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SULTAN SHAHAB UDDIN GHAURI

Discussion in 'Military History & Tactics' started by Zarvan, May 27, 2014.

  1. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori


    Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori, originally called Mu'izzuddīn Muḥammad Bin Sām (and also referred to by Orientalists as Muhammad of Ghor) (1162 – 15 March 1206), was a ruler of the Ghorid dynasty who reigned over a territory spanning present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India.

    Shahabuddin Ghori reconquered the city of Ghazna (in modern-day Afghanistan) in 1173, and assisted his brother Ghiyasuddin in his contest with Khwarezmid Empire for the lordship of Khorāsān. Shahabuddin Ghori captured Multan and Uch in 1175 and annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186. After the death of his brother Ghiyas-ud-Din in 1202, he became the successor of his empire and ruled until his assassination in 1206 nearJhelum (in modern-day Pakistan).

    A confused struggle then ensued among the remaining Ghūrid leaders, and the Khwarezmids were able to take over the Ghūrids' empire in about 1215. Though the Ghūrids' empire was short-lived, Shahabuddin Ghori's violent conquests strengthened the foundations of Muslim rule in India.



    Early life
    Shahabuddin Ghori was born Muizzuddīn Muhammad Bin Sām in 1162 A.D. in Ghor in what is present-day Afghanistan. The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father, Sultan Bahauddin Suri, was the local ruler of the Ghor region at the time.



    The Ghorid Empire
    Ghor (now a province in central Afghanistan) lay on the western boundary of the Ghaznavid Empire, which, in the early 12th century, covered an area stretching from what is now central Afghanistan to the Punjab in what is now Pakistan, with capitals at Ghaznā and Lahore.

    Beginning in the mid-12th century, Ghor expressed its independence from the Ghaznavid Empire. In 1149 the Ghaznavid ruler Bahram Shāh poisoned a local Ghūrid leader, Quṭb ud-Dīn, who had taken refuge in the city of Ghazna after a family quarrel. In revenge, the Ghūrid chief ʿAlāʾ-ud-Dīn Ḥusayn sacked and burned the city of Ghazna and put the city into fire for seven days and seven nights. It earned him the title of Jahānsuz, meaning "the world burner".[1] The Ghaznavids retook the city with Seljuk help, but lost it to Oghuz Turk freebooters.[1] The Ghorids reconquered Ghaznā from the Oghuz Turks and in 1173, Shahabuddin Ghori became governor of the Ghazna province while his brother, Ghiyasuddin Ghori, became the Sultan of the Ghorid Empire.



    Invasions of India
    Shahabuddin Ghori first invaded India in 1175, capturing Multan and the fortress of Uch. He attacked Gujrat in 1179.

    Battle of Gujarat or Kayadara, 1178
    The battle of Gujarat or Kayadara (1178) was a defeat suffered by Muhammad of Ghur during his first campaign against a Hindu ruler in India. Muhammad's first campaign had been against the Muslim rulers of Multan in 1175 and had ended in victory. In 1178 he turned south, and led his army from Multan to Uch and then across the desert towards the Gujarat capital of Anhilwara (modern Patan).

    Gujarat was ruled by the young Raja Bhimdev II (ruled 1178-1241), a member of the Solanki dynasty (one of several Chalukya dynasties), although the age of the Raja meant that the army was commanded by his mother Naikidevi. Muhammad's army had suffered greatly during the march across the desert, and Naikidevi inflicted a major defeat on him at the village of Kayadra (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara). The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Multan.

    Muhammad of Ghur never returned to Gujarat. An army led by Qutb al-din Aibek, his deputy in India, invaded in c.1195-97 and plundered the capital, but then returned to Delhi. Gujarat wasn't annexed by the Sultanate of Delhi until 1297.

    He captured Lahore in 1181 and constructed the fortress of Sialkot. In 1191, he pushed further eastwards against the Hindu Rajput kingdoms, and his forces were defeated by the armies of Prithviraj Chauhan, the Hindu Rajput ruler of Delhi and Ajmer and his allies. A year later, in 1192, Ghori again fought the Hindu Rajputs, which resulted in victory.


