps Pazahassi Raja’s two serious, strategic errors was to take on multiple enemies at the same time and his fateful alliance with Tipu Sultan in 1795. However, his enduring legacy is the fact that he prevented large murders and conversions of Hindus at the hands of the Mapillas.

Unni Mutta Muppan Resurfaces

Meanwhile the fugitive Mapilla bandit chief Unni Mutta Muppan has resurfaced at Elampulasseri with renewed strength. He has now built a new stronghold atop the forested Pandalur hills near Malappuram. Unwilling to engage in another war, the British Major Murray signs a treaty on May 8, 1794 with him. According to the terms, the Elampulasseri district would be restored to Unni Mutta on the condition that he would agree to stop his criminal activities and banditry, and an annual cash allowance of ₹ 1000 is given to him. Unni Mutta immediately reneges on the agreement mistaking it to be a weakness on the part of the British. He then escalates his demands: give me a share of your revenue…or else! On their part, the British revoke the agreement and put a bounty of ₹ 3000 on his head: dead or alive. Captain MacDonald storms his Pandalur stronghold, bombs it out of existence, destroys several other hideouts and houses and chases him deep into the jungles.

Next, it is the turn of the other Mapilla bandit, Haidros. He is easily captured and sentenced to death. However, the death sentence is commuted in lieu of his deportation to the dreaded Botany Bay in the badlands of Australia.

This becomes the recurrent theme in the history of the Mapillas of Malabar over the next century: a sickening and savage, real-life refrain of robbery, murder and conversions of Hindus. The death of Tipu Sultan in 1799 is a presage of sorts. From 1800 onwards, the Mapillas have wholly transformed into full-blown assassins, plunderers and hardened, barbaric criminals who recognise no law and beyond scruple. Ernad and Vellathiri become hotspots of untrammelled Mapilla atrocities.

The helpless lament of the Samuri of Kottayam, who “opened his heart” to the British Commissioners provides perhaps the most graphic picture:

"As for me, when my officers ask for revenue (from the Mappilias), they shake their swords at them."

This confession together with a wealth of other evidence punctures the other great myth that the Mapillas were uniformly subjected to harassment by the Hindu landowners in Malabar as we shall see in the next part.


https://www.dharmadispatch.in/histo...nder-british-rule-dispelling-historical-myths

 

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The investigation of Special Commissioner T.L. Strange into the repeated eruptions of Mapilla Jihad in Malabar reveals horrific findings

The Litany of Mapilla Horrors against Malabar Hindus: Their Fanaticism is Astounding!



The uniform observation by the British regarding the frequent and widespread Mapilla Jihads against Hindus on the eve of appointing T.L. Strange is unambiguous. The following is a brief list from the Malabar Manual.

1. The power of their fanaticism was astounding…One Mapilla was badly wounded and lay in an unhealed condition for seven days yet he was only anxious to get a fair blow at the infidels ere he died.

2. …the Mappillas…were always lawless…steeped in ignorance, and were… more than ordinarily susceptible to the teaching of ambitious and fanatical priests, using the recognised precepts of the Koran as handles for the sanction to arise and slay Kafirs…the Hindus, in the parts where outbreaks have been most frequent, stand in such fear of the Mappillas as mostly not to dare to press for their rights against them, and there is many a Mappilla tenant who does not pay his rent, and cannot, so imminent are the risks, be evicted.

3. The Mapillas hold the perverted view that an apostate should suffer death, and viewed the idea of granting a reward to an apostate for his wounds as a covert attack on this cherished dogma of their religion.

4….in August 1851, the leading Mappillas had even asserted that “it was a religious merit to kill landlords who might eject tenants.” [Emphasis added]


The Malabar Manual dedicates nearly fifty pages, which read like a litany of Mapilla horrors that begin roughly around 1836 and escalate to a feverish pitch over each decade. The serial Jihads against Hindus reach their peak between 1841-52. A staggering thirty-one cases of brutal Mapilla attacks occur in just this decade.

Equally, the descriptions provided in various British reports unanimously refer to Mapillas as bigots, fanatics, and describe them as a “barbarous and savage race.” Southern Malabar is where the maximum number of atrocities occur to the extent that even a mere rumour of a suspected Mapilla Jihad spooks entire Hindu villages and sends them scurrying into the jungles and hills for safety.


