• Monday, December 16, 2019

Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces

Discussion in 'Arab Defence Forum' started by Ahmed Jo, Jan 18, 2015.

  1. Ahmed Jo

    Ahmed Jo FULL MEMBER

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    I gathered info from around the web to make this thread, hopefully I didn't mess up the images :)
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    The Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces (SOAFArabic: القوات المسلحة لسلطان عمان, transliterated: al-Quwāt ul-Musalḥatu as-Sulṭān ‘Umān) are the Royal Army of Oman (Arabic: الجيش العماني, transliterated: al-Jaīsh al-‘Umānī), Royal Navy of Oman,Royal Air Force of Oman and other defence forces of the Sultanate of Oman. Since their formal establishment in the early 1950s, with British assistance they have twice overcome insurgencies which have threatened the integrity or social structure of the state, and more recently have contributed contingents or facilities to coalitions formed to protect the Persian Gulf states. (ahem, Arab Gulf)

    Royal Army of Oman
    Royal_Army_of_Oman.jpg
    royal army oman.jpg

    • One divisional HQ
    • Two brigade HQ (Northern Brigade, Southern Brigade) with a 3rd in the process of being established for Border Security
    • Armour
      • Two Armoured Regiments (battalion-sized, one with Challenger 2, one with M60A3)
      • Armoured Car Regiment (battalion)
    • Infantry
      • Mechanized Regiment (one battalion)
      • Muscat Regiment (one battalion)
      • Northern Frontier Regiment (one battalion)
      • Desert Regiment (one battalion)
      • Jebel Regiment (one battalion)
      • Southern Regiment (two battalions, composed of Baluchi personnel)
    • Artillery
      • Four Artillery Regiments (battalions)
    • SAF Signals
    • SAF Engineers
    • SAF Electrical & Mechanical Engineers
    western brigade regiment.jpg (11th Brigade, Western Frontier Regiment)
    omani-challenger-2-b.jpg
    (Omani Challenger 2)
    chieftan omani.jpg
    (Omani Chieftain tanks)
    howitzers.jpg
    (Omani M60A1 tanks)
    howitzers real.jpg
    (Omani L118 Howitzers)

    Full list of the Army's equipment:

    Armoured Vehicles
    Trucks
    Artillery
    SAM
    Small arms

     
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  2. Ahmed Jo

    Ahmed Jo FULL MEMBER

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    Royal Navy of Oman
    200px-Naval_Ensign_of_Oman.svg.png
    bilde.jpg

    (Omani Al Rasikh)
    Omani-corvette-Al-Shamikh.jpg
    (Omani Corvette Al-Shamihk)
    Khareef Class Corvette-1.jpg
    (Khareef Class Corvette)
    279700.jpg
     
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  3. Ahmed Jo

    Ahmed Jo FULL MEMBER

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    Royal Air Force of Oman
    Emblem_of_the_Royal_Air_Force_of_Oman.svg.png
    Fin_Flash_of_Oman.svg.png
    (The Fin Flash they use)
    regular plane.jpg
    nh90.jpg

    (NH90)
    501-Royal-Air-Force-of-Oman-RAFO-Lockheed-C-130-Hercules_PlanespottersNet_173460.jpg Oman_Air_Force_C-130H_Hercules_Lofting.jpg
    (Omani Hercules)
    hawk.jpg
    (Hawk 203)


    3973.jpg
    (Omani Mushshak obtained from Pakistan)
     
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  4. al-Hasani

    al-Hasani ELITE MEMBER

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    Well done @Ahmed Jo .

    Oman Military Rank Insignia

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    Maybe one day we will have covered all Arab armies of the Arab League? The likelihood of that happening is low though given the fact that we are a dying species on PDF.
     
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  5. Ahmed Jo

    Ahmed Jo FULL MEMBER

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    True, and just while looking for some of these images I stumbled upon many other defense websites (some focus exclusively on Arab stuff but they're also in the Arabic language) so it's no wonder.
     
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  6. al-Hasani

    al-Hasani ELITE MEMBER

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    Omani Royal Armed Forces (RAF)
    [​IMG]
    The Sultan’s Armed Forces (SAF) play an essential role in defending the nation. In developing the SAF and the Royal Guard of Oman (RGO),the Sultanate focused its attention on intensive training rather than the establishment of an intensive arms program, recognizing that highly trained manpower was its most important defence asset. The three main arms of the Sultans Armed Forces(SAF) the Royal Army of Oman (RAO), the Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO) and the Royal Navy of Oman(RNO), along with the Royal Guard of Oman (RGO), form a modern, well organized and well equipped fighting force that boasts a full range of integrated modern weaponry. All its bases are linked by a sophisticated command and control system.

    The Omani Armed Forces are charged with defending the country, protecting the monarchy, and maintaining internal security. Sultan Qaboos serves as the Prime Minister, Defense Minister, Supreme Commander, and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. He was trained at the British Royal Military Academy and served as a junior officer in the British Army. This background, when combined with subsequent intensive years of force development and war against the Dhofar insurgency, closely identifies Sultan Qaboos with the armed forces. Out of the population's 350,000 males between the ages of 15 and 49 years of age, roughly 200,000 are fit for military service Sultan Qabus ibn Said retained for himself the positions of prime minister and minister of defense. The sultan's uncle, Fahar ibn Taimur Al Said, served as deputy prime minister for security and defense. Between 1970 and 1987, the armed forces commander, as well as the heads of the air force and navy, were British generals and admirals on loan.

    As of early 1993, the chief of staff and the three service commanders were Omanis. As of 1992, personnel strength of the Royal Armed Forces (as they were renamed--RAF) had reached about 35,700, including 6,000 royal household troops--a 4,500 Royal Guard of Oman (RGO) brigade, two Special Forces regiments totaling 700 trained by British air commandos, and 800 miscellaneous other personnel--and foreign personnel, who are believed to number about 3,700.