    Capture of Lahore, 1181
    In 1181, Shahabuddin Ghori invaded the Ghaznavid Empire in India, reaching and capturing Lahore, thus ending the Ghaznavid Empire and bringing the remaining Ghaznavid territory under Ghorid control. This victory marked the beginning of the Ghorid Empire. [2]

    Defeat in the First Battle of Tarain, 1191
    The first move was taken by Muhammad of Ghor who captured till the border of Prithviraj's kingdom. In 1191 Muhammad captured either the Sirhind or Bhatinda fortress (which is now in Punjab) in Prithviraj’s northwestern frontier. The next step was taken by Prithviraj who along with his vassal Govinda-raja of Delhi rushed to save the frontier and the two armies met at Tarain.

    The Rajput armies first defeated the two wings of the Muslim army. The Muslim army fledwhile Muhammad still remained in the center with the rest of the Turk soldiers. It was then Govind-raja and Muhammad of Ghor came face to face. The two were injured with repeated clashes. Muhammad could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. Fearing that their leader had died the army ran away.Mohammad was saved by one of his slaves.When he returned to Ghazni he vowed to avenge the defeat and started preparations immediately.


    Victory in the Second Battle of Tarain, 1192
    In 1192, Muhammad Ghori returned with a larger army and met again Prithwiraj’s army at Tarain. This time the force of Prithwiraj was also larger and it included many Rajput forces from Northern India. Muhammad Ghori delivered an ultimatum to prithwiraj Chauhan that either he changed his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by Muhammad Ghori. Prithwiraj Chauhan in reply offered him a cease-fire to consider a retreat with his army.

    Muhammad Ghori adopted a tactic and replied Prithwiraj with a letter indicating the acceptance of the truce. The Rajput army believed it and they started celebrating with their guards in a relaxed and casual mood. In the mean time Ghori’s army attacked Prithwiraj’s army in the very early hours of morning, as they were unprepared for the battle. However the Rajput army could raise a protection against Muslim army and they retreated. Muhammad’s army sent waves of mounted archers to attack the Rajput forces but had to set back as Prithwiraj’s elephant force advanced. At dusk Muhammad Ghori was able to achieve the victory as he charged the center of Rajput defense with a heavily armored horsemen and made them confused.

    About hundred thousand Rajput soldiers are said to have died in the battle. Prithwiraj was imprisoned and was taken to Ghazni. The second battle of Tarain is believed to be most decisive battle in the Indian History as it opened the path for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors were able to conquest over the Rajputs and established an Islamic Empire in India, the Sultanate of Delhi.

    In reality Prithviraj was taken to Gazni and Executed by Ghor. However, local folk songs still prominent in Rajasthan say it differently. It is said that PrithviRaj was taken to Afghanistan along with his raj-kavi cum friend, Chandra-bardaai. In Ghori's court, Prithviraj and Chandra-bardaai were brought in shackles. PrithviRaj was asked to show the art of archery, wherein he could aim and shoot just by hearing the sound. It is also known as Shabdbhedi-baan. Ghori asked him to show him this art. To make game interesting for himself, he got his eyes pierced with hot iron rods. Chandra-bardaai says, "A king, though as a prisoner, can receive command only from a king. So only you can ask him to shoot.". Then he says few verses or poetry, few of those lines were,"Chaar baans chaubees guz, angul asht pramaan,Taa oopar Sultan hai, Mat chooke Chauhan". Chaar baans meant four bamboos stick, chaubis guz as approximately 24 yards, angul asht pramaan meant eight fingers width. All this combined gave the exact location of Ghori sitting on his throne i.e. 4 bamboos stick high, 24 yards away and exactly eight fingers up was the Ghori sitting. "Go ahead O Chauhan and don't miss the aim". This is how PrithviRaj kills Ghori in his court and obviously to meet his own death.


