• Sunday, September 24, 2017

Tank Ammunition

Discussion in 'Land Warfare' started by Manticore, Aug 1, 2013.

  1. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
  2. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    Russia will save 5 to 6 billion rubles if it modernize its old ammunition arsenals. This news was revealed to an ARMS-TASS correspondent by Sergey Rusakov, Director-General of NIMI (Research Institute of Machine Building). According to him, in association with the Bazalt State Unitary Research and Production Enterprise NIMI has developed a program to replenish the arsenals, under the National Defense Order, with new products that can be manufactured by using expired shelf-life ammunitions. At present, theprogram is presented for consideration by the Military-Technical Commission and the customers’ services. This will give the upgraded ammunition the capability of the 21st century weapon and will save large funds for the state.

    As S.Rusakov explained, the ammunitions manufactured in the 70s to 80s have expired their shelf life stipulated by the Stets. The shelf life of their pyrotechnical and control components has also ended. But the service life of their warheads is 50 years. So NIMI and Bazalt propose to replace all the elements of ammunitions now in storage, to modernize somewhat their appearance and to supply, under the National Defense Order, for roughly 30-40% of the cost of new weapons. Thus the operational effectiveness of modernized ammunitions will be enhanced by 1.5 to three times and they will not be inferior to new counterparts.

    “Considering the high exportability of Russian ammunitions,we are prepared to acquire from the army old products on a return basis. That is, as a payment we shall modernize them and return the required quantity to the arsenals whereas the other part will be sold on the foreign market”, said the head of NIMI. This strategy would make it possible to realize the program of modernizing Russia’s existing ammunitions practically without expense, he said. Such an ammunition modernization plan has been proposed to foreign customers.
    [​IMG]
     
  3. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
  4. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    Israeli Multi-Purpose Tank Ammo Redesigned to Fit the 125mm Gun of the T-90S

    IMI is unveiling two new 125mm tank rounds at the Defexpo 2012 this week. The new types of ammunition can enhance the combat capabilities and survivability of the Indian T-90S and T-72M Main Battle Tanks, improving their armor penetration capability as well as efficiency against anti-tank teams and fortified targets. The new multi-purpose tank round is based on IMI’s Multi-Purpose round technology that has won the 2011 Israel Defense Award. This technology has now been ported to the 125mm caliber, to make it available for the Indian Army.

    IMI is introducing a multi-purpose 125mm tank round designed for the T-90, T-80 and T-72 class of Main Battle Tanks (MBT). The High-Explosive Multi-Purpose Tracered (HE-MP-T) tank round designated M710 is the latest of IMI’s family of Multi-Purpose (MP) tank ammunition.

    The M710 is optimized to defeat targets typically encountered in asymmetric and urban scenarios, including buildings and bunkers, light armored vehicles and fortifications. This round is also effective against Anti-Tank (AT) squads and infantry in the open, in a foxhole or behind a corner.

    M710 uses an electronic fuzing system that has three different modes of operation: PDD (Point Detonation Delayed), PD (Point Detonation/ Super Quick) and Air Burst. The tank’s Fire Control System (FCS) feeds the target information and the programmable electronic fuze is set by wireless data link while the round is in the chamber.

    In PDD mode, the M710 is designed to penetrate and explode inside targets, such as double reinforced concrete walls; bunkers field fortifications or Light Armored Vehicles (LAVs). In PD (Super Quick) mode the round breaches a hole in double reinforced concrete walls, creating a passageway for infantry soldiers. The Air Burst mode is used for effectively engaging AT or infantry squads, operating in the open or hiding behind defilade and walls.

    Another newly developed tank round is the 125mm MK-2 Armor Piercing, fin Stabilized, Discarding Sabot-Tracer (APFSDS-T) – a second-generation, high-velocity, Kinetic Energy (KE) armor defeating round. The MK-2 improves the accuracy of the penetrator at all combat ranges, lowers barrel wear and enhances armor penetration capability when fired with existing 125 barrels. The round contains a tungsten-based alloy penetrator and is also type classified for the 125mm smoothbore tank guns.

    IMI’s MP rounds family also includes the M117/1, designed for the 105mm rifled guns of the M-60 and Merkava Mk 1 & 2 tanks. The combat proven M329 was later developed for the modern 120mm smoothbore gun used with current Merkava Mk 3 & Mk 4. M329 is also compatible with NATO 120mm smoothbore tank guns. An additional MP round, the M339, has been developed primarily for western tanks using NATO 120mm smoothbore guns, such as the M1A1, Ariete, Leopard 2 or Arjun. IMI’s MP capabilities have been awarded recognition as its M329 tank round has recently received the 2011 ISRAEL DEFENSE AWARD for its distinctive contribution to the defense of Israel.

    IMI is participating at the defense show despite its recent inclusion among six companies blacklisted by the Ministry of Defense.

    [​IMG]

    Israeli Multi-Purpose Tank Ammo Redesigned to Fit the 125mm Gun of the T-90S - Defense Update - Military Technology & Defense News

    New Multi-Purpose Ammo Improves IDF Armor Counter-Insurgency Response

    The IDF is equipping the Merkava Mk4 deployed along the Gaza strip with M329 High-Explosive/Multi-Purpose (HE/MP) 120mm tank rounds.

