There are a couple of rather surprising facts that I want to add. I am writing this from distant memory, so please fine-tune my statements.I blame loss of Kashmir on the indiscriminate raping & pillaging by the Pathan tribal volunteers.
My personnel opinion is that idea of relying on unruly & undisciplined Pathan tribesmen in this war was a big mistake.
It is possible that without the pillage by the Pathan tribals, Kashmiri Muslim population would have been more supportive of Pakistan and the Kashmiri leaders of the Sh Abdulla’s stature would have not been pro-India.
1. Tribals were allowed to cross the Durand line only after handing over their rifles since British times. To their incredible surprise, this operation to take over Kashmir allowed to them to come across the border with their weapons and also they were given modern rifles!
2. As per the terms of division of the erstwhile British Indian army, the now-Indian army had hundreds of soldiers posted on the Afghan - Pakistan border to protect Pakistan's western borders, all the while when their brothers-in-arms were fighting Pakistanis on its eastern border!!