    Consolidation of the Ghorid Empire
    After defeating Prithvīrāj Chauhān by attacking at night. Prithvi raj was captured and taken to Ghauri's kingdom. Shahabuddin Ghori marched onwards unchallenged towards Ajmer and soon established Ghorid control in northern and central India.[3][4][5] Rajput kingdoms like Saraswati, Samana, Kohram and Hansi were captured without any difficulty. Finally his forces advanced on Delhi, capturing it soon after. Within a year, Ghaurī controlled northern Rajasthan and the northern part of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab.[6] The Kingdom of Ajmer was then given over to Golā, on condition that he send regular tributes to the Ghorids.

    Shahabuddin Ghori, having settled the affairs of the province of Lahore, conferred the government of Lahore on Ali Karmakh[7] who was then the Governor of Multan. In 1206, Shahabuddin Ghori appointed Qutb-ud-din Aibak as his Naib us Sultanat in India[7] at a grand darbar (reception) at Lahore, which was attended by a large majority of the nobles and dignitaries of his kingdom. It was at this occasion that Shahabuddin Ghori bestowed upon Qutb-ud-din the title of Aibak, meaning "Axis of the Faith".[8]

    Muḥammad Ghorī returned west to Ghaznā to deal with the threat to his western frontiers from the unrest in Iran, but he appointed Aibak as his regional governor for northern India. His armies, mostly under Turkish generals, continued to advance through northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Aibak sacked Ayodhya in 1193, followed by his conquest of Delhi. In 1204, after becoming sultan, Shahabuddin Ghori defeated the advance ofMuḥammad II of Khwārezm. Aibak's protégé Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji had been appointed as a general by Muhammad of Ghor in 1203, and in 1204 he helped defeat the army of Lakshman Sen of the Sena Dynasty,[citation needed] but Shahabuddin Ghori failed to conquer Bengal. In 1206, a rebellion rose in Punjab. Muḥammad Ghorī returned to India and crushed the rebels, but was assassinated at Jhelum (where he was buried) on his way back to Ghaznā.[9]


    Ghorid-Ghaznavid Struggles
    Shahabuddin Ghori is credited with the decimation of the Ghaznavids his ancestral enemies.

    In alliance with the Hindu Raja of Jammu Vijaya Dev, he attacked Lahore in 1187, which was held by his ancestral enemy, the descendent of Mahmud of Ghazni, and made him prisoner. Mahmud of Ghazni's line of Sultans and Governors became extinguished.[10]

    Mahmud Ghazni had attacked Ghor and the King Amir Suri an ancestor of Shahabuddin Ghori died taking poison after being taken prisoner. Various sources including Ferishta and Siraj attests to the events.

    In the following year AH 401 (AD 1010), Mahmood led his army towards Ghoor[11]

    According to Minhaj us Siraj, Amir Suri was captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, made prisoner along with his son and taken to Ghazni, where Amir Suri died.[12]

    Soor, being made prisoner was brought to the king, but having taken poison, which he always kept under his ring, he died in a few hours; his country was annexed to the dominions of Ghizny[11]

    A little over a hundred years after Mahmud, one of his successors to the throne of Ghazni fell into a blood feud with the ruler of Ghor, southeast of Herat. In reprisal Ghazni was sacked by the prince of Ghor a fellow Muslim in 1150, and burned for seven days and nights. All the magnificent Mahmudi palaces and halls were destroyed and plunder, devastation and, and slaughter were continuous. It might be a historian reporting one of Mahmud's own murderous Indian raids. The Ghori victor earned the title of Jahansoze the world burner. The bells ring again : the perpetrations of the northern foreigners were not essentially anti Hindu. They could be quite merciless with Muslim rivals as well, for that was a part of their way of life. Ghazni now fell to a Turkman tribe which was in its turn ousted by the nephew of Jahansozein 1173. The later gave it to his brother later to be known as Muhammad of Ghori [10]

    Muhammad of Ghori launched expeditions into India, first capturing Multan from a fellow Muslim chief in 1175-76. Three years later he invaded Gujarat and was roundly defeated by the Hindu King. Another three years later, and Shahabuddin Ghori was back to take Peshawar and Sialkot in 1181. Now in alliance with the Hindu Raja of Jammu Vijaya Dev, he attacked Lahore in 1187, which was held by his ancestral enemy, the descendent of Mahmud of Ghazni, and made him prisoner. Mahmud of Ghazni's line of Sultans and Governors became extinguished.[10]


    Personal life
    Muhammad Ghorī was a loyal brother; he refrained from declaring his independence in the Indian Subcontinent, knowing that it would result in civil war between the two brothers. Until the death of Ghiyās ud-Dīn in 1202, after every victory the General would send the best of the looted items to his elder brother in Khorasan. Ghiyās ud-Dīn reciprocated by never interfering in the affairs of his younger brother. Thus they were each able to concentrate on their own responsibilities.


