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The latest most advanced Weapon systems in the world

Discussion in 'Military Forum' started by The SC, Jul 2, 2012.

  1. Peaceful Civilian

    Peaceful Civilian ELITE MEMBER

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    Powerful laser weapon?? More threat for the Peaceful environment and skin protecting layers on the sky.
    Where is world going??
     
  2. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    Active Defence System (ADS)

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    The system is based on the hard-kill principle, in which incoming projectiles are detected and instantly - i.e. within microseconds - destroyed by directed energy immediately before reaching their target. It is the only high-performance close-in defence system which minimizes collateral damage in the vicinity of the vehicle.

    Comprehensive protection technology from Rheinmetall

    Achieving a level of force protection commensurate to the current threat means having to equip platforms with a combination of active and passive protection solutions coupled with soft-kill systems.

    Rheinmetall's comprehensive protection concept is based on a multi-level approach. Effectively constituting a vehicle's outermost layer of defence, the "Active Defence System" is an extremely innovative, highly effective solution that neutralizes ballistic threats before they reach their intended target.

    Passive solutions such as add-on armour made of composite or ceramic materials form an indispensable second line of defence. Rheinmetall is pressing ahead with new developments here, too, offering military customers comprehensive protection solutions from a single source, e.g. bullet-resistant driver's cabs for logistics vehicles and trucks.

    The Group's protection concept also encompasses high-performance soft-kill solutions for ground vehicles as well as fixed wing aircraft, helicopters and ships. For example, Rheinmetall's "Rosy" smoke/obscurant protection system renders ground vehicles invisible in the event of an attack, while its MASS naval countermeasures now sets the standard worldwide. MASS works by launching decoys which reliably divert incoming enemy missiles from their intended target.

    Rheinmetall Defence - 01/02/2011: Rheinmetall takes up a majority share in ADS GmbH
     
  3. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    Rafale Multirole Combat Fighter, France

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    The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine delta-wing fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Dassault described the Rafale as being an omnirole fighter with semi-stealth capabilities.

    Rafale is a twin-jet combat aircraft capable of carrying out a wide range of short and long-range missions, including ground and sea attacks, reconnaissance, high-accuracy strikes and nuclear strike deterrence.

    The aircraft were developed for the French Air Force and Navy. France's Air Force and Navy ordered 180 (132 for the air force and 48 for the navy), 100 aircraft had been delivered by the end of 2010.

    The Rafale entered into service with the French Navy in 2004 and with the French Air Force in 2006. Ten aircraft are operational on the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier.
    Rafale fighter aircraft development

    Rafale B and C entered service with the French Air Force in June 2006, when the first squadron was established. The second air force squadron was set up in 2008. A €3.1bn ($3.89bn) contract to develop the fully capable F3 standard aircraft was awarded to Dassault Aviation (€1.5bn), Snecma (€600m), Thales (€500m) and other French contractors by the French Ministry of Defence in February 2004.
    "The Rafale entered into service with the French Navy in 2004 and with the French Air Force in 2006. Ten aircraft are operational on the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier."

    An order for 59 F3 aircraft, 47 for the air force (11 two-seat and 36 single-seat) and 12 (single-seat) for the navy, was placed in December 2004. The Rafale F3 was certified in July 2008. The contract also includes upgrades of the Rafale F2 aircraft.

    The first Rafale F3 was delivered to the French Air Force in 2008. In March 2007, three French Air Force and three navy Rafale fighters were deployed in Tajikistan in support of the Nato International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan.

    The French Government ordered 60 additional Rafale aircraft in November 2009. Brazil's Government awarded a $4bn contract to Dassault Aviation in January 2010 to supply 36 Rafale multirole aircraft.

    The UAE was expected to acquire the Rafale under a $10bn contract to replace its 60 ageing Mirage fighters. In November 2011, however, the deal came to a standstill when the UAE termed Dassault's price and terms as "uncompetitive". The country is also considering Eurofighter's Typhoon to replace its ageing Mirage fighters.

    In February 2012, the Indian Ministry of Defence selected Rafale for the Indian Air Force's MMRCA (medium multirole combat aircraft) programme. The contract is worth approximately $20bn.

    Rafale emerged as the preferred aircraft from among various contenders for what is being called the biggest military aviation contract in the world. Its closest contender was Eurofighter's Typhoon.

    Under the contract, Dassault will supply 126 Rafale fighters. The first 18 fighters will be supplied by 2015 and the rest will be manufactured in India under a technology transfer to Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL). This contract will be the first international supply for Rafale.
    Cockpit of Dassault's Rafale

    The cockpit has hands-on throttle and stick control (HOTAS). The cockpit is equipped with a heads-up, wide-angle holographic display from Thales Avionique, which provides aircraft control data, mission data and firing cues.