    After 1970 the Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF; later renamed the Royal Armed Forces) has became one of the more modern and better trained fighting forces among the Arab gulf states. Recognizing its strategic importance guarding the Strait of Hormuz (through which nearly one-fifth of the world's oil transited) and the Gulf of Oman, the sultanate has struggled to maintain a high degree of military preparedness in spite of its limited financial means. Its defense budget in 1992 was estimated at US$1.7 billion, exclusive of the GCC subsidy shared with Bahrain. It has periodically tested the capabilities of its armed forces by engaging in joint exercises with Western powers, particularly in regular exercises with British forces. Oman has taken the initiative in efforts to strengthen regional collective security through the GCC. At the conclusion of the Persian Gulf War, it proposed the development of a GCC regional security force of 100,000 personnel.

    For many years after the defeat of the Dhofar insurgents, Oman regarded its southern border with the PDRY as the most likely source of future conflict. The PDRY provided the Dhofari rebels with supplies, training camps, and refuge from attacks. Omani ground and air strength was concentrated at Salalah, Thamarit, and other towns near the PDRY border. The threat of PFLO dissident activity supported by the PDRY or border operations against Oman declined after reconciliation with the PDRY, marked by the exchange of ambassadors in 1987.

    Apart from its military role, the SAF carried out a variety of civil action projects that, particularly in Dhofar, were an important means of gaining the allegiance of the people. Military engineers assisted road construction in mountain areas. The air force carried out supply operations and provided medical service to remote areas. The navy performed similar duties along Oman's long coastline. The navy also patrolled the sultanate's territorial waters and the 370-kilometer Exclusive Economic Zone to deter smuggling and illegal fishing.

    Background

    As a regional commercial power in the nineteenth century, Oman held territories on the island of Zanzibar off the coast of East Africa, in Mombasa along the coast of East Africa, and until 1958 in Gwadar (in present-day Pakistan) on the coast of the Arabian Sea. When its East African possessions were lost, Oman withdrew into isolationism in the southeast corner of the Arabian Peninsula. Another of the gulf states with long-standing ties to the British, Oman became important in the British-French rivalry at the end of the eighteenth century, when Napoleonic France challenged the British Empire for control of the trade routes to the East. Although nominally a fully independent sultanate, Oman enjoyed the protection of the empire without being, de jure, in the category of a colony or a protected state. With its external defenses guaranteed and its overseas territories lost, the sultanate had no need for armed forces other than mercenaries to safeguard the personal position of the sultan.

    In 1952, when the Saudis occupied Omani territory near the Al Buraymi Oasis, a British-led force from the Trucial Coast fought the incursion and retook the territory for the sultan. Later in the same decade, the sultan again called on British troops to aid in putting down a rebellion led by the former imam (see Glossary) of Oman, who attempted to establish a separate state free of rule from Muscat. British ground and air forces dispatched to aid the Muscat and Oman Field Force succeeded in overcoming the rebels in early 1959. Nevertheless, instead of a minor intertribal affair in Oman's hinterland, the rebellion became an international incident, attracting wide sympathy and support among members of the League of Arab States (Arab League) and the UN.

    An agreement between Sultan Said ibn Taimur Al Said and the British government in 1958 led to the creation of the Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF) and the promise of British assistance in military development. The agreement included the detailing of British officers and confirmed the existing rights of Britain's Royal Air Force to use facilities at Salalah in Dhofar region and at Masirah, an island off the Omani coast in the Arabian Sea.

    Sultan Said ibn Taimur was ultraconservative and opposed to change of any kind. Kindled by Arab nationalism, a rebellion broke out in 1964 in Dhofar, the most backward and exploited area of Oman. Although begun as a tribal separatist movement against a reactionary ruler, the rebellion was backed by leftist elements in the PDRY. Its original aim was the overthrow of Said ibn Taimur, but, by 1967, under the name of the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arabian Gulf--which in 1974 was changed to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO)-- it adopted much wider goals. Supported by the Soviet Union through the PDRY, it hoped to spread revolution throughout the conservative regimes of the Arabian Peninsula.

    Said ibn Taimur's reprisals against the Dhofari people tended to drive them into the rebel camp. In 1970, as the Dhofari guerrilla attacks expanded, Said ibn Taimur's son, Qabus ibn Said Al Said, replaced his father in a coup carried out with the assistance of British officers. Qabus ibn Said, a Sandhurst graduate and veteran of British army service, began a program to modernize the country and to develop the armed forces. In addition to British troops and advisers, the new sultan was assisted by troops sent by the shah of Iran. Aid also came from India, Jordan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the Trucial Coast, all interested in ensuring that Oman did not become a "people's republic." An Iranian brigade, along with artillery and helicopters, arrived in Dhofar in 1973. After the arrival of the Iranians, the combined forces consolidated their positions on the coastal plain and moved against the guerrillas' mountain stronghold. By stages, the Omanis and Iranians gradually subdued the guerrilla forces, pressing their remnants closer and closer to the PDRY border. In December 1975, having driven the PFLO from Omani territory, the sultan declared that the war had been won. Total Omani, British, and Iranian casualties during the final two-and-one-half years of the conflict were about 500.

    Sultan Qaboos aspired to build an armed force which would embrace a “deterrent perspective”, a tool which would meet Oman’s defence needs and could rally together. The Sultan’s Armed Forces was developed and built up with combat-ready men, but a fine balance was made in funding the forces, so that, “the tank [should] not be at the cost of a loaf”. His Majesty, the Supreme Commander, has insisted that the various components of the Armed Forces are maintained at a maximum level of vigilance, capability and combat readiness. In order for this to happen, it was vital to provide the infrastructure and installations of training. These included military training establishments from schools and centres for personnel training, to military colleges such as the Sultan Qaboos Military College and the Officer/Cadet Training School, to the Command and Staff College which supplies officers to occupy command posts in the various branches of the Army. At the same time, it was necessary to upgrade the administrative and technical support systems within the Army in order to keep pace with its expansion.

