• Sunday, June 16, 2019

The liberation of Bangladesh — the Indian armed forces’ finest hour

Discussion in 'Indian Defence Forum' started by Norwegian, Dec 16, 2018.

  1. Norwegian

    Norwegian ELITE MEMBER

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    The liberation of Bangladesh — the Indian armed forces’ finest hour
    AMRITA NAYAK DUTTA
    2 hours ago
    [​IMG]
    Pakistani troops surrendering to Indian army on 16 December 1971 in Dhaka | @Sajeda_Akhtar/Twitter

    On this day in 1971, the Pakistani army surrendered in then East Pakistan, after Indian defence forces successfully completed operations on two fronts.

    New Delhi: 16 December stands out in the history of the Indian military as the day when the Pakistani army surrendered in erstwhile East Pakistan, leading to the creation of an independent Bangladesh.

    It was the finest hour for the Indian armed forces, and the day continues to be celebrated as ‘Vijay Diwas’ of the 1971 Indo-Pak War.

    In a war fought on two fronts, in the East and the West, the victory was a credit to the successful co-ordination of all three arms of the Indian military.

    While the Indian Air Force (IAF) achieved complete air superiority on both fronts, the Indian Navy led attacks on Karachi harbour in the West and on Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong and Mongla ports in the East. The navy had ensured a complete blockade.

    The Indian Army, in fact, was able to reach Dacca (now Dhaka) in a span of 13 days from the official start of the war, even as the Liberation War had begun much earlier by the Mukti Bahini, freedom fighters led by the Bengali officers and men of the Pakistan Army’s East Bengal Regiment.

    ThePrint looks at the factors that led to the victory.

    Also read: Dhaka & Pakistan’s psychological defeat: How Indian military commanders won 1971

    The Soviet Help
    The war came at a time when India’s diplomatic ties with the Western bloc of nations was rocky, particularly a hostile American government.

    It was Moscow, however, which came to Indian aid, providing much needed muscle to the Indian armed forces. In the run-up to the war, India and the Soviet Union signed the Friendship Treaty in New Delhi on 9 August 1971.

    As a result, the Indian Navy received Soviet Osa class missile boats, armed with P-15 anti-ship missiles, which the navy used during the attacks on Karachi.

    The Soviets also stepped in during a crucial phase of the war.

    As the conflict was underway, with the Indian Navy having achieved complete control of the Bay of Bengal, a US fleet entered the area on 15 December.

    It was the US Navy’s 7th Fleet Task Force 74, comprising the nuclear aircraft carrier USS Enterprise with a host of other vessels, including the USS Tripoli (an amphibious assault carrier) with a 200-men Marine battalion on board with 25 assault helicopters; the USS King, the USS Decatur, the USS Parsons (all three guided missile destroyers); the USS Bausell, the USS Orleck, the USS McKean, USS Haleakala (all four destroyers) and one supply and support ship.

    The primary task of this American task force was to evacuate Pakistani troops in case of a ceasefire, and engage the Indian Navy, if the need arose.

    Not known to many at that time, and made aware much later, the Soviets deployed their submarines to tail the American Fleet and ensure that the latter knew of their presence.

    The Soviet Navy was at that time headed by Admiral Sergei Gorshkov, and during a visit to India soon after the war, in 1972, he informed then Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral S.M. Nanda, that he had put two nuclear powered submarines behind the USS Enterprise, with instructions to sink it in case it tried to engage the Indians.

    This first person interaction has been confirmed by Cmde Vijay Jerath, a Vir Chakra awardee and one of the missile boat commanders (INS Vinash) who struck Karachi on the night of 4 December 1971.

    Also read: General ‘Jake’, Indian Army’s 1971 war hero who negotiated Pakistan’s surrender

    Jointmanship in Command
    As the war drew to a close in the East, and the surrender of the Pakistani army was eminent, the Chief of Staff of the Indian Army’s Eastern Command, Major General (later Lieutenant General) JFR Jacob, was sent to Dacca (Dhaka) to confer with Lieutenant General AAK Niazi, the Commander of the Pakistan Eastern Command in erstwhile East Pakistan, and to agree to the surrender.

    In New Delhi, the Indian Army Chief, General (Later Field Marshal) Sam Manekshaw, instructed Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, the General Officer commanding the Indian and Bangladesh Forces, to be the one to accept the surrender in the presence of the Air Force and Naval commanders of the respective Eastern Commands.

    With Major General Jacob having in-principle agreement of a surrender from General Niazi on the evening of 16 December 1971, General Aurora landed at the Tejgaon Airfield in Dhaka, accompanied by Vice Admiral N. Krishnan, Flag Officer Commanding in Chief Eastern Naval Command, and Air Marshal Harish Chandra Dewan, Air Officer Commanding in Chief of the Eastern Naval Command to accept the surrender.