    A collimated, multi-image head-level display presents tactical situation and sensor data, while two touch-screen lateral displays show the aircraft system parameters and mission data.

    The pilot also has a helmet-mounted sight and display. A CCD camera and on-board recorder records the image of the head-up display throughout the mission.
    Rafale fighter weapons

    Rafale can carry payloads of more than 9t on 14 hardpoints for the air force version, with 13 for the naval version. The range of weapons includes: Mica, Magic, Sidewinder, ASRAAM and AMRAAM air-to-air missiles; Apache, AS30L, ALARM, HARM, Maverick and PGM100 air-to-ground missiles and Exocet / AM39, Penguin 3 and Harpoon anti-ship missiles.

    For a strategic mission the Rafale can deliver the MBDA (formerly Aerospatiale) ASMP stand-off nuclear missile. In December 2004, the MBDA Storm Shadow / Scalp EG stand-off cruise missile was qualified on the Rafale.

    In September 2005, the first flight of the MBDA Meteor BVRAAM beyond visual range air-to-air missile was conducted on a Rafale fighter. In December 2005, successful flight trials were carried out from the Charles de Gaulle of the range of Rafale's weapon systems - Exocet, Scalp-EG, Mica, ASMP-A (to replace the ASMP) and Meteor missiles.

    In April 2007, the Rafale carried out the first firing of the Sagem AASM precision-guided bomb, which has both GPS / inertial guidance and, optionally, imaging infrared terminal guidance. Rafale have been equipped with the AASM from 2008. Rafale can carry six AASM misssiles, with each aiming to hit the target with 10m accuracy.

    The Rafale has a twin gun pod and a Nexter (formerly Giat) 30mm DEFA 791B cannon, which can fire 2,500 rounds a minute. The Rafale is equipped with laser designation pods for laser guidance of air-to-ground missiles.
    Countermeasure and sensor technology on the twin-jet combat aircraft

    Rafale's electronic warfare system is the Spectra from Thales. Spectra incorporates solid state transmitter technology, a DAL laser warning receiver, missile warning, detection systems and jammers.

    The Rafale is equipped with an RBE2 passive electronically scanned radar developed by Thales which has look down and shoot down capabilities. The radar can track up to eight targets simultaneously and provides threat identification and prioritisation.

    Thales developed an active electronically scanned version of the RBE2 which equipped the Rafale in February 2011. Flight tests of the radar onboard the Rafale took place in 2008.

    RUAG Aviation has been awarded a $5m contract by Thales in May 2009 to produce sub assemblies for the RBE2 radar to be equipped on the Rafale fighter jet.

    Optronic systems include the Thales / SAGEM OSF infrared search and track system, installed in the nose of the aircraft. The optronic suite carries out search, target identification, telemetry and automatic target discrimination and tracking.

    In January 2012, the French Ministry of Defence awarded a ten-year contract to Thales to maintain the electronic systems and warfare of the aircraft.
    Navigation and communications of Dassault Aviation's Rafale

    The communications suite on the Rafale uses the Saturn on-board V/UHF radio, which is a second-generation, anti-jam tactical UHF radio for Nato. Saturn provides voice encryption in fast-frequency hopping mode.
    "In February 2012, the Indian Ministry of Defence selected Rafale for the Indian Air Force's MMRCA (medium multirole combat aircraft) programme."

    The aircraft is also equipped with fixed-frequency VHF / UHF radio for communications with civil air traffic control. A multifunction information distribution system (MIDS) terminal provides secure, high-data-rate tactical data exchange with Nato C2 stations, AWACS aircraft or naval ships.

    The Rafale is powered by two M88-2 engines, each providing a thrust of 75kN.

    Rafale is equipped with a Thales TLS 2000 navigation receiver, which is used for the approach phase of flight. TLS 2000 integrates the instrument landing system (ILS), microwave landing system (MLS) and VHF omni-directional radio-ranger (VOR) and marker functions.

    The radar altimeter is the AHV 17 altimeter from Thales, which is suitable for very low flight. The Rafale has a TACAN tactical air navigation receiver for en-route navigation and as a landing aid.

    The Rafale has an SB25A combined interrogator-transponder developed by Thales. The SB25A is the first IFF using electronic scanning technology.
    Rafale engines

    The Rafale is powered by two M88-2 engines from SNECMA, each providing a thrust of 75kN. The aircraft is equipped for buddy-buddy refuelling with a flight refuelling hose reel and drogue pack. The first M88 engine was delivered in 1996. It is a twin-shaft bypass turbofan engine principally suitable for low-altitude penetration and high-altitude interception missions.