The Horrors that T.L. Strange Unearthed

Thomas Lumsden Strange is selected by Conolly because he alone is thoroughly qualified and experienced enough to conduct an exhaustive investigation into these Mapilla Jihads. Strange has undergone a “long service in Malabar and intimate acquaintance with the people and their peculiar habits and feelings” which “eminently qualify him for the task, while his employment in a different sphere of late years saves him from the influence of any prejudice or bias.” Accordingly, Strange spends several painstaking months touring the region, talking to people (Hindus and Mapillas) from all backgrounds, digging up police and other reports, and “entering into the freest intercourse…both official and non-official.”

The result is his report dated 25 September 1852. The report is reviewed by the British Government and most of Strange’s recommendations are ratified in an order passed on 23 August 1853. His report conclusively demolishes the Great Myth—to repeat—that the repeated Mapilla mayhem against Hindus were rooted in an “agrarian crisis,” or that they were “peasant revolts” or “rebellions” by any definition of the term. On the contrary, he proves with hard data that they were acts of Islamic religious fanaticism provoked constantly by the preachers in the mosques and other hardcore Muslim community leaders. In other words, they were Jihad. The following are some of the notable and representative findings:

1. …in no instance can any outbreak or threat of outbreak that has arisen be attributed to the oppression of tenants by landlords.

2. I…am convinced that though instances may and do arise of individual hardship to a tenant, the general character of the dealings of the Hindu landlords towards their tenantry, whether Mappilla or Hindu, is mild, equitable and forbearing. I am further convinced that where stringent proceedings are taken, the conduct of the tenants is, in the vast majority of cases, the cause thereof, and that the Mappilla tenantry, especially of the taluks in South Malabar, where the outbreaks have been so common, are very prone to evade their obligations and to resort to false and litigious pleas.

3. …a feature that has been manifestly common to the whole of these affairs is that they have been one and all marked by the most decided fanaticism, and this there can be no doubt has furnished the true incentive to them. [Emphasis added]



Based on this, T.L. Strange makes the following recommendations to curb future Mapilla Jihads. The following is a summary.

  1. Confiscating the property of all Mapillas who committed and planned to commit atrocities.

  2. Imposing heavy fines on all districts and taluks and villages where Mapillas commit unprovoked outrages.

  3. Deporting the guilty and the suspects.

  4. Placing restrictions on the possession of arms by Mapillas.

  5. Preventing the construction of mosques.

  6. Creating a special police force specially trained and dedicated to crush Mapilla outbreaks. This special force were to comprise exclusively of Hindu warriors supervised by European officers.

  7. Expelling all Mapillas from Malabar.
Of these recommendations, the British created a special force but it does not comprise exclusively of Hindus. Needless, the prospect of expelling all Mapillas was impractical and was therefore rejected.

However, T.L. Strange’s other critical finding was also entirely consistent with that of the Collector Conolly: the vicious role of the Tirurangadi Tangal and the Mambaram mosque as the nucleus of the Jihad that fanned throughout Malabar. Which only bolsters the common theme of the history of Mapillas in Malabar especially after their commercial backbone was crushed and their political power evaporated: that they were tightly united by the constant drumbeat of their religious preachers, which in turn made them a highly organised and well-networked community.

Thus, on 17 February 1852, the very day that T.L. Strange was appointed as Special Commissioner, a surging crowd of twelve thousand Mapillas, “great numbers of whom were armed,” thronged outside the Tirurangadi Tangal. The reason: rumours had circulated like lightning that the fanatic preacher Sayyid Fazl was about to be arrested. However, it was not a rumour. As mentioned earlier, the British could be paragons of ruthlessness when required and this occasion demanded not ruthlessness but its mere hint. And Sayyid Fazl understood the message clearly, fully.

Strange’s recommendation offered three options to Fazl: (1) Face a formal trial (2) Become a State prisoner (3) Quit Malabar without fuss. Sayyid Fazl’s behaviour and demeanour when he met Conolly is, once again, typical of a long line of such Islamic bullies who face a far superior force: abject grovelling.