    With its extensive facilities and nationwide presence, the SAF is well placed to work with the different government departments working to promote development and prosperity for Oman and its citizens. It also trains civilians in navigation, communications, administration and other skills, while its military education programme gives school students a grounding in the principles and values of military life. The armed forces build roads to the most remote mountain and desert regions, transport people, provisions and water to otherwise inaccessible areas and - in co-operation with other competent authorities - provide the people living in those areas with health services. Their other duties include search and rescue operations at sea and the prevention of illegal immigration. Retired SAF personnel frequently contribute their valuable experience to the Sultanate's continued development by setting up their own businesses or finding employment in the private sector.

    Exercise "Saif Sareea" II (Swift Sword II) took place in the Sultanate of Oman during September and October 2001, and constituted the largest deployment undertaken by the UK Ministry of Defence (the Department) since the Gulf War in 1991. The deployment involved some 22,500 personnel, 6,500 vehicles and trailers, 93 aircraft of all types and 21 naval vessels. The Exercise was part of the Department's joint exercise program and was designed to demonstrate the concept of the Joint Rapid Reaction Forces. It also provided an opportunity to operate with the Armed Forces of a friendly nation, and to conduct unit and formation level training in theater.

    The Department successfully demonstrated key elements of the Joint Rapid Reaction Forces concept. A medium-scale joint task force was generated and projected over a distance of 5,000 miles. While communications were stretched in the austere environment, the command and control structure deployed on the Exercise worked. Logistic support was demonstrated with personnel and equipment being successfully moved to, from, and around a large theatre of operations. Overall, the Exercise has shown that the United Kingdom is capable of mounting a balanced, coherent force over a strategic distance. Among its allies, the United Kingdom is the only country, other than the United States, that has demonstrated this.

    Omani Royal Armed Forces (RAF)

    @Ahmed Jo

    True. Problem is not Arab material at all or Arabic military forums. They are in abundance almost. The problem is finding English sources that are not outdated since we are on a English speaking forum. I think that I found some useful information in English outside of Wikipedia that is not too outdated.
     
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  7. Ahmed Jo

    Ahmed Jo FULL MEMBER

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    Oman joins Jordan in operating Robinson helicopters - January 1, 2015

    The Royal Air Force of Oman is believed to have ordered Robinson R44 helicopters to fulfil training needs with its air force. The Omanis follow the Royal Jordanian Air Force (RJAF) who ordered eight Robinson R44 Raven II helicopters, becoming only the fifth military operator of the type.

    The R44 is a single-engined four-seat helicopter developed from the original two-seat R22, sharing much the same configuration, and with a similar semi-rigid two-bladed main rotor, two-bladed tail rotor and skid landing gear.
    First flown in 1990, the basic R44 was developed to produce the R44 Raven, which introduced hydraulically assisted controls and adjustable pedals, and this was introduced in January 2000.
    In July 2002, Robinson introduced the Raven II, which featured a more powerful, fuel-injected Lycoming IO-540-AE1A5 flat-six piston engine and wider main rotor blades, allowing a higher gross weight and improved altitude performance.
    Though widely used in the commercial world, the Robinson R44 has had relatively little success in winning military orders, with a single example sold to Bolivia, three to the Dominican Republic’s Army, and four each to Estonia and Lebanon.
    The Royal Jordanian Air Force (RJAF) selected the R44 Raven II to replace the fleet of 12 Hughes 500D helicopters used by No 5 Squadron, part of the King Hussein Air College at Mafraq, for primary rotary-wing pilot training. The Hughes 500s have been in service since 1981.
    The decision to select the R44 came after a four-member RJAF evaluation team visited the Robinson Helicopter Company in March. While the team, led by Brigadier General Walid Jaradat, were reportedly impressed by the R44’s low operating and maintenance costs, Colonel Imad Ghwein revealed that it was positive feedback about the R44 from “a neighbouring country’s air force” that convinced the RJAF. The only Robinson operator in the region is Lebanon.
    The Lebanese Army took delivery of its first two Robinson R44 Raven II helicopters in January 2005, and then received two more in December. These were assigned to the pilot training role, and were based at Rayak Air Force Base in Bekaa Valley. General Nouhad Zebian, the Lebanese Air Force Commander, later said: “The use of Robinson helicopters has been very cost-effective and allowed the students to become experienced pilots before moving on to flying larger military aircraft. We hope to expand our Robinson fleet with even more helicopters in the future.”
    The Lebanese found that training in the Robinsons was a useful substitute for instruction in large and powerful military helicopters, which had always proved to be extremely costly with heavy consumption of fuel, and maintenance man-hours. They were also happy with the R44’s hot and high performance.
    This was enough for the Jordanians, who promptly ordered an initial batch of eight R44s.
    To prepare for the arrival of the R44 Raven II, 10 RJAF pilots attended Robinson’s safety course and 12 RJAF mechanics received instruction on the type at the company’s maintenance school.
    The first four Jordanian R44s were scheduled for delivery before the end of 2014 with the second batch of four helicopters due to follow in early 2015.
    The Jordanian R44s will be equipped with glass cockpits featuring Garmin and Aspen avionics, and will use Bendix King’s new military KTR909 UHF transceiver. No provision has been made for armament.
    No 5 Squadron at Mafraq also incorporates a number of Aerospatiale AS350B3 Squirrels, but it is not known whether these will remain in service following the delivery of the Robinsons.
    The RJAF operates a number of armed MD530FF helicopters with No 28 Squadron, part of the Prince Hashim Bin Abdullah II Aviation Brigade at King Abdullah II Air Base. These are due to be replaced by 18 Boeing AH-6i Little Bird helicopters.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Already, I am being biased and posting Jordanian related stuff :devil:
     
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  8. al-Hasani

    al-Hasani ELITE MEMBER

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    Royal Navy of Oman (RNO)
    [​IMG]
    Oman was once one of the world's great sea powers, and its strategic location, proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, long coast and ports on the Indian Ocean give its navy a high priority. Applying his military experience, Sultan Qaboos successfully modernised his armed forces. He is committed to the protection of international shipping in Omani territorial waters, which include an important part of the Strait of Hormuz; this Strait is vital to the Gulf region and is the corridor through which most of the region's oil production is shipped to the outside world. In addition, this important maritime passage has been utilized for the shipment of many of the region imports and exports.