    Gen Aurora was also accompanied by his wife, Bhagwant Kaur
    ---

    @war&peace @BATMAN @SunilM @ranjeet @third eye @Xinxin @India Pakistan
     
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  2. Asimz

    Asimz FULL MEMBER

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    Looking back at history it was already separate country with massive gap between east and wast Pakistan it only need catalyst which is now Bangladesh
     
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  3. American Pakistani

    American Pakistani ELITE MEMBER

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    We should also recognize American and British willingness to help. The govts of those countries sided with Pakistan.

    Bangladesh was anyways an independent country and they left no stone untouched to show their mir Jaffar traits since 1947. Pakistan should be kept as was decided in early 40's and Bangladesh should be left for indians and bengalis to deal with. Rather, we should've swapped Bangladesh and Kashmir.
     
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  4. Homo Sapiens

    Homo Sapiens SENIOR MEMBER

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    Excuse us! Fate of East Bengal was not in your West Pakistani hand in 1946-1947. Not even under the hand of Jinnah. in 1946, HS Suhrawardy, then PM of Bengal gave warning to the British and Congress that, Bengal will unilaterally secede if demand of Pakistan was not met. So whether you West Pakistani would have been able to form Pakistan in the west was uncertain, but the vast muslim masses in Bengal was determined to curve out an independent state in the East at any cost.(which they practically demonstrated in the Direct action day in 1946).

    So, do not talk big.
     
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  5. American Pakistani

    American Pakistani ELITE MEMBER

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    Hahaha, lol...

    That is just your dream, you were dealing with British that time who were civilized first world. You didn't had to deal with India until then. West Pakistan here was no uncertainty as our history, civilization, culture, values, etc etc were very different from else india. It would've been achieved. Our mistake was to fall for Bengalis and allowing them to join Pakistan when at first we have a plan of having 3 muslim nations.
     
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  6. Homo Sapiens

    Homo Sapiens SENIOR MEMBER

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    That's why you put Unionist into power in Punjab and Congress in NWFP in 1946 election. So much for different values from India.
     
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  7. Species

    Species SENIOR MEMBER

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    It was not you to allow us to join, the whole idea of Pakistan movement was a Bengali-UP Muslims project. If it was not us, you would have been a content subject under some feudal lords within Indian union.
     
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  8. American Pakistani

    American Pakistani ELITE MEMBER

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    But guess what, a year later we also liberated Pakistan which unlike you we don't owe to anyone.

    Like I said, if it would not be the idea of Pakistan it would be something else but sooner or later Pakistan was bound to happen.
     
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  9. Species

    Species SENIOR MEMBER

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    Whatever name you give it to, the idea of a separate Muslim state in the subcontinent was born, developed and executed in Bengal, be it the creation of Muslim League in 1906 or Direct Action Day in 1946.
     
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  10. Jf Thunder

    Jf Thunder ELITE MEMBER

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    unilateral succession was never and option, and it would never have worked.
    If it did, Kashmir and other states would have been independent by now
     
  11. Norwegian

    Norwegian ELITE MEMBER

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    It's true. That's why Mujib supported Fatima (sister of Jinnah) in 1964 elections and not dictator Ayub

    Kashmir joined India on free will.
     
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  12. American Pakistani

    American Pakistani ELITE MEMBER

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    Don't hijack the hardworking of North Indian Muslims such as Lucknavi, Dilli, Uttar Pradeshis and Biharis.

    You were just opportunists tbfair. You jumped into this bandwagon to get freedom from Indians and British and then you used India against Pakistan. You played your cards well but don't think your chaplusy and chaal will work again, as they say "fool me once shame on you, fool me twice shame on me"
     
  13. Jf Thunder

    Jf Thunder ELITE MEMBER

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    Hari Singh's first priority was Independence
    many states wanted that
     
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  14. Homo Sapiens

    Homo Sapiens SENIOR MEMBER

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    Forming Pakistan was also not an option. But it was achieved by creating favorable circumstances. And please do not compare Bengal with Kashmir. Kashmir was not part of British India, muslim there was helpless under an opressive hindu king.They had no voice. While Bengal, the biggest province of British India was under the thumb of Muslim League strongman HS Suhrawardy where Muslims were determined to achieve separate muslim state at any cost. So, do not compare apple with orange.
     
    Last edited: Dec 16, 2018
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  15. Species

    Species SENIOR MEMBER

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    I'm glad that you pointed that out, Mujib was the main poll manager of Fatima Jinnah and East Pakistanis wholehearted supported her in the elections against Ayub Khan. In fact, after 1965 war, there were protests in East Pakistan against the Tashkent Declaration for not claiming Jammu and Kashmir from India but there were no protests in West Pakistan.
     
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