    Assassination
    According to Rajasthan Folk songs - In Ghori's court, Prithviraj and Chandbhar were brought in shackles. PrithviRaj was asked to show the art of archery, wherein he could aim and shoot just by hearing the sound. It is also known as Shabdbhedi-baan. Ghori asked him to show him this art. To make game interesting for himself, Ghori ordered Prithviraj's eyes to be pierced with hot iron rods. Chandbhar says, "A king, though as a prisoner, can receive command only from a king. So only you can ask him to shoot.". Then he says few verses or poetry, few of those lines were,"Chaar baans chaubees guz, angul asht pramaan,Taa oopar Sultan hai, Mat chooke Chauhan". Chaar baans meant four bamboos stick, chaubis guz as approximately 24 yards, angul asht pramaan meant eight fingers width. All this combined gave the exact location of Ghori sitting on his throne i.e. 4 bamboos stick high, 24 yards away and exactly eight fingers up was the Ghori sitting. "Go ahead O Chauhan and don't miss the aim". This is how PrithviRaj kills Ghori in his court and obviously to meet his own death.

    However, this account is not verified.


    Succession
    Shahabuddin Ghori had no offspring, but he treated his Turkic slaves as his sons, who were trained both as soldiers and administrators and provided with the best possible education. Many of his competent and loyal slaves rose to positions of importance in Shahabuddin Ghori's army and government.

    When a courtier lamented that the Sultan had no male heirs, Shahabuddin Ghori retorted:

    "Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons; I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions, and who, after me, will take care to preserve my name in the Khuṭbah (Friday sermon) throughout these territories."[cite this quote]

    Shahabuddin Ghori's prediction proved true. After his assassination, his Empire was divided amongst his slaves. Most notably:

    Qutb-ud-din Aibak became ruler of Delhi in 1206, establishing the Sultanate of Delhi, which marked the start of the Slave dynasty[13]

    Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became ruler of Multan in 1210

    Tajuddin Yildoz became ruler of Ghazni

    Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji became ruler of Bengal

    - See more at: Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori
    Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori
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    TOMB OF SULTAN SHAHAB UDDIN GHAURI AT JHELUM PAKISTAN
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    Pakistani Missile Ghauri is named after this great Muslim warrior
    @Aeronaut @Oscar @Neptune @Kaan @mafiya @tarrar @nair @OrionHunter @IND151 @Rashid Mahmood @Alpha1 @AUz
     
  2. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    Interesting read.
     
  3. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    Death didn't happened like that Prithivi was killed in war he was not take prisoner
    Final days and death[edit]
    In 1206, Mu'izz, having settled the affairs in India,[24] left all the affairs in India in hands of his slave Qutb-ud-din Aibak.

    On his way back to Ghazni, his caravan rested at Damik near Sohawa (which is near the city of Jhelum in the Punjabprovince of modern-day Pakistan). He was assassinated on March 15, 1206, while offering his evening prayers. The identity of Mu'izz's assassins is disputed, with some claiming that he was assassinated by local Gakhars and others claiming he was assassinated by Khokhars or even Ismailis.

    Hasan Nizami and Ferishta record the killing of Mu'izz at the hands of the Gakhars. However, Ferishta may have confused the Ghakars with the Khokhars. Other historians have also blamed Mu'izz's assassination to a band of Hindu Jat Khokhars.