    The M88 incorporates the latest technologies such as single-piece bladed compressor disks (blisks), an on-polluting combustion chamber, single-crystal high-pressure turbine blades, powder metallurgy disks, ceramic coatings and composite materials.

    The M88 engine comprises a three-stage LP compressor with inlet guide vane, an annular combustion chamber, single-stage cooled HP turbine, single-stage cooled LP turbine, radial A/B chamber, variable-section convergent flap-type nozzle and full authority digital engine control (FADEC).

    Messier-Dowty provides 'jumper' landing gear, designed to spring out when the aircraft is catapulted by the nose gear strut.

    Rafale Multirole Combat Fighter - Airforce Technology
     
  4. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    PAK FA
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    Russia's next-generation fighter project cancelled

    MOSCOW, April 12 (RIA Novosti) - Russian air force commander-in-chief Aleksandr Zelin has announced the cancellation of the $20-billion PAK-FA program after 20 years of escalating costs, technological glitches and redesigns failed to produce a single prototype aircraft.

    The PAK-FA, once billed as Russia's next-generation fighter, had consumed $13.9-billion. The estimated cost of each aircraft had soared to $87.2-million from an original target of $30-million.

    "It's had a long and troubled history," said Alexei Arbatov, a senior Duma official who heads the lower house committee for defense.

    The PAK-FA, a new generation fighter aircraft concept, was designed to be comparable to both the American F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightning II and has been overtaken by the need to strengthen Russia's strategic nuclear forces.

    Acknowledging that the PAK-FA no longer fit into the requirements of Russia, the Air Force said it would rather spend the money on an overhaul of its aviation system. If approved by the Federal Assembly, the funds would be directed instead to buy over 400 additional SU-34, SU-35 and other aircraft and to upgrade and modernize 1,400 aircraft already in service. Surface-to-air missiles also would be a priority.

    "It's about having an effective deterrent force," said Air Force Colonel General Alexander Zelin. "It's a big decision. We know it's a big decision, but it's the right decision."

    The end of the PAK-FA also reflects an acknowledgement by the Ministry of Defence that it simply cannot afford all the programs it wants. The move underscores the fact that the Ministry of Defence must begin economizing as the cost of new weapon systems increase and demands on military spending grow, industry analysts said.

    The Air Force would have spent $20-billion on the PAK-FA program through 2012 without getting aircraft significantly more capable than the upgraded SU-35 it already plans to buy, Air Force officials said.

    Some officials of the State Duma reacted angrily to the cancellation.

    "I am outraged by the decision to terminate the PAK-FA program given that the Air Force has long argued that it is a critical weapons system that plays a pivotal role in our defence," said State Duma deputy Vladimir Medinsky. "What has changed? And how does the military plan to make up for the lost capabilities?"

    Alexei Arbatov, Deputy Chairman of the Defence Committee of the State Duma, said the decision "reflects the difficulty that the services are facing with the cost of modernization requirements now coming to the fore."

    The cancellation was a blow to the PAK-FA's prime contractors, Sukhoi and NPO Saturn.

    A senior Duma official said the Ministry of Defense expects to have to pay a $450-million to $680-million termination fee to Sukhoi and NPO Saturn.

    The program's elimination, however, could benefit the two companies. The Air Force now plans to pour more money into the SU-34 and SU-35, and ramp up the upgrade of aircraft already in service which would keep both companies busy for the foreseeable future.



    F-22 RAPTOR

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    F-22 Raptor oxygen problems may be worse than previously disclosed

    "The oxygen-deprivation incident rates are much higher than we were initially told," says Rep. Adam Kinzinger, who is looking into the F-22 Raptor fighter jet problems.

    Oxygen problems that have plagued the Air Force's fleet of F-22 Raptor fighter jets may be worse than previously disclosed, according to new information released by two members of Congress.

    F-22 pilots have reported dozens of incidents in which the jet's systems weren't feeding them enough oxygen, causing hypoxia-like symptoms in the air. Hypoxia is a condition resulting from a deficiency of oxygen reaching tissues of the body that can cause nausea, headaches, fatigue or even blackouts.

    On Thursday, Rep. Adam Kinzinger (R-Ill.) and Sen. Mark R. Warner (D-Va.) released information handed over by the Air Force that said pilots had experienced about 26 incidents of apparent oxygen deprivation per 100,000 flight hours — a rate at least 10 times higher than for any other Air Force aircraft.