    The newly developed tank round is based on the perception of using one kind of round against a wide range of targets and scenarios in the modern battlefield, ultimately decreasing the different kinds of tank rounds used before. The fuse of the tank round is programmable after it is loaded in the chamber, enabling the crewmen increased capability in both handling and in accomplishing News Releasetheir goals in all fighting scenarios- against fortifications, urban structures, Light Armored Vehicles (LAVs), as well as, anti-tank and ambush infantry squads.

    When used against fortified structures or bunkers, the round effectively penetrates the obstacle before detonating, scattering thousands of deadly fragments inside.

    These tanks were also fitted with Trophy active protection systems (APS), following recent attacks by Palestinian Kornet missiles. In a recent missile attack launched early January 2011 the missile penetrated the armor but did cause casualties of further damage to the tank.

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    http://defense-update.com/20101231_nlaw.html
     
  5. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    125MM PROPELLANT CHARGES

    OVERVIEW

    125mm D-81 line of guns utilizes two-part ammunition that consists of a propelant charge and different projectile parts (APFSDS projectiles have an incremental charge for greater energy).

    The propellant case is of a semi-combustible type, consisting of a fully combustible pyroxylin-cellulose, TNT-impregnated tube set in a rear stub made of BV-11 steel, that also incorporates the GUV-7 electric primer.

    The gunpowder is of high-nitrogen pyroxylin straw type.

    The charges are produced by the State Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Products in Kazan.

    PROPELLANT CHARGES

    Common properties:
    Charge weight 9400g
    Stub weight 3400g
    Propellant weight 5000g
    Charge length 408mm
    Stub length 140mm
    Flange diameter 172mm
    Primer GUV-7, electric/percussion
    4Zh-40 (DOI 1962)
    Composition: 15/1tr V/A (1.5mm burning arch high-nitrogen pyroxylin stick gunpowder) + 12/7 V/A (1.2mm burning arch 7-channel high-nitrogen pyroxylin stick gunpowder) + VTKh-20 (flame-supressing gunpowder) + DRP-3 initiating gunpowder.
    4Zh-52 (DOI 1976)
    15/1tr V/A completely replaced with improved 12/7 V/A.
    4Zh-63 (DOI UNKNOWN)
    New high-energy propellant that allows to increase APFSDS muzzle energy by 5% over the previous charge models.

    [​IMG]
    4Zh-52 charge cutaway. Note that single-channel grains were erroneously used in model construction, whereas 4Zh-52 in fact utilizes the 7-channel propellant.
    125mm Propellant Charges

    125MM APERS AMMUNITION

    OVERVIEW

    While many Western countries increasingly emphasize tank's anti-tank capabilities at the expense of its anti-personnel (APERS) capabilities, according to the traditional Soviet school of thought tanks are the most important anti-personnel asset on the battlefield, and this is reflected in the range and versatility of APERS rounds available for 125mm guns, and their ratio in the standard tank layout (around 40% of dedicated APERS rounds, in addition to 45% of APERS-capable HEAT-FS rounds, and can be further increased depending on mission) which is unusually high by modern Western standards.

    By far the most widely used APERS round is a multi-purpose HE/HE-FRAG/FRAG fin-stabilized round. Its versatility has been lately further increased by introduction of a time-fusing system, Ainet. Other APERS rounds include shrapnel and incendiary, but these are a lot less common.

    125mm HEF-FS rounds are reasonably accurate (maximum acceptable dispersion: 0.23mil) and are roughly equivalent to a 122mm artillery round.

    The anti-tank efficiency of HEF-FS rounds is limited, but tests indicate that HEF-FS impact on a tank produces severe mobility kill and very likely firepower kill. Lightly armored targets are likely to suffer catastrophic kill.

    Soviet 125mm HEF-FS rounds have the following layout: the explosive is located in the main body (3) with two driving bands (4). In front of a projectile is a detonator (2) with a protective cap (1). In the rear of the projectile are four folded fins (6) that are attached to the base (7) and are held together by stopors (5) and a plastic ring (8). The later breaks apart upon exit and releases the fins, which unsnap along the axes (9) and provide stabilisation in flight.

    The desired mode of round operation (HE, HE-FRAG or pure FRAG) is chosen based on the combination of specific detonator setting and the presense or absense of a protective cap:

    HE-FRAG: detonator set to 'O' (open), protective cap is in place. Reaction time 0.01 sec. This is the standard mode of operation, that ensures reliable round behaviour in most conditions and does not require any special preparations by the crew.

    HE: detonator set to '3' (closed), protective cap is in place. Reaction time 0.1 sec. This is a special mode intended for increasing the round's penetration before the detonator activates, when used against earthworks and field fortifications. This mode requires the detonator to be turned along its axis with a special key before the round is loaded.

    FRAG: detonator set to 'O', protective cap removed. Reaction time 0.001 sec. This is a special mode, mostly reserved for reliable operation against mud and swampy ground at ranges under 3000. The round is extremely sensitive in this mode, requiring the tank to be stopped during its handling, and can even detonate against the protective canvas cap on the gun barrel, or against the rain drops and hail.