    The Royal Navy of Oman (RNO) has a fleet of gunboats, fast missile boats and support, training, cargo and hydrographical survey vessels,which can be deployed to protect the Sultanate’s coasts and territorial waters and monitor the passage of ships and oil tankers through the strategic Strait of Hormuz. RNO also provides support for joint amphibious and marine transport operations. Three new advanced ocean patrol boats built to the highest operational specifications reinforce the RNO’s capability in Omani waters and the open seas. The Said bin Sultan Naval Base with its world-class facilities is one of the Sultanate’s leading naval establishments. Its Naval Training Centre is accredited by the AGCC Computer HQ as an International Computer Driving Licence (ICDL) examining center.

    [​IMG]
    The Royal Oman Navy (RON), with a strength of 3,000 in 1992, has its headquarters at As Sib, thirty-six kilometers west of Muscat. The principal naval establishment is the Said ibn Sultan Naval Base, completed in 1987, at Wudham Alwa near As Sib. One of the largest engineering projects ever undertaken in Oman, it provides a home port for the RON fleet, training facilities, and workshops for carrying out all maintenance and repair activities. The Naval Training Center, located at the base, offers entrylevel courses for officers and enlisted personnel, as well as specialized branch training. Initially, the navy was staffed almost entirely by British officers and Pakistani NCOs. By the late 1980s, most ship commanders were Omanis, although many Pakistani and British technical personnel remained.

    The navy's main combat vessels were four Province-class missile boats built by Vosper Thornycroft. Armed with Exocet antiship missiles and 76mm guns, the last ship was delivered in 1989. The navy also operates four Brook Marine fast-attack craft with 76mm guns and four inshore patrol craft.

    The navy is well equipped for amphibious operations and has one 2,500-ton landing ship capable of transporting sixty-ton tanks and three LCMs (landing craft-mechanized). The Royal Oman Navy is not reported to have a Marine Corps or Naval Infantry formation, nor does there appear to be a formation focused on amphibious operations in the Land Forces.

    The “Al-Munassir” is a former Royal Navy of Oman tank landing craft (LST), pennant number Lima 1, which was sunk in 2003 as an artificial reef by the Oman Government and is maintained by the Ministry of Tourism. She lies in just under 30m of water in the clear waters of Bandar Khayran approximately ten miles south of the capital Muscat. The “Al-Munassir” was built in the UK by Brook Marine of Lowestoft and commissioned into service with the Royal Navy of Oman in January 1979. Built as a tank landing ship she had a displacement of 2991.5 tonnes and measured 84.1 meters in length with a beam of 14.9 meters. She was initially armed with one 4.5 inch rapid fire gun forward and twin 20mm Oerlikon guns on either side of the superstructure. She also operated a Sea King helicopter from a stern helideck (although she was not equipped with a hanger). Below decks her cavernous payload bay (accessed via her bow doors) was designed to carry a variety of military vehicles including main battle tanks. She had additional accommodation for troops. She was transferred into the reserves [some accounts state in 1987, others in the mid-1990s] and became the Harbor Training Ship at SBSNB Wudam, where she served until decommissioned in 2002 [Combat Fleets says in 2005].

    The modernisation of the Royal Navy of Oman (RNO) was conducted using an intelligently and aptly devised program of development which was also facilitated by Oman’s well-established history of sea-going exploration. In 1994/95, the ships RNV Al Bushra and RNV Al Mansour were dedicated as part of the ongoing plan to establish a first rate fleet, competent to protect the 1700km coastline and the strategically important Strait of Hormuz, which is the lifeline of international shipping in the Gulf region. Oman ordered two corvettes - Q31 Quahir al Amwaj and Q32 Al Mua'zzar - armed with eight Exocet missiles, delivered from Britain in 1996-97.

    [​IMG]
    Project Khareef, signed in 2007, covered the design and build of three state-of-the-art 99 meter corvettes for the RNO. With a continued commitment to providing through-life support and services to its customers, BAE Systems is also delivering training for RNO personnel, as well as an initial logistics support package for the ships. The corvette is an efficient and operationally flexible platform, equipped to defend against both surface and air threats. These ships are used to protect Omani territorial waters, conducting coastal patrols in peacetime, with the ability to conduct search and rescue, as well as disaster relief, while providing ocean going capability for use in deterrent operations during times of tension.

    Al Shamikh, the first of three ships being built by BAE Systems for the Royal Navy of Oman (RNO) embarked on her first sea trials in the Solent 20 December 2010. Departing from the Company’s Portsmouth facility, a combined BAE Systems and RNO crew is putting the ship through her paces, undertaking extensive platform testing for speed, propulsion and manoeuvrability in the first demonstration of the ship’s capability at sea. Following Al Shamikh’s initial sea trials, she will return to Portsmouth before undergoing further integration and testing, with weapons trials set to take place in the New Year. The first of class was expected to be handed over to the RNO in 2011, following which the crew would undergo the UK Royal Navy's Flag Officer Sea Training before the ship sailed to Oman for warm weather trials.

    [​IMG]
    Al Rahmani, the second ship in the class, was launched in July 2010 and will undertake sea trials in 2011, while the third ship, Al Rasikh, was launched in March 2011. The last of three corvettes under construction by BAE Systems for the Royal Navy of Oman (RNO) was formally named in a launching ceremony at Portsmouth Naval Base 27 June 2011. Employees and guests, including senior representatives from the RNO and UK Royal Navy, gathered at the naval base to watch Lt General Hassan Mohsin Al Sharaiqi, Inspector General of the Police and Customs of the Sultanate of Oman, formally name the RNO’s newest vessel, Al Rasikh.