Here is an excerpt from William Logan:

The Tangal avowed that he had done nothing “ to deserve the displeasure of the Government; that he repudiated the deeds of the fanatics; and that it was his misfortune that a general blessing, intended to convey spiritual benefits to those alone who acted in accordance with the Muhammadan faith, should be misinterpreted by a few parties who acted in contradiction to its precepts…” as his blessing was sometimes misunderstood and his presence in the country unfortunately had led to deeds of horror, he was willing, if the Government chose it, to end further embarrassment by leaving Malabar and taking up his permanent abode among his people in Arabia.


Sayyid Fazl chose the third option. On 19 March 1852, he boarded a ship from Kozhikode and headed to Mecca never to return. His retinue comprised fifty-seven members including his wives, children, other family members, and servants. However, on the previous day, a huge mob of about eight thousand Mapillas gathered around his house to bid him a tearful farewell.

Sayyid Fazl’s deportation would revisit Conolly in a nightmarish fashion as we shall see.


https://www.dharmadispatch.in/histo...malabar-hindus-their-fanaticism-is-astounding
 

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How Malabar became the theatre of unrelenting atrocities by the Mapillas against Hindus for a full century

A Century of Mapilla Atrocities in Malabar and the Nerve Centre of Tirurangadi



Between 1800-1900, Malabar has transformed into a blood-soaked theatre of frequent, low-intensity but brutal Jihadi raids carried out by the Mapillas. By now, the British have also effectively crushed the remnants of the Mapilla commercial backbone and shattered their political power. Mapilla piracy and slave trade have also sputtered to death, and as we have seen earlier, they have taken to full-time banditry, plunder, pillage, and carnage. In all these savage endeavours, they’re propelled by that infallible guidance that acts as a common theme throughout the history of Islam in India: the divine message of Allah delivered every single day by the Maulanas and Maulvis and Mullahs and Imams in the confines of the mosques that are now ubiquitous throughout Malabar.

The other underlying factor is the unquenchable thirst for revenge: the sudden, appalling loss of power, influence and wealth is something they can never come to terms with. The Mapillas in their heydays had a smooth and swift passage under the largely magnanimous Hindu Samuris and Rajas who like Hindu kings elsewhere in India thought that Islam was also a Dharma like Sanatana Dharma, and like the Rashtrakutas and others allowed them to build mosques and freely indulge in the conversion of Hindus. However, the Portuguese for the first time, gave the Mapillas a far more hellish dose of their own medicine, and the British could be paragons of ruthlessness when it was required.

Powerless and cowed down by these new alien rulers, the Mapillas diverted their fury and fanaticism against the Hindus at habitual intervals.

Broad Themes

The century of unremitting Mapilla Jihad against Hindus (and on rare occasions, against the British) in Malabar comprises the following broad themes:

  • Murders of Hindu landlords by their own Mapilla tenants
  • Frequent raids of pillage of Hindu villages, lands, and property
  • Revenge for apostasy: murders of Mapillas who had reverted to their original Hindu Dharma
  • Organised banditry by groups of the surviving jungle Mapillas now scattered throughout the region
  • Unprovoked assaults and murders of Hindus and apostates with the explicit aim of attaining Shahadat, or Islamic martyrdom, a highly prized attainment in the Islamic canon
  • A combination of some or all of the above

The Nerve Centre

And the nerve centre that diffuses the inspiring waves of Jihadi fanaticism is Mambaram Mosque at Tirurangadi, about 25 kilometres west of Malappuram. If Malappuram has today emerged as one of the laboratories and finishing schools of Jihad in India, its roots can be traced back to this period.

Tirurangadi is also famed and revered by the Malabar Mapillas because it is home to the Arab Tangal (High Priest or Chief Islamic Cleric) or Taramal Tangal, an unvarnished bigot whose fanatical eloquence and solid encouragement provokes and incites the Mapillas to murder Hindus. He dies sometime in 1843 and is buried precisely on the grounds of the Mambaram Mosque. Almost overnight, his Dargah becomes a place of pilgrimage for all Mapillas in Malabar. They regularly throng the Dargah to pray for success in achieving the following objective, described by William Logan:

"Fanatics who intend to commit outrages, and those who have committed them do, as a rule even now, proceed to this mosque to pray at the Tangal’s shrine."