    The HEF rounds utilise the standard propelling charge (4Zh40 or 4Zh52) and have the muzzle velocity of 850m/s, which makes them quite adequate for most battlefield support missions.


    125MM APERS AND SPECIAL ROUNDS

    HE-FRAG ROUNDS:

    Common properties:

    Projectile mass ~23,000g
    Charge mass 3,148g
    Extended fin span 356mm
    Muzzle velocity 850m/s
    Max.dispersion 0.23mil
    Barrel pressure 387.4MPa
    EFC rating 1
    Rear tracer

    Detonator
    Designation V-429E (3V-21)
    Mass 430g
    Reliability 0.98
    Guaranteed life 15 years
    Type point detonating (PD)
    3VP-24 (3P-23 projectile) (DOI unknown)
    Practice HE-FRAG round (same mass and behaviour as HE-FRAG, but inert)
    3VOF-22 (3OF-19 projectile) (DOI 1962)
    Charge: TNT
    3VOF-36 (3OF-26 projectile) (DOI est.1970)
    Charge: A-IX-2 (flegmatized RDX with aluminum) 3,400g


    AINET SYSTEM:

    T-80UK and T-90 MBTs are equipped with Ainet system that allows to electronically fuse HE-FRAG rounds to explode at predetermined moment of flight. In order to use the system the gunner must lase the target before loading the round into the breech. The round is passed by the auto-loader through an automatic fuse setter, which sets the fuse to explode at the correct distance; the fused round is then loaded into the gun and is ready to be fired. This system allows to efficiently use HEF rounds against hovering helicopters as well as infantry and light armor in entrenched positions, out to 4 km and more. The effective fragmentation radius and range consistency improve three-fold, while ammunition expenditure for a typical mission decreases two-fold. All HE-FRAG rounds are compatible with this system, provided a new electronic detonator is used instead of the standard V-429E.

    CANISTER ROUND:

    3USh-3 (3Sh-7 projectile) (DOI UNKNOWN)
    4700-4800 elements of 1.26g; muzzle velocity 1000m/s; sweep sector 9°; fatal range 200-500m
    BLANK ROUND:

    4Kh-33 (DOI UNKNOWN)
    Consists of standard propellant charge and a further charge simulating auxiliary propellant of an APFSDS round to allow for sufficient recoil to allow gun automatics to function properly.
    [​IMG]
    http://www.russianarmor.info/Tanks/ARM/apers/ammo.html
     
  6. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    125MM APFSDS AMMUNITION

    HISTORICAL NOTE

    USSR has pioneered the use of APFSDS ammunition in tanks loadout with the introduction of T-62 medium tank. With their extremely high speed and long direct-fire range these rounds could be effectively used at substantial range in spite of the antiquated fire control of T-62. Opposite to the popular belief, it was not however a prefered anti-tank round until the end of seventies, with HEAT being considered more versatile, accurate, and powerful. This, as well as very modest advances in NATO armor protection during this period, resulted in the Soviet APFSDS rounds not changing much in appearance until the 80s, with only evolutionary changes in internal composition; they were nevertheless sufficient for dealing with contemporary NATO armor thanks to significant potential offered by 125mm gun.

    The situation changed with the appearance of a new generation of NATO MBTs that featured composite armor with drastically increased protection, especially against HEAT rounds. To deal with new threats required radical departures from earlier Soviet APFSDS designs. The advances included the use of new penetrator materials, in particular high-strength tungsten alloys and uranium, increased round elongation, and new sabot designs with new separation principle, that provided increased interface area with the thinner more fragile rounds and eventually also two areas of contact rather than just one of older sabot designs.

    The principal difference of most Soviet APFSDS rounds from the Western ones was that the former used bore-riding fins and the sabot had only one area of contact with the barrel, while the latter overwhelmingly use spool shaped sabots that touch the barrel in two areas and therefore can afford to have subcaliber fins. At first glance there are advantages and disadvantages to both approaches. In Soviet model, the sabot can be made much lighter and therefore the loss of gunpowder energy on acceleration of parasitic mass is smaller. On the other hand, large bore-riding fins produce a high ballistic drag causing severe decceleration of the projectile in flight and affecting stability. The developments of the last decades have shown that the Western approach seems to be more sound. Newest 125mm rounds have moved away from bore-riding fins, and there are many foreign variants of 125mm APFSDS rounds utilizing spool-shaped sabots.

    Most Soviet 125mm APFSDS rounds have the following layout (the round assembly depicted is 3BM-16/3BM-18): in the front of the projectile is a ballistic cap (1) which covers the nose of a penetrator body (2); there is a ring-shaped three-part discarding sabot (3) with a driving band (4); stability in flight is provided by means of 5 bore-riding fins (6), that are equipped with ballbearings (7) for centering in the barrel. The round is assembled with the incremental charge (5).