    A major partnership between Oman Sail and BAE Systems was announced 03 February 2010 during the final leg of the Extreme 40s Asia series in Muscat, Oman. With the support and guidance of the Ministry of Tourism, Oman Sail was set up in 2008 to rekindle Oman’s maritime heritage and to inspire a new generation of young Omanis to take up sailing as recreation and as a competitive sport. This will help to restore Oman’s maritime eminence through competing at international level as well as supporting the development of events to support professional sailing in Arabian Peninsula. BAE Systems has a long and well-established relationship with Oman, a trusted partnership which dates back over 30 years, and is a major provider of defence equipment to the country. The partnership with Oman Sail is an important initiative for BAE Systems and is a demonstration of its commitment to this key market.

    Al Said [after the Omani Royal Family] the royal yacht of Sultaan Qaboss bin Said al Said, at 155 meters length is the third largest yacht in the world. Al Said was built by the naval architect Lurssen Yachts of Germany in collaboration with Jonathan Quinn Barret, who designed this mega yacht. Initially nicknamed as Project Sunflower, the interiors and styling of the yacht were done by Espen Oeino. Al Said’s main hull was crafted from steel and its superstructure is made with aluminum and after sea trials, the yacht was delivered to the owner in 2007.

    Zinat Al-Bihaar is Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said’s sailing yacht, launched by Oman Royal Yacht Squadron in the year 1988 in Oman. Loaloat Al Behar is a 103 meter custom built yacht built in 1982, and was earlier named as Al Said . The name was changed to Loaloat Al Behar as His Majesty got his newr motor yacht Al Said as her replacement. Later, Sultaan gave this yacht to Ministry of Tourism of Oman.

    Royal Oman Navy (RON)

    I cannot post more articles from Global Security. It says that I have to subscribe and this costs money. What kind of nonsense is that?
     
    Last edited: Jan 18, 2015
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  9. Ahmed Jo

    Ahmed Jo FULL MEMBER

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    [​IMG]
    (Omani Hawker Hunter at RAF museum)
     
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  10. al-Hasani

    al-Hasani ELITE MEMBER

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    Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO)
    Royal Oman Air Force (ROAF)

    [​IMG]
    The Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO) is equipped with advanced fighter, interceptor and other aircraft, as well as anti-aircraft missiles and modern radar, defence and weapons systems to ensure a high level of combat proficiency at all times and in all circumstances. In addition to its F-16 fighters, RAFO’s combat capability is reinforced by a number of Hawk and Jaguar aircraft along with Super Lynx and NH90 helicopters, that also provide back-up for the Royal Navy of Oman in protecting the coastline as well as offering support services for members of the public in the mountain areas. To enhance their skills and expertise, they also take part in exercises with the air forces of the Arab Gulf Co-operation Council states and other friendly countries. The Airbus A320-300 has replaced RAFO’s BAC-111 transport planes.

    While the Royal Air Force of Oman (ROAF) (Al-Quwwat al-Jawiyya al-Sultaniyya al-’Umaniyya) is not the largest or most modern air force in the Gulf, it is one of the most professional air forces in the Arab world. The Royal Oman Air Force had a strength of about 3,500 in 1992, and about 5,000 in 2005. In the early 1990s its forty-four combat aircraft of British manufacture consisted of two fighter-ground attack squadrons of modern Jaguars, a ground attack and reconnaissance squadron of older Hunters, and a squadron of Strikemasters and Defenders for counterinsurgency, maritime reconnaissance, and training purposes. The air force is fairly well equipped with three transport squadrons and two squadrons of helicopters for troop transport and medical transport.

    1 Trainer season PC-9, "Super Mushshak"
    2 Transport squadron "Skyvan"
    3 Helicopter squadron "Super Lynx", "Jet Ranger"
    4 Transport Squadron A320
    5 Transport squadron "Skyvan"
    6 Fighter-bomber squadron (light) "Hawk"
    8 Fighter-bomber squadron "Jaguar"
    14 Helicopter squadron 205A, "Super Puma", "Puma"
    15 Helicopter squadron "Super Lynx"
    16 Transport Squadron C-130H
    18 Multi purpose relay F-16
    20 Fighter-bomber squadron "Jaguar"

    Rapier SAMs were linked to an integrated air control and early warning network based on a Martello radar system. Skyvan aircraft fitted with radar and special navigational gear conduct maritime reconnaissance and antipollution patrols. The principal air bases are at Thamarit in the south and on Masirah. Others are collocated with the international airport at As Sib, at Al Khasab on the Musandam Peninsula, at Nazwah, and at Salalah. Officer and pilot training takes place at the Sultan Qabus Air Academy on Masirah. Pilots of fighter aircraft receive advanced training in Britain.

    By 1997 the Omani air force was conducting a study into its future combat-aircraft strategy, including consideration of a Jaguar upgrade program, which would extend the aircraft's life until at least 2005. British Aerospace proposed the Swedish Saab JAS39 Gripen to Oman as a replacement for its Sepecat Jaguar combat aircraft, while Lockheed Martin offered secondhand and new-build F-16s.

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    On 04 October 2001, the US Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale to Oman of F-16 C/D Fighters, associated weapons and equipment and technical and logistical support for the fighters. The Government of Oman has requested a possible sale of 12 F-16C/D Block 50+ aircraft with either the F100-PW-229 or F110-GE-129 engine and APG-68(V)XM FMS radars; two spare F100-PW-229 or two spare F110-GE-129 engines; 14 LANTIRN Targeting Pods (FMS variant); 14 LANTIRN Navigation Pods with Terrain Following Radar (TFR); 50 AIM-120C Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM) and 10 AMRAAM training missiles; 100 AIM-9M-8/9 SIDEWINDER missiles and 10 SIDEWINDER training missiles; 80 AGM-65D/G MAVERICK missiles and 10 MAVERICK training missiles; 20 AGM-84D HARPOON Air-Launched Anti-ship missiles; 100 Enhanced-GBU-10 and 100 Enhanced-GBU-12 PAVEWAY II laser guided bomb kits; 80 GBU-31/32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions; LANTIRN Night Vision Goggle compatible cockpits; and the capability to employ a wide variety of munitions. Associated support equipment, software development/integration, modification kits, spares and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related requirements to ensure full program supportability will also be provided.