Hal Ilakkam

Among the most devout and bigoted worshippers of this Dargah is a fervid sect known as the Hal Ilakkam: literally translated as “frenzy-raising.” It is founded by a violent madman named Alathamkuliyil Moidin, who is advised by a man who appears from nowhere and instructs him to give up his worldly activities and spend the rest of his life in prayer at the mosque. The man suddenly disappears and Moidin is immediately convinced that it was “God himself” who had advised him. A shiver of pious Hal (frenzy) courses through his body and he rushes to the Mambaram mosque and meets the aforementioned Arab Tangal who then blesses his newfound calling. Eventually, Moidin collects a band of Mapillas and establishes what came to be known as the Hal Ilakkam sect.



The Hal Ilakkam followers are largely concentrated in the Chernad Taluk. The sort of all-round mayhem they inflict in the region, killing the Kaffirs, burning fields, slaughtering cows and bulls and destroying temples makes for gut-wrenching reading.

The Arab Taramal Tangal at Tirurangadi is succeeded by a more intense zealot named Sayyid Fazl, of “pure blood” Arab descent, a one-man factory of fanaticism. He is also known as Pukoya. British accounts describe him as “notorious.” This is how the extent of his influence, the pervasiveness of his impact and the perilous inspiration he provides is described in the contemporary official British reports.

"…it is certain that fanaticism was focussed at this time at…the head-quarters of Saiyid Fazl at Mambram. Fanatics then, as now, considered it almost essential to success in their enterprise that they should have visited and prayed at the Taramal Tangal’s tomb at Mambram and kissed the hand of the Tangal living in the house close by. So great an ascendency had Saiyid Fazl at this time attained that the Mappillas regarded him “ as imbued with a portion of divinity….Earth on which he has spat or walked is treasured up. Marvellous stories are told of his supernatural knowledge…Even among the higher class of Mappillas his wish was regarded as a command, and no consideration of economy was allowed to stand in the way of its being gratified."


The Bigoted Inspiration of Sayyid Fazl

Indeed, Sayyid Fazl could summon a minimum of ten thousand Mapillas at his doorstep from across Malabar at will.

From the early 1830s up to 1852, Malabar is engulfed by sudden and recurrent tidal waves of mini-Jihads unleashed by Mapillas who faithfully adhere to the script and direction of Sayyid Fazl. The barbaric screenplay is their own. The Mapillla atrocities reach a fanatical peak especially between 1843-51. Ernad, Kottayam, Malappuram, Valluvanad, Kozhikode, and Kalpetta become graveyards for the unsuspecting Hindus. No matter how guarded they are, the murderous sprees of bigotry always have the upper hand of surprise and shock.

This is how the British District Magistrate Henry Valentine Conolly assesses the situation in his Extracts Minutes of Consultation dated 17th February 1852:

"For some years past the province of Malabar has been disgraced by a succession of outrages of the most heinous character, perpetrated by the Mappillas of the province upon the Hindus…Mappillas have in open day attacked Hindus of wealth and respectability, murdered them under circumstances the most horrible, burnt houses or given them up to pillage, and finally, wound up their crimes by throwing away their lives in desperate resistance to the Police and Military.” Over the years, the outrages became “progressively more sanguinary and more difficult of suppression…the fanatics…had put to death men, women, children, the very infant at the breast, masters, servants, casual guests and ordinary inmates…"


Accordingly, an official named T.I. Strange, is appointed as Special Commissioner to carry out the investigation. The findings of Strange was briefly examined and is posted above.



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How a group of Mapilla convicts escape jail and murder the British Collector Conolly

The Gruesome Murder of Mr. Conolly: The Mapilla Retribution



The outcome of the ratification of T.L. Strange’s report is the passing of the (Mapilla) Acts XXIII and XXIV in 1854. Act XXIII imposes fines and punishments on the perpetrators and suspects of the aforementioned Jihads. Act XXIV outlaws the possession of war knives. Between December 1854 and January 1855, Conolly confiscates a total of 10,286 war knives during his tour throughout the Jihad-torn regions of Malabar.



Retribution is swift.

On 4 August 1855, four Mapilla convicts Valasseri Emalu, Puliyakunat
Tenu, Chemban Moidin Kutti, and Vellattadayatta Parumbil Moidin escape from the Kozhikode jail and reach Walluvanad. Their sole objective: vengeance for the expulsion of their beloved bigot, Sayyid Fazl.