    In addition to the incremental charge integral to the round, the standard propelling charge (4Zh40 or 4Zh52, with newer high-energy rounds - 4Zh63) is used; APFSDS rounds have an initial velocity between 1700 and 1800 m/s, and velocity loss of 60-140 m/s/km depending on the model and current velocity (older models being faster at muzzle, but losing velocity at greater rate).

    The separated sabot petals possess significant kinetic energy and are considered a safety hazard out to 1000m and 2° to each side of the gun.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
    125MM APFSDS ROUNDS

    125MM HEAT-FS AMMUNITION

    OVERVIEW

    It is not a common knowledge, and is somewhat unexpected for an APFSDS-centered anti-armor school of thought of today, but originally HEAT-FS rounds were the principal 125mm anti-armor ammunition. In fact, the original 125mm 2A26 (D-81) gun was accepted for T-64A MBT as a result of an emergency uparming procedure, exactly thanks to its greater HEAT potential. Indeed, original 125mm HEAT rounds outperformed their APFSDS counterparts by nearly 25%, penetrating over 400mm RHA and ensuring defeat of all contemporary MBTs at any point of impact. APFSDS rounds, on the contrary, were few in the Soviet tanks layout, and were only intended for short-range engagements. Even now HEAT rounds account for 45% of standard tank loadout.

    HEAT-FS rounds were also substantially more accurate than APFSDS (which might also be surprising to a Western reader). This is reflected in the Soviet deviation criterion, which was more strict for HEAT rounds (0.21 mil) than for APFSDS rounds (0.25 mil). However, in practice HEAT-FS rounds were even more accurate. As control trials of a random mass-production T-64A held in the 70s (the details of which were made available to the author) indicated, while APFSDS rounds hugged the outer bounds of acceptance criterion, HEAT-FS rounds actually demonstrated the average deviation of well under 0.1 mil!

    The advent of advanced armor arrays decreased the effectiveness of HEAT ammunition, and the advance of APFSDS technology and their flatter trajectory and shorter time to target have relegated HEAT ammunition to the secondary role in tanks loadout. However, in latest years, HEAT penetrating potential was boosted by ingenious tandem warhead designs, as well as introduction of unconventional metal liners (DU, tantalum, etc.), that, theoretically, substantially degrade the performance of advanced armor arrays, in addition to having improved behind-armor effects.

    Soviet 125mm HEAT rounds have the following layout: the shaped charge is located in the cylindrical main body (3) with two driving bands (4). In front of a projectile is an extended probe (2) to ensure the proper detonation stand-off (on latest models it also contains the precursor charge that strips off ERA or conditions advanced armor arrays). The detonator (1) is located on the tip of the probe. In the rear of the projectile are six folded fins (6) that are attached to the base (8) and are held together by a plastic ring (5). The later breaks apart upon exit and releases the fins, which unsnap along the axes (7) and provide stabilisation in flight.

    The HEAT rounds utilise the standard propelling charge (4Zh40 or 4Zh52) and have the muzzle velocity around 905 m/s, which makes it problematic to engage moving targets with them.
    [​IMG]

    125MM HEAT-FS ROUNDS
    Common properties:

    Projectile mass 19,000g
    Projectile length 680mm
    Charge mass 1,624..1,850g
    Muzzle velocity 905m/s
    Max.dispersion 0.21mil
    EFC rating 1
    Chamber pressure 300MPa
    Extended fins span 343mm
    Rear tracer; point-initiating, base-detonating (PIBD) fuse

    http://www.russianarmor.info/Tanks/ARM/heat/ammo.html
     
  7. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    125MM GUIDED AMMUNITION

    OVERVIEW

    Guided rounds capability first appeared on Soviet tanks with the introduction of 9K112 guided weapons suite on a T-64B MBT in 1976, drawing on an extensive guided weapons programme of the 50s and 60s.

    The direct precursor to 125mm tube-launched ATGW programme was the "Rubin" system. Developed in 1962 in KBM under B.I.Shavyrin, this 28.5kg, 1500mm long radio-guided SACLOS ATGM was intended for Obiekt 775 missile tank, which had an OKB-9-designed D-126 low-pressure rifled gun/launcher. Following cancellation of Soviet missile tank programmes, thought was given to adapting it for T-64 MBT, resulting in redesigning it as two-piece ATGM.

    The official start of the ATGW development for T-64 was given by the USSR Council of Ministers Resolution of 20.05.1968, that established a competition between KBM, now headed by S.P.Nyepobedimyi, and KB "Tochmash" under A.E.Nudelman, to develop a 125mm gun-launched missile system. KBM's "Gyurza" (asian snake), utilizing a novel but troublesome IR guidance method, lost the competition to radio-guided "Kobra" (cobra) proposed by Nudelman. Ironically, "Gyurza" system, dropping IR guidance in favor of radio, was redesigned to become "Shturm", the Soviet heavy vehicle- and helicopter-mounted ATGM. "Kobra", after passing extensive trials in 1971-1975, has been accepted for service in 1976 under designation 9K-112.