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    In an effort to modernize its Air Force, in October 2001, after years of consideration, Oman purchased (with its own funds) 12 U.S.-made F-16 C/D aircraft from new production. Along with associated weapons (Harpoon and AIM missiles), a podded reconnaissance system, and training, the sale was valued at about $825 million, less than the initially estimated cost of $1,120 million. Oman's decision to buy U.S.-made F-16 fighters signals a departure from the country's traditional reliance on British-made weapons. Deliveries for Oman began in 2005; deliveries were completed in 2006.

    In 2002 Oman purchased $49 million worth of F-16 ammunition to supplement their 2001 purchase of the F16 aircraft. On 10 April, the Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale to Oman of various munitions for F-16 Fighter Aircraft and associated equipment and services. The Government of Oman has requested a possible sale of 50,000 20mm high explosive projectiles, 50,000 20mm training projectiles, 300 MK-82 500 lb general purpose bombs, 200 MK-83 1,000 lb general purpose bombs, 100 enhanced GBU-12 Paveway II 500 lb laser guided bomb kits, 50 GBU- 31(v)3/B Joint Direct Attack Munitions, 50 CBU-97/105 sensor fuzed weapon, 20,000 RR-170 self- protection chaff, 20,000 MJU-7B self-protection flares, support equipment, software development/integration, modification kits, spares and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related elements of logistical and program support.

    On 18 July 2002, the Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale to Oman of podded reconnaissance systems as well as associated equipment and services. The total value, if all options are exercised, could be as high as $49 million. The Government of Oman has requested a possible sale of two Goodrich DB-110 or two BAE Systems F-9120 Podded reconnaissance systems, one Goodrich or one BAE Systems Exploitation Ground Station, support equipment, spares and repair parts, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related elements of logistics support.

    On 16 December 2004 Textron Systems Corp., Wilmington Mass., was awarded a $115,788,749 firm fixed price contract to provide for 341 Sensor Fuzed Weapons Full-Rate Production (FRP 10) Option Exercise. This effort supports the United States, and foreign military sales to Oman. Total funds have been obligated. This work will be complete by March 2007. The Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., is the contracting activity (FA8677-05-C-0072).

    The Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO) ordered 20 NH90 TTH in order to replace its fleet of ageing AB205A/206/212/214. The NH90 TTH chosen by Oman is to date one of the most advanced and versatile version of the NH90. This NH90 fleet will cover a wide spectrum of missions from the VIP transport, to troop transport and Search and Rescue missions round the clock in the most demanding conditions. The Certificate of Transfer of the first batch of two NH90 multipurpose helicopters occurred on 23 June 2010 on the Royal Air Force of Oman base of MUSANA after a very demanding 2 months evaluation period in severe operational conditions. This initial delivery which marked the first delivery of an NH90 in the middle east was followed ahead of schedule, in July 2010, by the acceptance process of the second batch of NH90.

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    Oman’s most high-profile requirement was for a replacement for its ageing Jaguars after more than 30 years of service, and to provide a more robust air defence and air superiority capability than can be guaranteed by Block 50 F-16s. The front runner to provide a new generation fighter was widely believed to be the Eurofighter Typhoon. It was reported that Oman would eventually receive as many as 18-24 Eurofighter Typhoons, perhaps refurbished and upgraded ex-RAF aircraft. Saab’s JAS 39 Gripen was also reported to be under consideration, though this fighter faded from view. French offers to sell the Dassault Rafale to Oman, made by French president Nicolas Sarkozy during a meeting with Sultan Qaboos bin Said in February 2009, also went nowhere.

    On August 3, 2010 the US Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale to Oman of 18 F-16 Block 50/52 aircraft and associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $3.5 Billion. The Government of Oman requested a possible sale of 18 F-16 Block 50/52 aircraft, 20 F100-PW-229 or F110-GE-129 Increased Performance Engines, 36 LAU- 129/A Common Rail Launchers, 24 APG-68(V)9 radar sets, 20 M61 20mm Vulcan Cannons, 22 AN/ARC-238 Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Systems with HAVE QUICK I/II, 40 Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems, 36 LAU-117 MAVERICK Launchers, 22 ALQ-211 Advanced Integrated Defensive Electronic Warfare Suites (AIDEWS) or Advanced Countermeasures Electronic Systems (ACES) (ACES includes the ALQ-187 Electronic Warfare System and AN/ALR-93 Radar Warning Receiver), Advanced Identification Friend or Foe (AIFF) Systems with Mode IV, 34 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Embedded-GPS/Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), 18 AN/AAQ-33 SNIPER Targeting Pods or similarly capable system, 4 DB-110 Reconnaissance Pods (RECCE), 22 AN/ALE-47 Countermeasures Dispensing Systems (CMDS), and 35 ALE-50 Towed Decoys.

    Also included is the upgrade of the existing 12 F-16 Block 50/52 aircraft, site survey, support equipment, tanker support, ferry services, Cartridge Actuated Devices/Propellant Actuated Devices (CAD/PAD), conformal fuel tanks, construction, modification kits, repair and return, modification kits, spares and repair parts, construction, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical, engineering, and logistics support services, ground based flight simulator, and other related elements of logistics support.

    This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve the security of a friendly country that has been, and continues to be, an important force for political stability and economic progress in the Middle East. The proposed sale will provide a significant increase in the Royal Air Force of Oman’s (RAFO) capability to train with U.S. and coalition forces and augment coalition forces in a regional conflict. The F-16 Block 50/52 will enable Oman to support both its own air defense needs and coalition operations. Oman currently has 12 F-16s in its inventory and will have no difficulty absorbing these additional aircraft into its armed forces.