    All the historians before the time of Ferishta agree that the Khokhars, not the Gakhars, killed Mu'izz.[citation needed][25]

    Some also claim that Mu'izz was assassinated by a radical Ismaili Muslim sect.[26]

    In Hindu Folklore, the death of Mu'izz was caused by Prithviraj [27] but which is not borne out by historical documents.[28][29][30] This is described in the article Prithviraj Raso. Even today Afghans vent their anger by stabbing on the grave of Prithviraj Chauhan, as according to them, Prithviraj had killed Mu'izz.[31][32] Sher Singh Rana, a member of Rajputcommunity, visited Afghanistan to trace the grave of Prithviraj Chauhan. He dug Chauhan's "grave" and collected sand from it. This incident created sensation in Indian news and public media – as he said he did it to get back India's pride & respect.[33][34]

    As per his wishes, Mu'izz was buried where he fell, in Damik.
     
  4. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    Sultan Shahab -ud -din Muhammad Ghori, also known as Muizzuddin Muhammad Bin Sam, was born in 1162 in a small region of Ghor located in the mountains between the old Ghaznavid Empire and Seljuk dynasty situated in the western part of the then Ghaznavid Empire. In the present times, the latter is known as Central Afghanistan. Unlike his predecessor Mahmud of Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori remains significant in the medieval history of India for his number of conquests as well as laying the foundation for Muslim rule in India as it was his slave Qutb -ud -din Aibak who was the founder of the first Turkish rule in India in the following years.

    Early Life of Muhammad Ghori
    Born as the younger brother of Ghiasuddin and son of Sultan Bahaudin Suri in the region of Ghor, Muhammad Ghori began his carrier as a general who assisted his brother for his conquests in the west. It was only after re-conquering the city of Ghazna and assisting his brother for his expedition towards the Khwarezmid Empire to gain the control over area of Khorasan that Muhammad Ghori turned his attention towards India in the east. Besides being a strategic warrior he also had a lot of interest towards art and culture where he patronised scholars like Fakhr-ud-din Razi and Nizami Uruzi. However, his greatest success was the establishment of the Turkish Empire in India which added a fresh chapter in the Indian history.

    Muhammad Ghori`s Rise to Power
    Muhammad Ghori came to power only after he re-captured the city of Ghazna from the Oghuz Turks. In 1173 AD he finally brought an end to the Ghaznavid Empire and began the new era of Ghorid Empire in which he himself was the governor while made Ghiasuddin the Sultan. It was only after the death of his brother that Shahab -ud-din Muhammad Ghori himself came to power as the Sultan. Muhammad Ghori`s initial challenge was the old Ghaznavids. A major crisis which was by faced by the Ghorids was that due to heavy taxes they became quite unpopular among their local people .Also the source of income was also coming to scarcity. This forced Muhammad Ghori to search out new sources of income; this diverts the attention of Ghori towards India which had been the richest country in the subcontinent.

    Muhammad Ghori`s Invasion of India
    Muhammad Ghori began his expedition by first capturing Multan in 1175 AD and then building a fort in Uch. Muhammad`s first battle was against the Muslim rulers of Multan in 1175 AD in which he came victorious. After his victory over Multan he turned to the south where he captured the region of Uch and established his base by building a fort in 1178 and proceeded towards Gujarat where he had a different fate.

    In his battle of Kayadara Muhammad had to suffer severe defeat from Naikidevi who controlled the command of the Gujarat army. The state of Gujarat was under the rule of Raja Bhimdev II who due to his young age and inexperience had to take his mother under confidence.

    Muhammad Ghori`s next invasion was over Lahore which he captured in 1181 and constructed a fort at Sialkot. Muhammad`s army then proceeded towards the city of Lahore which was the capital of old Ghaznavid empire .By capturing Lahore he brought the remaining of Ghanavid empire to an end and included the rest of Ghaznavid region under Ghorid rule in 1181. Muhammad`s army then proceeded towards the northern part of India when they confronted the army of Prithviraj Chauhan and other Hindu rulers who could defeat Muhammad`s army in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 AD but had to face severe end in the Second Battle of Tarain in which Ghori came back more vengeance in 1192.