    "This information confirms that the F-22 program is not running at 100% and that the oxygen-deprivation incident rates are much higher than we were initially told," said Kinzinger, a former Air National Guard pilot.

    The announcement is the latest for the controversial F-22, the world's most expensive fighter jet, which was made byLockheed Martin Corp.and has never been used in combat since entering service in 2005.

    The lawmakers held a teleconference Thursday with reporters in which they disclosed the information. Other findings included an early 2011 aircrew survey that found that "a majority of F-22 pilots surveyed did not feel confident" with the plane's oxygen system.

    The Air Force tried to fix the problem by adding a high-efficiency particulate air filter consisting of activated carbon and charcoal.

    But, Kinzinger and Warner said, tests performed by Boeing Co. found that the new filter negatively affected the breathing system for F-22 pilots. Boeing formally recommended discontinuing use of the filters April 2 — a recommendation that was adopted by the Air Force about a month later, they said.

    The oxygen malfunctions are suspected of playing a role in at least one fatal accident and led to the grounding of the entire F-22 fleet last year for nearly five months. But even after the grounding was lifted, the Air Force said that investigators could not find a "smoking gun" for the problems and that hypoxia incidents continued to occur.

    Last month, Defense Secretary Leon E. Panettarestricted flights of the aircraft because of the ongoing problems.


    F-22 Raptor oxygen problems may be worse than previously disclosed - Los Angeles Times
     
  5. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    Joint Strike Fighter F-35


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    The JCA (Briton's Joint Combat Aircraft) will place the RAF at the forefront of fighter technology and will give it a true multi-role air system that will surpass the majority of other weapons systems in production today.
    Specifications

    Engines: Pratt & Whitney F-135 turbofan
    Thrust: 37000lbs
    Max speed: 1.6Mach
    Length: 15.7m
    Max altitude: 50,000ft
    Span: 13.11m
    Aircrew: 1
    Armament: Paveway IV, AMRAAM, ASRAAM

    Potential Future Armament: Storm Shadow, SPEAR, Missionized Gun, METEOR


    The Joint Strike Fighter, which is being built by Lockheed Martin as the F35, will be known in UK service as the Joint Combat Aircraft (JCA). Although Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor, the UK is a Level 1 partner with the US and a number of British companies, including BAE Systems and Rolls-Royce, will have extensive involvement in building and developing the aircraft. The UK version will be a stealthy, multi-role, all-weather, day & night, fighter/attack air system aircraft that can operate from land bases and both current and the next generation of aircraft carriers. This will give the UK a world-beating land-based and sea-based joint expeditionary air power capability well into the middle of the century. When the JCA enters service, it will be able to conduct deep strike missions, into contemporary Integrated Air Defence Systems, against a myriad of target sets. Moreover, by conducting robust Integrated Air Operations, JSF will support friendly ground forces with close air support, long-range interdiction, anti-surface warfare and tactical reconnaissance. The aircraft will offer many advantages over legacy platforms: very low oberservability, supersonic flight, improved survivability, internal and external weapons carriage, increased range and easier supply and maintenance.

    The JCA design applies stealth technology techniques and, to minimise its radar signature, the airframe has identical sweep angles for the leading and trailing edges of the wing and tail, and incorporates sloping sides for the fuselage and the canopy. As a further signature-reduction measure, the seam of the canopy and the weapon-bay doors are saw-toothed and the vertical tails are canted at an angle. To achieve the smallest signature possible the aircraft has the ability to carry a range of weapons internally, rather than external carriage as displayed in current fighters. However, when operating in a permissive environment, an array of weapons can be carried on external pylons.

    The main radar system is a newly developed, electronically scanned array multi-function radar with synthetic aperture and moving target indicator capabilities. Targeting information can also be supplied by an electro-optical system, which provides long-range detection and precision targeting by employing thermal imaging, laser tracking and marking, and a 360 degree infrared system. The aircraft’s systems will also provide navigation, missile warning and infrared search and track capabilities. All this affords the UK, for the first time, a truly tactical ISTAR (Intelligence, Surveillence, Target Aquisition and Reconnaisance) asset.

    Early production aircraft will be powered by a Pratt and Whitney F-135 turbofan engine.

    The JCA will place the RAF at the forefront of fighter technology and will give it a true multi-role air system that will surpass the majority of other weapons systems in production today, or envisaged in the foreseeable future. Coupled with the Typhoon aircraft, JCA will keep the RAF at the cutting edge of military aviation.