On 20 August, they recruit a barber boy named Ossan Hyderman and on 24 August evening, they’re kneeling before the Dargah of the Taramal Tangal in the compound of the Mambaram mosque praying earnestly for success. On 9 September, they are encamped just two kilometres away from Conolly’s house, sheltered in Malakkal Mammu’s home. The next day, they celebrate a nercha (a feast where a religious vow is made). Part of this ritual consists of singing a song called Moidin Mala Pattu (War song of Moidin. Logan calls is the “fanatical song”). Then the war-knife is passed around through the smoke of the incense burnt for the ritual. The oath is sealed.

Around 1 A.M. on 12 September 1855, the Sub-Collector of Malabar, G.B. Todd wires a cable to the Chief Secretary to the (British) Government:

"It is my melancholy duty to inform you, for the information of the Right Honourable the Governor in Council, that Mr. Conolly, the Collector of this district, was most barbarously murdered this evening, between eight and nine o’clock, in the presence of his wife. He received seven wounds, one of which at least was mortal. So far as the details at present are ascertained, the perpetrators were three Mappillas, who rushed into the verandah and completed their deadly work before assistance could be called."



And then describes in graphic detail how Conolly was butchered to death the previous day. At around 8 or 9 PM, the revenge-thirsty Moplah fugitives noiselessly entered Conolly’s house. This is what happened next.

" Nothing could exceed the treachery with which the murder was begun, or the brutal butchery with which it was completed. Mr. Conollv was seated in a small verandah…on a low sofa. Mrs. Conolly was on one opposite, a low table with lights on it being between them ; he was approached from behind, and even Mrs. Conolly did not catch sight of the first blow, which would alone have proved fatal; the next moment the lights were all swept off the table and the ruffians bounded upon their victim, slashing him in all directions. The left hand was nearly severed, the right knee deeply cut, and repeated stabs inflicted in the back. The wounds (twenty-seven in number) could have been inflicted only by fiends actuated by the most desperate malice…Mr. Conolly lingered another half hour and then expired, having addressed a few words only to Mrs. Conolly, and apparently endured intense agony. [Emphasis added] "

Quite obviously, the British mount a determined pursuit of the Jihadis who are finally shot dead on 17 September not before they assault a few innocent people in Tamarasseri, Tiruvambadi, and Eddamannapara where they die.

The aforementioned Acts of XXIII and XIV are characterised as repressive measures by the British. Yet, the Mapilla Jihads resurface at regular intervals undeterred, even after Conolloy’s savage murder and the police action in its aftermath. It’s the same theme again: bigoted preaching by the Islamic clergy.

In late August 1857, a Mullah of the Ponmala mosque in Ernad, who was the the depositary of the fanatical songs and ballads of the people, had collected prisoners and incited them to deeds of violence and bloodshed by reciting to them the famous “ Cherur ballad,” commemorating the feats of their relatives in the outbreak of 19th October 1843.

The atmosphere is pregnant with violence but the British force acts decisively by launching a shock raid in which seven Mapillas are arrested and deported.

And then there is Vanji Cudorat Kunji Mayan, a former convict and cleric of sorts who begins preaching Jihadi sermons on the streets of Thalassery “invoking the people in the name of God to rid the country of the Kafirs (Europeans).” He is arrested on 3 September 1857.

At length, between 1857-58, the Mapilla Outrages Act is put in force in all these hotbeds of violent Mapilla bigotry. Even this does not deter them because their insane fanaticism recognises no law and fears nothing. In the memorable words of the scholar and historian Sita Ram Goel, the Mapilla outrages are “determined gangsterism” backed by religious sanction. In fact, a close reading of the history of these repeated Mapilla depredations during the1800-1900 century reveals the fact that the suppression of every Jihad was only a lull before the next occurrence. Nothing else explains the massive figure of fifty-one Mapilla Jihads in just one century, an average of two Jihads each year.