    Battles with Prithviraj Chauhan
    It was in 1191 AD when Ghori`s army of 120,000 men was proceeding towards Punjab through Khyber Pass, was confronted by the army of Hindu rulers under the commandership of Prithviraj Chauhan and other Hindu allied rulers comprising of 200,000 men. Prithvi`s army under the command of his general Govind Raj rushed to defend the boundaries of their territories and restricted the invader on the land of Tarain near Thanesar in the present Haryana approximately 150km north of Delhi.

    Conquests of Muhammad Ghori
    Muhammad Ghori with his strategic warfare and ambition to struggle hard made him relevant even after the Battle of Tarain. He and his deputy continued to capture new areas of northern India. After defeating Prithviraj Chauhan`s army proceeded towards other regions of Ajmer, Saraswati, Samana, Khoram and Hansi were captured without much difficulty. This brought them near Delhi when Ghori controlled northern parts of Rajasthan and Ganga -Yamuna Doab region. With this while Ghori returned to the west to deal with his western frontiers, he left his deputy Qutb-ud-din Aibak to continue his conquests in which he proceeded up to Bengal capturing on his way Ayodhya in 1193 reaching the frontiers of Delhi.

    Impact of Muhammad Ghori`s Invasion on India
    Muhammad Ghori who came as an invader in India had been discussed by many scholars from time to time .The impact of Ghori`s invasion on India was immense as his invasions for the first time proved the weakness of Hindu rulers in securing their territories from foreign invasion. Also for the first time his invasion paved the way for a new dynasty known as the Slave Dynasty. The third impact which is often associated with Ghori`s invasion is that it carried the germs of communalism and anti religious feelings towards the non-Islamic religions.

    Thus, Muhammad Ghori who came to India in 1175 through Multan, left India after the Battle of Tarain but continued to rule till 1206 till he was assassinated in an upsurge in the western regions of Ghorid Dynasty near Jhelum now located in Pakistan. His incessant invasions opened the doors of India to all foreign rulers in future. (Last Updated on : 24/05/2012)
     
  5. MM_Haider

    MM_Haider FULL MEMBER

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    why are you proud of him?

    @Zarvan
     
    Last edited: May 27, 2014
  6. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    Why should not I ?
     
  7. MM_Haider

    MM_Haider FULL MEMBER

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    i knew you won't answer ... :sarcastic:
     
  8. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    You tell me why should I not be proud of he came took out the Hindu leader who was messing with those who were trying to preach Islam mainly Hazrat Gareeb Nawaz Khawaja Moinudeen I always answer but the ashamed liberal class slave of Indians and USA always run away
     
  9. Umair Nawaz

    Umair Nawaz BANNED

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  10. MM_Haider

    MM_Haider FULL MEMBER

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    don't go into circular logical fallacy. I asked a question just enlighten me in bullet points! So he came to rescue Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz? Can you prove this from history that he was called for succor? .. and he killed so many people and Chauhan was ordered that hot iron rods to be put in his eyes just to rescue Khawaja Ghareeb Nawaz?
     
  11. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    That was all bullshit said by Indians Chauhan died in battlefield he was trying to escape when he was captured and killed Muslim soldiers who killed him din't realize he is their leader that eye thing never happened Indian tells lie and Indian slaves in Pakistan always promote Indian lies and yes he killed lot of chahuhan soldiers in short kufar soldiers and that is good thing no civilians were targeted but Indians slave only believe what their Indian Masters tell them
     
  12. MM_Haider

    MM_Haider FULL MEMBER

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    my question still remains. You answered half and that with your own ipse dixit trying to prove him innocent.
     
  13. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    I answered the question Mr that is why I am proud off he was Muslim who took out a kafir army and established an Islamic state and helped those who were preaching Islam what other answer you expect
     
  14. MM_Haider

    MM_Haider FULL MEMBER

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    first of all you have to prove the bold part of your statement from history as to who called him for help and secondly what kind of Islamic state he established? Do you think that his motive of Indian Invasion was to establish Islamic state only?
     
  15. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    He established Islamic state to some extent and got rid of Prithivi which led to spread to Islam in the region because prithivi was creating problems for Hazrat Khawja Moeen u Deen Chisti