    UK military personnel will work alongside their US counterparts in an initial operational test and evaluation programme for the aircraft.

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  6. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    Joint Strike Fighter F-35

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    The F-35 is designed as an ‘affordable stealth’ counterpart to the F-22 Raptor air dominance fighter, one that can share “first day of the war” duties against defended targets but can’t perform air-air or air-ground missions to the same standard. Its air-air combat flight benchmarks are only on par with the F-16, it has a larger single engine instead of twin thrust-vectoring F119s, removing both supercruise (sustained flight above Mach 1) and super-maneuverability options. The F-22A is a much stealthier aircraft on both radar and infrared, but the F-35 is a big improvement over existing ‘teen series’ fighters and even beats Generation 4+ options like the Eurofighter, Rafale, and JAS-39 Gripen.

    Its advanced APG-81 AESA (Active Electronically Scanned Array) radar is smaller and less powerful than the F-22A’s APG-77v1; but still offers the strong AESA advantages of simultaneous air-air and air-ground capabilities, major maintenance & availability improvements, and secure, high-bandwidth communications benefits. The F-35 also shares a design advance with the F-22A in having “sensor fusion” based on sensors of various types embedded all around the airframe, which will allow the plane to perform as a top-level reconnaissance plane, and possibly as an electronic warfare aircraft. These sensors are connected to a lot of computing power, in order to create single-picture view that lets the pilot see everything on one big 20” LCD screen and just fly the plane, rather than pushing buttons to switch from one view to another and trying to figure it all out. As part of that sensor fusion, the F-35 will be the first plane is several decades to fly without a heads-up display; instead, pilots will wear Elbit/Rockwell’s JHMDS helmet and have all of that information projected wherever they look.

    The testing phase has been delayed, and will now continue into 2014
    ; meanwhile, funding for the first two production-model aircraft is approved, parts fabrication is under way as of June 2007, and component assembly will begin later in 2007. The pair of F-35A aircraft are scheduled for delivery to the U.S. Air Force beginning in 2010 – a sore point with the US Congress’ Government Accountability Office, which believes this dual-track approach increases project risks. Production will continue to ramp up year-to-year, and BAE Systems releases indicate that by 2015, when the F-35 is expected to reach Full-Rate Production, the program intends to build 240 F-35s per year.

    F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: JSF Events & Contracts 2007-08

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    Here is one of the most interesting reads about Air Defence

    http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-57/kopp.pdf
     
  7. The SC

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    Pantsir S1 Air Defense System

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    Pantsir S1 was developed by KBP, as an upgrade of the Tungushka, offering extended engagement capability such as the use of both gun and missile on the move (Tungushka can use only gun), on the tracked system. The system also offers faster reaction time of 4 – 6 seconds (compared to 8 seconds for the Tungushka and 5 – 7 for Pantsir S1O). Like its predecessor, Pantsir S1 can also engage two separate targets simultaneously.

    The Pantsir is offered in a tracked, wheeled versions, installed on APCs such as BTR-80and trucks, such as the 8x8 Ural 5323 truck. The truck mounted version is loaded with 700 cartridges per barrel and twelve 57E6-E missiles (also known as 9M335 or the 9M311).

    The missile offers high kill probability (0.7 – 0.95) in an expanded envelope with extended range of 1.2 km to 20km, (1.5 – 18 km in Pantsir S1O version) and altitude of 5 m' to 10 km. The guns are designed for operation at a range of 200 m' to 4 km and altitude of 0 to 3,000m'. These missiles use a longer tandem boost motor to reach an altitude of 12,000 m'. The range of the radar was also extended to 30km, with simultaneously tracking of up to 20 targets, and engaging two separated targets at the same time. The launch customer of the Pantsir S1 was the UAE.

    The Pantsir S1 uses a multi-band radar with effective ECCM and high immunity to jamming. passive, low band IR target acquisition system, utilize signal processing and automatic target tracking. Pantsir S10 uses only one sensor – probably the passive IR system. The SA-19 missile uses SACLOS guidance, effective to a range of min 2,500 – 8,000 m,. 1RL-144M fire control system uses an E-Band search radar with a detection range of 18km and J band tracking radar. India has procured the system.