    Opposite to the popular belief in the West that it is similar in capability to the abortive US Shillelagh program, it is actually a far more mature weapons system, that drastically extended the traditionally unremarkable range of Soviet MBTs to the point where they actually outranged any NATO ground-based weapons system, as well as providing them with viable anti-helicopter weapon, and augmenting the penetrating power of their guns. However, this was a very expensive system. By means of example, T-64B MBT was over 20% more expensive than the T-64B1 model whose only difference was the lack of 9K-112 suite. The price of each 9M-112 missile was roughly equivalent to the price of a civil car. In addition the system was beyond the grasp of an average recruit and normally only officers were authorized to handle it. Finally, there were problems with missile's preparation for fire due to a peculiar way it was adapted for the T-64 autoloader (the weapon actually consisted of two parts that were snapped together as part of the loading sequence; this also precluded the installation of this system in T-72 tanks that have a different autoloader design).

    Most of these problems were eliminated in the follow-on 9K-119 guided weapons suite that is installed in T-80U and T-90 MBTs, and 9K-120 suite installed in T-72B MBT.

    125MM GUIDED ROUNDS

    "Gyurza" (not fielded, development stopped 14.01.1971 after losing competition with Kobra)
    9K-112 "Kobra" (DOI 1976)
    9M-128 "Agona" (DOI 1985)
    9K-119 "Refleks", 9K120 Svir (DOI 1985)
    9M-119M "Invar" (DOI 1989)
    9M-? "Invar-M" (est.DOI 2006, Russia)
    "Kombat" (DOI 2001, Ukraine)
    "Sokol-1" (in development, Russia)

    [​IMG]
    125mm Guided Rounds
     
  8. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    125MM GUIDED AMMUNITION

    OVERVIEW

    Guided rounds capability first appeared on Soviet tanks with the introduction of 9K112 guided weapons suite on a T-64B MBT in 1976, drawing on an extensive guided weapons programme of the 50s and 60s.

    The direct precursor to 125mm tube-launched ATGW programme was the "Rubin" system. Developed in 1962 in KBM under B.I.Shavyrin, this 28.5kg, 1500mm long radio-guided SACLOS ATGM was intended for Obiekt 775 missile tank, which had an OKB-9-designed D-126 low-pressure rifled gun/launcher. Following cancellation of Soviet missile tank programmes, thought was given to adapting it for T-64 MBT, resulting in redesigning it as two-piece ATGM.

    The official start of the ATGW development for T-64 was given by the USSR Council of Ministers Resolution of 20.05.1968, that established a competition between KBM, now headed by S.P.Nyepobedimyi, and KB "Tochmash" under A.E.Nudelman, to develop a 125mm gun-launched missile system. KBM's "Gyurza" (asian snake), utilizing a novel but troublesome IR guidance method, lost the competition to radio-guided "Kobra" (cobra) proposed by Nudelman. Ironically, "Gyurza" system, dropping IR guidance in favor of radio, was redesigned to become "Shturm", the Soviet heavy vehicle- and helicopter-mounted ATGM. "Kobra", after passing extensive trials in 1971-1975, has been accepted for service in 1976 under designation 9K-112.

    Opposite to the popular belief in the West that it is similar in capability to the abortive US Shillelagh program, it is actually a far more mature weapons system, that drastically extended the traditionally unremarkable range of Soviet MBTs to the point where they actually outranged any NATO ground-based weapons system, as well as providing them with viable anti-helicopter weapon, and augmenting the penetrating power of their guns. However, this was a very expensive system. By means of example, T-64B MBT was over 20% more expensive than the T-64B1 model whose only difference was the lack of 9K-112 suite. The price of each 9M-112 missile was roughly equivalent to the price of a civil car. In addition the system was beyond the grasp of an average recruit and normally only officers were authorized to handle it. Finally, there were problems with missile's preparation for fire due to a peculiar way it was adapted for the T-64 autoloader (the weapon actually consisted of two parts that were snapped together as part of the loading sequence; this also precluded the installation of this system in T-72 tanks that have a different autoloader design).

    Most of these problems were eliminated in the follow-on 9K-119 guided weapons suite that is installed in T-80U and T-90 MBTs, and 9K-120 suite installed in T-72B MBT.

    125MM GUIDED ROUNDS

    "Gyurza" (not fielded, development stopped 14.01.1971 after losing competition with Kobra)
    9K-112 "Kobra" (DOI 1976)
    9M-128 "Agona" (DOI 1985)
    9K-119 "Refleks", 9K120 Svir (DOI 1985)
    9M-119M "Invar" (DOI 1989)
    9M-? "Invar-M" (est.DOI 2006, Russia)
    "Kombat" (DOI 2001, Ukraine)
    "Sokol-1" (in development, Russia)

    [​IMG]
    125mm Guided Rounds
     
  9. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    Tank and anti-tank ammunition by POF

    100 mm APFSDS/T
    105 mm APFSDS/T L 64 A4
    105 mm HE TK P1 A1
    105 mm HESH L35A3
    125 mm APFSDS/T
    125 mm HE
    106 mm HEAT M344A3
    40 mm HEAT P1 MK1 (RPG-7)
    73 mm FSRA HEAT round (SPG-9)
    RPG-7 (AP)
    Anti-tank mine P3 MK