    On 14 December 2011 Lockheed Martin Corp., Fort Worth, Texas, was awarded a $600,000,000 dollar firm-fixed-price, time-and-material and cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for a Foreign Military Sales program that will provide the government of Oman with following: 12 F-16 C/D Block 50 Multi-Role Fighter Aircraft (10 C models, two D models); support equipment; technical orders; and integrated logistics support. The location of the performance is Fort Worth, Texas. Work is expected to be completed Nov. 30, 2016. This was a sole-source acquisition. Therefore, one proposal was received. ASC/WWMK, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity (FA8615-12-C-6011).

    The Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress on 12 June 2012 of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Oman for 55 AIM-9X Block II SIDEWINDER All-Up- Round Missiles, 36 AIM-9X Block II SIDEWINDER Captive Air Training Missiles, 6 AIM-9X Block II Tactical Guidance Units, 4 AIM-9X Block II Captive Air Training Missile Guidance Units, 1 Dummy Air Training Missile, and other related equipment. The estimated cost is $86 million.

    On 29 June 2012 NHI delivered two more NH90 helicopters to the Royal Air Force of Oman. As of that date the RAFO operated ten NH90s out of twenty ordered. These new generation helicopters are among the best equipped helicopters in the region, they are able to fulfill a wide spectrum of missions such as tactical transport, logistic support, Vip transport, Medevac, light armed support, Search and Rescue missions.

    The Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress 12 December 2012 of a possible Foreign Military Sale to Oman for a number of F-16 A/C weapon systems, as well as associated equipment, parts, training and logistical support for an estimated cost of $117 million. The Sultanate of Oman requested a possible sale of 27 AIM-120C-7 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM), 162 GBU-12 PAVEWAY II 500-lb Laser Guided Bombs, 162 FMU-152 bomb fuzes, 150 BLU-111B/B 500-lb Conical Fin General Purpose Bombs (Freefall Tail), 60 BLU-111B/B 500-lb Retarded Fin General Purpose Bombs (Ballute Tail), and 32 CBU-105 Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensers (WCMD). Also included are 20mm projectiles, Aerial Gunnery Target System (AGTS-36), training munitions, flares, chaff, containers, impulse cartridges, weapon support equipment and components, repair and return, spare and repair parts, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor representative logistics and technical support services, site survey, and other related elements of logistics support.

    BAE Systems said 21 December 2012 that it had signed e $4.1 billion contract to provide Oman with 12 Typhoon fighter jets and eight Hawk jet trainers. Delivery of the aircraft is slated to begin in 2017. BAE said the contract covers the supply of the aircraft and in-service support. The move will safeguard thousands of jobs in Britain. The deal will make Oman the seventh nation to use the Eurofighter Typhoon, which is built by a consortium of European aerospace companies, joining the air forces of the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain, Austria and Saudi Arabia. This order of Hawk AJT's follows an order from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May of this year. This order takes the total number of Hawk aircraft sold, or on order, to 998.

    A new air base has been under construction at al-Musana'a in the northern part of the country and this will boost operating efficiency when it becomes operational.

    Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO) / Royal Oman Air Force (ROAF)
     
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  11. Ahmed Jo

    Ahmed Jo FULL MEMBER

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    Excellent info! and yes, stupid nonsensical capitalism lol

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  12. al-Hasani

    al-Hasani ELITE MEMBER

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    Omani Royal Navy - History
    By the early 19th Century the naval force of the Sultan of Muscat was about as large as that of the United States. This gave him entire control over all the ports in East Africa, the Red Sea, the coast of Abyssinia, and the Persian Gulf. This force consists, it seems, of between seventy and eighty sail of vessels, carrying from seventy-four guns to four. He possessed a more efficient naval force than all the native princes combined, from the Cape of Good Hope to Japan. His possessions, in Africa, stretched from Cape Delagado to Cape Guardafur ; and from Cape Adra, in Arabia, to Ras el Haud ; and, from Ras el Haud, they extended along the northern coast of Arabia, or the coast of Aman, to the entrance to the Persian Gulf, and he claimed, also, the sea coast and islands within the Persian Gulf, including the Barhein islands, and the Pearl Fishery contiguous to them, with the northern coast of the Gulf, as low down as Scindy. The vessels of the sultan traded not only with his own ports in Africa, and the valuable islands of Monpoea, Zanzibar, Pemba, and Socotra, but also to Guzzerat, Surat, Demaun, Bombay, Bay of Bengal, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, the Mauritis, the Comora islands, Madagascar, and the Portuguese possessions, bringing Indian, African, and European articles. About two thousand vessels were thus engaged in this trade, of which a very large proportion were small craft, to be sure.

    Sea navigation is known to have been practiced by Omani sea farers since the most ancient ages, before the fourth millennium BC. Their efforts coincided with the prosperity of trade activity in the civilisations of Trigris & Euphrates Rivers and River Nile. Sumerians named Oman as Majan which was prosperous during the emergence of Assyrian state and during the era of second Babylonian regime. The Phoenicians on other hand shared ancient Omanis a great deal of similarities as both were great sea farers. It is claimed that the Phoenicians established the town of Sur on the eastern coast, and used it as a commercial port to receive vessels coming from Africa and India.

    At the dawn of Islam, Omanis had already acquired fame as skillful capable seamen and greatly contributed in the widespread of Islam during its early conquests. Sohar and Daba; the two main ports at that time, became military supply bases, in addition to being points for launching campaigns by Muslim armies during Beni Omayyah Reign. Imam Ghassan Bin Abdullah (807-824 AD) is renowned for being the first Omani ruler who ordered ships being built particularly for naval wars against pirates sailing in barges in the Gulf.

    Upon the arrival of Portuguese to Indian Ocean and the Gulf in the sixteenth century, Oman lost grip on the trade routes to the east after their towns were looted and sabotaged. However, Imam Nasser Bin Murshid, his cousin Sultan bin Saif and their successors of Al-Ya'ariba Imams managed to build a big strong naval force composed of modern warships of European designs. The force was strong enough to challenge the Portuguese and drive them out of their strongholds and away from Oman for good. After cleansing Oman, the naval force was deployed to the West of the Indian Ocean, Persia, the Gulf and East Africa to oust the Portuguese.