    Armament

    The Pantsyr-S1 is armed with two 2A38M 30mm automatic anti-aircraft guns developed from the two-barreled 30mm GSh-30 gun, coupled with twelve 57E6 surface-to-air missiles on launchers.
    Design and protection
    Pantsir-S1 carries up to twelve 57E6 or 57E6-E two-stage solid fuel radio-command-guided surface-to-air missiles in sealed ready-to-launch containers. Missiles are arranged into two six-tube groups on the turret. The missile has a bicalibre body in tandem configuration. The first stage is a booster, providing rapid acceleration within the first 2 second of flight, after it is separated from the sustainer-stage. The sustainer is the highly agile part of the missile and contains the high explosive multiple continuous rod and fragmentation warhead, contact and proximity fuses as also radio transponder and laser responder to be localised for guidance. The missile is not fitted with seeker to keep target engagement costs low. Instead high-precision target and missile tracking is provided via the systems multiband sensor system and guidance data is submitted via radio link for up to four missiles in flight. Missiles can be fired in at up to four targets but also salvos of two missiles at one target. Missile is believed to have a hit probability of 70-95% and have a 15 year storage lifetime in its sealed containers. Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles can fire missiles on the move.
    Propulsion
    Pantsyr-S1 is mounted on a 10t Ural-5323 truck chassis with a turret that houses the armament, laying drives, sensors, control equipment and crew. The Ural-5323 truck is four-axle, 8×8 all-wheel drive with single tyre wheels. The first and second axle wheels are steerable. The engine is an air-cooled diesel Ural-745.10 providing 290hp. The dual-plate mechanical clutch has a pneumatic booster and three-range five-speed gearbox.
    Combat use
    The Pantsyr-S1 is able to defeat almost the entire spectrum of air threats, all types of precision guided weapons in particular, flying at a speed of up to 1,000 m/s and approaching from different bearings at an angle of 0- 10 ° to 60 - 70°, aircraft flying at a speed of up to 500 m/s, helicopters, remotely piloted vehicles, as well as light armoured ground targets and enemy manpower. The combination of missile and gun armament enabling the operator to create a continuous target engagement zone and fire at targets uninterruptedly beginning from their maximum range of 18 to 20 km up to a range of 200 m. Target flying at an altitude of 5 to 15 km can be shot down. The Pantsyr-S1 is equipped with multiple-mode adaptive radar/optical weapons control system operating in the UHF, EHF and IR regions of the spectrum. The system features high immunity to jamming, survivability in the presence of electronic countermeasures and under enemy fire.
    The Pantsir-S1 fire control system includes a target acquisition radar and dual waveband tracking radar (designation 1RS2-1E for export models), which operates in the UHF and EHF waveband. Detection range is 32–36 km and tracking range is 24–28 km for a target with 2 m2 RCS.[4] This radar tracks both targets and the surface-to-air missile while in flight. As well as radar, the fire control system also has an electro-optic channel with long-wave thermal imager and infrared direction finder, including digital signal processing and automatic target tracking. A simplified, lower-cost version of Pantsir-S1 is also being developed for export, with only the electro-optic fire control system fitted. The two independent guidance channels - radar and electro-optic - allow two targets to be engaged simultaneously. Maximum engagement rate is up to 10 targets per minute.
     
  8. The SC

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    Tor M1 9M330 Air Defense System

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    The TOR-M1 surface-to-air missile system is a mobile, integrated air defense system, designed for operation at medium-, low- and very low –altitudes, against fixed/rotary wing aircraft, UAVs, guided missiles and precision weapon. The system is capable of operating in an intensive aerial jamming environment. The system is comprised of a number of missile Transporter Launcher Vehicle (TLV). A Russian air defense Tor battalion consists of 3 - 5 companies, each equipped with four TLVs. Each TLV is equipped with 8 ready to launch missiles, associating radars, fire control systems and a battery command post. The combat vehicle can operate autonomously, firing from stationary positions or on the move. Set-up time is rated at 3 minutes and typical reaction time, from target detection to missile launch is 5-8 seconds. Reaction time could range from 3.4 seconds for stationary positions to 10 seconds while on the move. Each fire unit can engage and launch missiles against two separate targets.
    Tor M-1 (SA-15) shown in travelling position, The aft-mounted tracking / guidance radar is shown. The surveillance radar is folded in travelling position.

    Tor M1 SA-15 Gauntlet missile system - note folded radars.
    Tor M1 can detect and track up to 48 targets (minimum radar cross section of 0.1 square meter) at a maximum range of 25 km, and engage two of them simultaneously, at a speed of up to 700 m/sec, and at a distance of 1 to 12 km. The system's high lethality (aircraft kill probability of 0.92-0.95) is maintained at altitude of 10 – 6,000 m'. The vertically launched, single-stage solid rocket propelled missile is capable of maneuvering at loads up to 30gs. It is equipped with a 15kg high-explosive fragmentation warhead activated by a proximity fuse. The system is offered as fully integrated tracked combat vehicle, or as a modular combat unit (TOR-M1T) comprising a truck mounted mobile control module and launcher/antenna units, carried on a trailer. Other configuration include separated towed systems, as well as shelter-based systems, for the protection of fixed sites.