    Tank & Anti-Tank Ammunition:
    Mine anti-tank p3 mk2
    105 mm he tk p1 a1
    106 mm heat m344a3

    Artillery Munitions:
    155MM HOW HE M483 A1-ICM
    203MM HOW HE M 106
    ROCKET 122MM HE (YARMUK)
    QF 25 PDR MK1/2

    [​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]
     
  10. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    [​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]
     
  11. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan


    British APFSDS projectiles

    L23
    L23A1 & L26A1
    L27A1
    L23A2 (currently under development)

    APFSDS (L23) Muzzle velocity- 1,534 m/s Weight of projectile- 8 kg [Sabot]
    APDS (L15) Muzzle velocity- 1,370 m/s Weight of projectile- 10.36 kg [Sabot]
    HESH (L31) Muzzle velocity- 670m/s Weight of projectile- 17.1 kg [Heat]
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Nov 5, 2013
  12. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    Chinese APFSDS rounds:
    [​IMG]

    120mm APFSDS in the tube - Munster
    M829A3
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
    3BM38 left 3BM42 "Mango" 3BM32 "Vant" ?

    [​IMG]
     
  13. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    AT Round penetration estimates:
    (please be aware there is a good margin of error around any of these figures)
    Israeli/Chinese Type-IIM (new) 125mm 600mm at 2km
    Chinese Type-II 125mm 550mm at 2km
    Pakistani Niaza 125mm DU 550mm at 2km
    Israeli M711 (Romanian CL3254) 125mm tungsten 560mm at 2km (1995) (20:1 L/D) (also imported by India in 1999)
    Chinese/Pak (old) 125mm tungsten 460-480mm at 2km (1993)
    Ukraine 125mm Vitiaz round 760mm at 2km (2002)
    Russian 125mm BM-42M "Lekalo"? tungsten 600-650mm at 2km (200?)
    Russian 125mm BM-46 "Svinets" DU 650mm at 2km (1991) (22:1 L/D)
    Russian 125mm BM-42 "Mango" tungsten alloy 520mm at 2km (1986) (16:1 L/D)
    Russian 125mm BM-32 "Vant" DU 560mm at 2km (1985) (13:1 L/D)
    Russian 125mm BM-29 DU 470mm at 2km (1982) (12:1 L/D)
    Russian 125mm BM-26 "Hope" (1983) tungsten alloy 450mm at 2km (extended BM-22 13:1 L/D)
    Russian 125mm BM-22 "HairPin" (1976) tungsten 430mm at 2km (most common round in late 1970s/early 1980s)
    Russian 125mm BM-17 (1972) steel 310mm at 2km (simplified export BM-15)
    Russian 125mm BM-15/Yugo M88 tungsten carbide slug (1972) 340mm at 2km (version of BM-12 with extended projectile)
    Russian 125mm BM-12 tungsten carbide slug (1968) 315mm at 2km
    Russian 125mm BM-9 steel (1962) 290mm at 2km
    Russian 125mm BK-12 HEAT (1962) 420mm at all ranges
    Russian 125mm BK-18/21 HEAT (1980) 550mm at all ranges
    Russian 125mm BK-29 HEAT (1990) 700mm at all ranges
    Indian T-2 125mm tungsten 500mm at 2km (1997) (appears similar to ChiCom 125mm round)
    Iranian 125mm tungsten 470mm at 3km
    Polish Pronit 125mm tungsten 540mm at 2km (2001)
    1990s Polish 125mm tungsten round 460mm at 2km
    Czech Synthesia 125mm APFSDS-T round 500mm at 2km
    Slovak TAPNA 125mm APFSDS-T round 530mm at 2km
    Soviet 122mm BR471B APCBC 162mm at 1km (129mm at 2km) (1945)
    Soviet 122mm BR-472 APCBC fired from JS-III 191mm at 1km (165mm at 2km)
    Soviet 122mm BR-472 APCBC fired from T-10M 247mm at 1km (210mm at 2km)
    Soviet 122mm BM11 APDS fired from T-10M 354mm at 1km, 308mm at 2km (1967)
    German 120mm DM-13 390mm at 2km (1979)
    German 120mm DM-23 470mm at 2km (1983)
    German 120mm DM-33/Japanese JM-33 550mm at 2km (1987)
    German 120mm DM-43A1/US KEW A1 590mm at 2km (1994)
    German 120mm DM-53 tungsten 700mm at 2km (1996)
    German 120mm/L55 DM-53 760mm at 2km (2001)
    German 120mm DM-63/Israeli M-338 tungsten 680mm at 2km (2006)