To call this a mere “outbreak” or “peasant rebellion” defies logic and wages war against not only recorded facts but eyewitness accounts and official Government reports.


https://www.dharmadispatch.in/history/the-gruesome-murder-of-mr-conolly-the-mapilla-retribution
 

Jugger

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Killings due to religious fervour was common during the past, it was not called the dark ages for nothing.
Today such large scale killings cannot occur, we are simple too civilised to allow such things.
In the next 200 years, if we manage to avoid a global conflict then I think people will be smart enough to avoid religious conflict all together, I assume religion would itself be less assertive force.
We must remember one thing,’ Sins of the father cannot be avenged through the sons’
 

Andhadhun

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Killings due to religious fervour was common during the past, it was not called the dark ages for nothing.
Today such large scale killings cannot occur, we are simple too civilised to allow such things.
In the next 200 years, if we manage to avoid a global conflict then I think people will be smart enough to avoid religious conflict all together, I assume religion would itself be less assertive force.
We must remember one thing,’ Sins of the father cannot be avenged through the sons’
’ Sins of the father cannot be avenged through the sons’ is a strange claim in a country that practices "reservation".

Speaking for "Killings due to religious fervor" , do you know what happens to Kashmiri Hindus in that last few decade ? How do you think their Ethnic cleansing was orchestrated ?

Speaking of "large scale killing", do you remember the Delhi riots just a few months back ? Where Tahir Hussein "wanted to teach Hindus a lesson".

Do you live in some parallel universe or do you just practice selective amnesia and cultivated ignorance that helps you sleep better ?

Finally here is the present day Mopilla,

https://defence.pk/pdf/threads/suic...fghanistan-is-from-karela-india.679189/page-3
 

Jugger

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’ Sins of the father cannot be avenged through the sons’ is a strange claim in a country that practices "reservation".

Speaking for "Killings due to religious fervor" , do you know what happens to Kashmiri Hindus in that last few decade ? How do you think their Ethnic cleansing was orchestrated ?

Speaking of "large scale killing", do you remember the Delhi riots just a few months back ? Where Tahir Hussein "wanted to teach Hindus a lesson".

Do you live in some parallel universe or do you just practice selective amnesia and cultivated ignorance that helps you sleep better ?

Finally here is the present day Mopilla,

https://defence.pk/pdf/threads/suic...fghanistan-is-from-karela-india.679189/page-3
Those who have wronged will be punished, this is what I think.
The rioters should be caught and punished as per our laws. You do remember Kasab, Afzal and kind were hanged.
We are giving death sentence to those who take up arms against the country in Kashmir.

What do you want to do about the past, want to kill Muslims ..??? That is not what a civilised society does.
Should the Jews keep on killing Germans now for what happened in the past..??
 

Andhadhun

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Those who have wronged will be punished, this is what I think.
The rioters should be caught and punished as per our laws. You do remember Kasab, Afzal and kind were hanged.
We are giving death sentence to those who take up arms against the country in Kashmir.

What do you want to do about the past, want to kill Muslims ..??? That is not what a civilised society does.
Should the Jews keep on killing Germans now for what happened in the past..??
Nice trick turning it around and indirectly claiming Hindus wants to kill muslims when this thread shows the historical reality of how muslims killed hindus for pure religious bigotry.

Definitely the mark of a "secular".

Law will take its own course, when civil society will name and shame as it should.
 

Jugger

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Nice trick turning it around and indirectly claiming Hindus wants to kill muslims when this thread shows the historical reality of how muslims killed hindus for pure religious bigotry.

Definitely the mark of a "secular".

Law will take its own course, when civil society will name and shame as it should.
Who said history is wrong..???
Definitely Hindus were at the receiving at of Muslims for many centuries. Millions were also converted. There facts are to be accepted by not just Hindus but also Muslims.
If Hindus count all the massacres from last 1500 years, count the number of dead then kill similar number of Muslims today, will that quench your thirst or undo the wrongs of the past...??

The only thing that can be done is to thrive and never again allow the oppressors to re-enact the past.

Remember, Never Again...!
 

Andhadhun

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Who said history is wrong..???
Definitely Hindus were at the receiving at of Muslims for many centuries. Millions were also converted. There facts are to be accepted by not just Hindus but also Muslims.
If Hindus count all the massacres from last 1500 years, count the number of dead then kill similar number of Muslims today, will that quench your thirst or undo the wrongs of the past...??

The only thing that can be done is to thrive and never again allow the oppressors to re-enact the past.

Remember, Never Again...!
And the only way to ensure history is not repeated is by learning history.

But guess what ? we made Abul Kalam the first education minister of India and the rest is "history".
 

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