    Tor M1 missile launched from the vertical container/launcher. The missile uses cold launch to exit and clear the launcher, and the rocket motor and thrusters are ignited at an altitude of 20 meters.The missile is also effective against precision guided weapons and cruise missiles. In tests the missile demonstrated kill probability of such targets ranging from 0.6 to 0.9.

    The first operator of the Tor system was the Russian Army Air-Defense, which operates 100 units of the SA-15 Gauntlet variant. The Russian navy also uses the naval version known as SA-N-9. China bought 50 systems and possibly 25 more, between 1997 and 2002. The Greek army fielded 21 Tor M-1 systems. Most recently (December 2005) Iran was reported to sign a deal worth US$ 1.0 billion covering the procurement of up to 29 TOR M-1 missile systems, modernization of air-force systems and the supply of patrol boats. The system was also proposed to several other countries. The TOR component of the deal was reported to be US$700 million. Deliveries of the TOR systems began in November 2006 and by the year's end, over half of the order has been fulfilled. On January 16, 2007 Russia announced that deliveries were completed. Russian defense minister Sergei Ivanov confirmed the delivery and added that Moscow will continue to develop military and technical cooperation with Tehran. This could hint on further sales of S-300 air defense missiles, which were requested by Iran for several years, but so-far denied by Russia. The delivery was completed about 12 months ahead of time. According to the original schedule, completion of deliveries were expected to continue through 2008. (more from freerepublic). The Russian Press indicated on January 30, 2007 that Venezuela is also interesting in aquiring Tor M1 systems at an estimated cost of US$290 million. Venezuela plans to have the new systems interoperable with new radars and fighter jets recently bought from China and Russia.

    Thor M-1 shown in deployed position, with radar elevated. (Greece army photo)
     
  9. Nishan_101

    Nishan_101 BANNED

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    Rafael looks cool even the EF-2000 too:
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  10. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    BUK-M1-2 AIR DEFENSE MISSILE SYSTEM HAS NO EQUALS IN TERMS OF COMBAT EMPLOYMENT


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    It is intended for air defense of troops and facilities from current and developmental high-speed tactical and strategic aircraft, attack helicopters, including hovering rotary-wing aircraft, tactical, ballistic, cruise and aircraft missiles in a massive raid with the use of intensive radio and fire countermeasures as well as for engagement of waterborne and ground targets.

    The high firepower of the system, which is ensured by six firing channels, guarantees the engagement of the same number of targets simultaneously flying from different directions at various altitudes.

    The aforementioned characteristics have been attained through the use of the highly effective 9M317 SAM (leading developer and manufacturer is the Dolgoprudny Research and Production Enterprise) and the new fire control system which incorporated specially developed design features into the CP, SPMs and LLs.

    The full-scale tests of the Buk-M1-2 air defense missile system, during which a sea mine sweeper, parked strategic aircraft, launchers and tactical, ballistic and cruise missiles were engaged, have confirmed its high effectiveness as a multifunctional defensive asset.

    Engineering technologies 2012 defence exhibition¡ª¡ª2012¶íÂÞ˹¡°»úеÖÆÔì¼¼Êõ¡±·ÀÎñÕ¹ 77RUS & olegkuleshovµÄ¶í¾ü×°±¸ÊÀ½ç ·ÉÑï¾üÊ - powered by phpwind.net
     
  11. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    BUK-M1-2

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  12. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    The S-300VM "Antey-2500"

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    The S-300VM "Antey-2500" (NATO reporting name SA-23 Gladiator\Giant) is a new Russian anti-ballistic missile system.

    It is designed to defeat short- and medium-range ballistic missiles with a launch range of up to 2,500 km, aeroballistic and cruise missiles, strategic and tactical aircraft, as well as loitering ECM platforms and highprecision weapon systems in multiple air threat conditions, a complex air situation and severe ECM environment. In 2011, the Russian army will receive an improved version called S-300V4, reportedly based on S-300VM system.
    Missile
    The 9M82M missile is intended to defeat tactical, theater and medium range ballistic missiles, as well as aerodynamic targets at a range of up to 200 km. The Antey-2500 system is mounted on tracked cross-country vehicles provided with self-contained power supply and navigation systems, surveying and positioning equipment. The missile is controlled throughout the entire flight trajectory.