    German 120mm/L55 DM-63 tungsten 720mm at 2km (2006)
    S.Korean K276 120mm tungsten 700mm at 1km (2004)
    French 120mm OFL120F1 tungsten 590mm at 2km (1994)
    French 120mm OFL120F2 DU 647mm at 2km (1997)
    US M103 120mm APC 221mm at 1000yards; 199mm at 2000yards at 30 degrees
    UK Conqueror 120mm AP 255mm at 1000 yards; 226mm at 2000 yards (1.8km)
    UK Conqueror 120mm L1A1 APDS 446mm at 1000 yards (914m)
    UK L-15 120mm APDS round 355mm at 1km/340mm at 2km (1965)
    UK L-31 120mm HESH 460mm at any range (1960s)
    UK L-15A4 120mm APDS-T 450mm at 2km (1970s, and exported to Iran before Revolution)
    UK L-23 120mm tungsten APFSDS round 450mm at 2km (Apr 1983)
    UK Charm-1 L-26 120mm DU APFSDS round 530mm at 2km (1991)
    UK Charm-3 L-27 APFSDS 120mm DU 720mm at 2km (1999)
    UK L-28 120mm APFSDS 770mm at 2km (200X)
    US M829A3 120mm DU 765mm at 2km (2003) (Russian estimate 795mm)
    US M829A2 120mm DU 730mm at 2km (1994)
    US M829A1 120mm DU 610mm at 2km (1991) (Russian estimate 700mm)
    US M829 120mm DU 552mm at 2km (1987)
    US M827 120mm tungsten 450mm at 2km (never fielded by US)
    US Olin GD120 120mm tungsten 520mm at 2km
    US/Egyptian KEW-A2 120mm tungsten 660mm at 2km
    South Korean 120mm APFSDS 670mm at 2km
    Indian 120mm tungsten 650mm at 2km
    Chinese 120mm tungsten 550mm at 2km
    Russian 115mm BM-28 DU APFSDS 384mm at 2km (early 1980s)
    Russian 115mm BM-21 DU APFSDS 330mm at 2km (mid-late 1970s)
    Soviet 115mm BM-6 steel APFSDS 280mm at 1km, 246mm at 2km (1962)
    Soviet 115mm BM-4 steel APFSDS 200mm at 2km (1961)
    Soviet 115mm BM-3 tungsten carbide APFSDS 270mm at 2km (for original T-64)
    UK/Egyptian 115mm BD/36-2 APFSDS 460mm at 2km
    Chinese Type-86 105mm DU 460mm(from "short" 105)/480mm(from "long" 105) at 2km
    Chinese Type-93 105mm DU 510mm("short")/540mm("long") at 2km
    Chinese Type-95 105mm DU 580mm at 2km (from "long" Type-83A 105mm)
    UK T-2 HP 105mm tungsten round 560mm at 2km
    UK 105mm L-28 tungsten cap APDS 120mm at 60 degrees at 900m, 250mm at 1km (mid-1950s)
    US/UK 105mm L-36A1/M392 tungsten cap APDS 260mm at 1km (1961)
    UK 105mm L-52A3 tungsten core APDS 320mm at muzzle, 280mm at 1km, 254mm at 1500m, 240mm at 2km (1973)
    UK 105mm L-64A4 tungsten APFSDS 310mm at 2km (1982)
    UK/Pakistani 105mm H6/62 APFSDS 360mm at 2km (1990s)
    Pakistani 105mm DU APFSDS 450mm at 2km
    Indian 105mm APFSDS 350mm at 2km
    French OFL105F2 105mm DU 520mm at 2km (mid 90s)
    French OFL105G1 105mm APFSDS 350mm at 2km (1981)
    French OFL105G2 105mm tungsten 440mm at 2km (late 1980s)
    French OFL105F1 105mm tungsten 250mm at 2km (1981/2)
    French 105mm HEAT (AMX30) 160mm at 60 degrees
    French 105mm (AMX13 FL12) 360mm at 2km
    Canadian C127 105mm tungsten 460mm at 2km (1992)
    US M392/German DM13 105mm APDS 250mm at 1km (1960)
    US M-392A2 105mm APDS 260mm at 1km, 250mm at 1.5km, 225mm at 2km (early 1970s) (Rushed into service after M392 problems in 1973 Arab-Israeli war)
    US M-728 (UK L-52) 105mm APDS 320mm at muzzle, 280mm at 1km, 240mm at 2km (mid 1970s)
    US M-735 105mm tungsten APFSDS 330mm at 1km, 300mm at 2km (1978)
    US M-735A1 105mm DU 370mm at 1km, 350mm at 2km (never deployed)
    US M-774 105mm DU 375mm at 2km (1981)
    US FP105/Can C76 105mm tungsten 330mm at 2km (export only)
    US M-833 105mm DU 440mm at 2km (1984)
    US M-900 105mm DU 520mm at 2km (1991)
    Taiwanese TC84 105mm APFSDS 450mm at 2km
    Mecar 105mm tungsten APFSDS 390mm at 2km
    German DM-23/Israeli M111 'Hetz 6'/South Afr FS Mk1 105mm tungsten 310mm at 2km or 150mm at 60 degrees (1978)
    German DM-23A1 105mm tungsten 330mm at 2km (1980s)
    German DM-33/Israeli M413 'Hetz 7'/Sth Afr FS Mk2 105mm tungsten 380mm at 2km (1984)
    German DM-63/Israeli M426 'Hetz 10'/Sth Afr FS Mk2 Imp. 105mm tungsten 450mm at 2km (early 1990s)
    US M456 105mm HEAT 350mm
    Soviet BM-25 100mm APFSDS 296mm at 2km (late 1970s) [320mm at 1km]
    Soviet BM-8 100mm APDS 238mm at 2km (1968) [257mm at 1km]
    Soviet 100mm HVAPDS 200mm at 1km (HEAT 300mm)
    Soviet BR-412D 100mm APCBC 198mm at 1000m (165mm at 2000m) (post-war)
    Soviet BR-412B 100mm APBC-T 160mm at 1000m (134mm at 2000m) (1945)
    Soviet BR-412 100mm APC 135mm at 1000m (1943)
    Soviet 100mm BK-354M HEAT 280mm (WWII)
    Soviet 100mm BK-5M HEAT 390mm (1960)
    Yugoslav M65 100mm APCBC 158mm at 1km; 136mm at 2km (1954)
    Yugoslav M98 100mm APFSDS 150mm at 60 degrees at 2km
    Pakistani/Chinese AP-100-2 100mm APFSDS 350mm at 2km (1986)
    Chinese AP-1 100mm APFSDS 240mm at 2km (1980)
    Chinese AP-2 100mm APFSDS 290mm at 2km (early 1980s)
    Romanian BM-412M (M309) 100mm APFSDS 418mm at 2km (1990s)
    Mecar M-1000 100mm APFSDS 350mm at 2km (1996)
    US 90mm M82 APC (M36/M41 gun) 122mm at 1000 yards (913m), 106mm at 2000 yards
    US 90mm M304 HVAP 199mm at 1000 yards (913m), 156mm at 2000 yards
    US 90mm M318 APBC-T 117mm at 1000 yards (913m), 109mm at 2000 yards
    US M341 90mm HEAT 300mm (mid 1950s)
    US 90mm T119 (T41) APBC 152mm at 914m at 30 degrees from vertical
    US 90mm T119 (T41) APDS 236mm at 914m at 30 degrees from vertical
    US 90mm T119 (T41) HVAP 223mm at 914m at 30 degrees from vertical
    US 90mm M3A1 (M46 Patton) APBC 119mm at 1000 yards (913m) at 30 degrees from vertical
    US 90mm M3A1 (M46 Patton) HVAP 157mm at 914m at 30 degrees from vertical
    Mecar M-652 90mm APFSDS 180mm at 1km (150mm at 2km)
    French OFL-90 F1 90mm APFSDS 230mm at 1km (200mm at 2km) (early 1980s)
    South Korean M-241 90mm APFSDS 230mm at 2km (1984)
    UK 20pdr (83.4mm) APDS 280mm at 1000 yards (913m) [260mm at 1500 yards]
    Soviet 85mm BR372 APCBC 185mm at 1km (D48 anti-tank gun and ASU85 only)
    Soviet 85mm BR367P APCR 180mm at 1km (1960s)
    Soviet 85mm BR365P APCR 110mm at 1km (1946-47)
    Soviet 85mm BR365 APBC 102mm at 1km (WW2)
    US M93 76mm HVAP 175mm at 1000m, 160mm at 1500m (1945)
    US T91 76mm (M41) APC 122mm at 914m at 30 degrees from vertical
    US T91 76mm (M41) HVAP 208mm at 914m at 30 degrees from the vertical
    Soviet 76.2mm HVAP 61mm at 1km (HEAT 120mm)
    US 76mm M464 APFSDS 230mm at 2km
    US 76mm M1A2 (M4 Sherman) APCBC 89mm at 914m at 30 degrees from vertical (WWII)
    US 75mm M6 (M24 Chaffee) APCBC 77mm at 914m at 30 degrees from vertical (WWII)
    Fr 75mm POT-51A (Isr M50) 110mm at 1km
    French 75mm (AMX13 FL10) 170mm at 1km
    Israeli 60mm tungsten APFSDS 120mm @ 60 degrees at 2km
    Soviet 57mm BR-271P HVAP 145mm at 500m
    Bofors 40mm APFSDS 131mm at 1km
    35mm APDS 90mm at 1km
    Oerlikon 30mm APFSDS 97mm at 1km
    30mm L14A3 tungsten APDS 63mm at 1km
    2A42 30mm AP-I 44mm at 1km
    2A42 30mm APDS 62mm at 1km
    New 2A42/2A72 30mm APFSDS 79mm at 1km
    25mm APFSDS DU 75mm at 1km
    Oerlikon 25mm tungsten APFSDS 77mm at 2km
    25mm APFSDS 56mm at 1km
    25mm M919 DU APFSDS 30mm+ at 60 degrees at 2km
    25mm M791 APDS 33mm at 60 degrees at 1km; 28mm at 60 degrees at 2km
    20mm APDS DM-63 44mm at 1km (1988)
    20mm APDS DM-43 40mm at 1km (1982)
    20mm HVAP for Rh-202 gun 34mm at 1km
    12.7mm API 19mm at 500m

    Tank Protection Levels
     
  14. Manticore

    Manticore SENIOR MODERATOR

    Messages:
    10,135
    Joined:
    Jan 18, 2009
    Ratings:
    +112 / 17,897 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    Thread is now open :)