    System CharacteristicsThe Antey-2500 air defense missile system features:

    high degree of battle performance automation owing to high-speed digital computers;
    phased array radars;
    advanced radar data processing methods;
    high ECM immunity;
    high ability of autonomous operation;
    high mobility;
    high fire power potential, irrespective of air attack tactics or sequence;
    vertical launch from a special transport launch canister;
    maintenance-free operation of missiles for at least ten years;
    capability to defeat ballistic missile individual warheads flying at speeds of up to 4,500 m/s;
    inertial guidance with radio command update and semiactive homing at the terminal phase;
    focused detonation of the missile warhead.

    The Antey-2500 system comprises:
    command post;
    circular scan radar;
    sector scan radar;
    multichannel missile guidance station (MMGS) (4);
    9A83M launcher (24);
    9A84M loader-launcher (24);
    9M82M air defense missiles;
    9M83M air defense missiles;
    maintenance vehicles;
    maintenance and repair vehicles;
    group SPTA set;
    electronic trainer for MMGS operators;
    transporter vehicles;
    set of missiles handling equipment

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    I believe that the S-400 and S-500 are trial improvements on this one, it was also called the S-330 and is still the most advanced Medium to High altitude air defence system.
     
  13. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    9 August 2012

    Pentagon helps build Meshworm reconnaissance robot

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    Engineers have created a robot that mimics a worm's movements - crawling along surfaces by contracting segments of its body.

    The technique allows the machine to be made of soft materials so it can squeeze through tight spaces and mould its shape to rough terrain.

    It can also absorb heavy blows without sustaining damage.

    The Pentagon's Darpa research unit supported the Meshworm project, suggesting a potential military use.

    Work on the machine was carried out by researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University in the US, and Seoul National University in South Korea.

    Details are published in the journal IEEE/ASE Transactions on Mechatronics.

    "[The] soft body, which is essentially compliant, exhibits large strains and enables the robot to traverse small openings and reconstitute shape, and survives from large impact force on falling," the engineers wrote.

    They added that using a worm-like motion helped reduce the noise such machines produce, making them suitable "for reconnaissance purposes".
    Squeezed segments

    Previous attempts to create such a robot have used gears and air-powered or pneumatic pumps. But these added to the bulk of the machines making them less practical for real-world uses.

    The Darpa-supported team instead moved their machine by using an "artificial muscle" made out of nickel and titanium wire designed to stretch and contract with heat.
    Meshworm The Meshworm is made out of a tube created from polymer mesh around which a metal wire is wrapped to create an "artificial muscle"

    By wrapping this wire around a mesh-like tube the engineers replicated the circular muscle fibres of an earthworm, creating different segments in the process.

    When a current was applied to part of the wire it contracted, squeezing the tube.

    The team created algorithm to send a contraction wave across each of the machine's five segments in turn, squeezing the tube and propelling it forward. This mimics the movement of its biological counterpart.

    They were able to make the robot move at a rate of about 5mm per second (0.2 inches/sec).

    Two additional "muscles" were added to the sides of the machine to pull it left and right, allowing its direction to be controlled.
    Attack resistant
    Meshworm hit by hammer The engineers said that the Meshworm remained functional even after being hit with a hammer

    The researchers said that the soft nature of the robot's body allowed it to be subjected to hammer blows and be trod on without sustaining any damage because its shape changed to help absorb the blows.

    "You can throw it, and it won't collapse," said Sangbae Kim, assistant professor in mechanical engineering at MIT.

    "Parts in Meshworms are all fibrous and flexible. The muscles are soft and the body is soft... [and] we're starting to show some body-morphing capability."

    The Meshworm is just one of several animal-inspired projects being funded by Darpa.

    Other examples include a robotic "cheetah" that can run at speeds of 18mph (29km/h), a micro-aircraft equipped with a camera that looks like a hummingbird, and AlphaDog - a four-legged robot designed to carry soldiers' gear.
     
  14. LeGenD

    LeGenD ELITE MEMBER

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    Here is update:

    Air Force tells House committee it's fixing F-22 oxygen problem | Breaking News | News f...
     
  15. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    UPDATE:

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    Problems have plagued the F-22 Raptor since its inception.

    Flaking, toxic stealth coating with equally toxic glue. International dateline software glitches. Pilots nearly passing out from lack of oxygen and the feared "Raptor Cough."

    So the jet went through a battery of extensive tests, over many years, only for one general to suggest something completely unrelated to the configuration of the plane's innards: Maybe human beings just weren't physiologically equipped to max out the attributes of this total sky carnivore.

    Read more: F-22 Too Much For Human Physiology - Business Insider