    In 1749 AD, Imam Ahmed bin Said became the Imam (Ruler) of Oman and his first priority was to rebuild the Omani Navy that was gradually deteriorating over a period of time. The fleet consisted of 4 ships each equipped with 40 guns, in addition to 25 locally made boats.

    In the nineteenth century, Sayyid Said bin Sultan managed to build the largest fleet ever in Oman. By 1805 there were 4 frigates, 4 corvettes, 2 single sail ships, 7 vast vessels and 20 merchandise armed ships. He also dispatched a number of ships on diplomatic and commercial missions to America and Europe, such as the Omani vessel Sultanah, which sailed to New York on 30 April 1804 carrying Ahmed bin Al-Noman; the first Arab envoy to America.

    As the English power became paramount in India, somewhat more of law and order was introduced, and the safety of the seas became a matter of public concern to tho Government. A well armed fighting marine was organized with its head-quarters at Bombay, and for nearly a century—as the "Bombay Marine," subsequently called tho "Indian Navy"—did excellent, and often brilliant, service both in the Arabian waters and among the islands of the Eastern Archipelago. In the former seas community of interest gave the English useful allies in the Omani navy. The Imams protected trade, and the Indian merchants trading between India, Arabia, and Africa had ever found safe refuge and favour in the seaports of Oman.

    The task of suppressing piracy would have been easier but for the support which tho pirates received from the Wahhabis. The southern shores of the Persian Gulf have always been the great stronghold of Arab piracy. The coast is most intricate and dangerous to approach, owing to numerous coral reefs, the channels between which offer no safe access save to the most experienced of local pilots. The inhabitants of the coast, separated into many independent tribes, divided their time between fighting and fishing, pearl-diving in its season and piracy, combining whenever they could all these occupations and uniting only for distant enterprises of sea roving, or to repel any stranger that might meddle with them.

    The practical doctrine of the Muslim reformer — that tho persons and goods of all unbelievers were the divinely-appointed lawful spoil of the faithful, and that all who had lapsed from the primitive purity of the faith—Sunnis, or Sbiaahs, and lb ad iy ah alike, all, in fact, except true Wahhabis—were worse than infidels, and were to be slaughtered, enslaved, and plundered as a religious duty — this teaching found willing disciples on what is emphatically called the "pirate coast," and its effects were speedily visible in the increased ferocity with which the pirates fought and which they displayed in their treatment of the unhappy captives who fell into their hands.

    Instigated by the Wahhabis, the Joasmees, or people of El Kaw&sim, a tribe on the south coast of the Persian Gulf, had been most daring in their piracies on the western coast of India. An expedition was sent by the English Government from Bombay to co-operate with Seyyid Sa'id in punishing them. The town of Ras-el-Khaimar was bombarded on the 12 th November, 1809, stormed the next day, the chief made prisoner, a large number of piratical vessels burnt, and much booty carried off. This was the first instance of armed intervention by the British in the affairs of Oman. The combined forces were equally successful in the following month in recapturing tho fort of Shinas, north of Muscat, which had fallen to the Wahhabis.

    After this the English force was recalled. The Supreme Government of India was unwilling to be committed to an indefinite contest with the Wahhabis. Seyyid Sa'id appealed in vain for further aid, and was obliged to buy off the invaders with "a present" of 40,000 dollars, and would probably have suffered further at their hands had not the operations of the Egyptian troops in their campaigns against the Wahhabis in 1813 to 1819, the occupation and destruction of their capital, and the execution of their Amir Abdallah at Constantinople, given for the time an effectual check to the aggressions of the fanatics of Nedj.

    A second expedition against the piratical tribes in the Persian Gulf was however, organised by the Government of India in 1819. Seyyid Sa'id heartily co-operated with the force sent from Bombay under General Keir, and contributed to the success of the expedition, which, after reducing several piratical strongholds, forced the chiefs of all the maritime tribes to conclude treaties, in 1820, binding them to a perpetual maritime truce among themselves, to abstain from piracy, and to accept the arbitration of the British agent in the Gulf in case of intertribal disputes. A prompt and steady enforcement of the provisions of these treaties almost put an end to piracy.

    After some unsuccessful attempts to annex Bahrein, the Seyyid turned his attention to consolidating his possessions on the African coast, and devoted to that object nearly fifteen years, from 1829 to 1844. The ruler of Mombasa; an Omani territory at the time, sailed on board of Sultanah to London in 1842 as an ambassador to Queen Victoria. Furthermore, the Omani vessel Carolin equipped with 26 guns visited Marseelia in 1849.

    Seyyid Sa'id made Zanzibar his principal residence, and in a series of expeditions, in some of which he received important assistance from the English, he gradually occupied almost every seaport of importance, and all the islands off the coast, from near Brava to Cape Delgado. He had a considerable fleet of ships fairly manned and armed after the English fashion. One of these he sent to England and presented to King William the Fourth, and she was long on the navy list as H.M.S. Imam, a serviceable teak-built frigate. In his operations on the African coast he relied mainly on his naval resources, which enabled Viirn to concentrate at any point a force of well-armed Arabs sufficient to capture the forts which had been everywhere built by the former Portuguese conquerors in positions commanding the trade of the coast, and to overcome any opposition from the native African chiefs.

    Trade was everywhere fostered, and wherever the Seyyid's red flag was hoisted tho Indian traders, or banians of four or five principal castes, who had from the earliest days been trading on that coast till driven away by Portuguese exactions, would flock back, and the Seyyid himself would often take a part in a venture, or allow his men-of-war to carry cargo, when not engaged in a military expedition. His chief fellow-tribesmen and followers were encouraged to settle wherever they found good land; and plantations of cocoa-nut, sugar cane, and cloves grew up wherever protection was given to the labourers, bond or free, to clear the forest. Under his rule Zanzibar became an important emporium. Indian merchants were followed by German, French, American, and English houses, consulates were established by all four nations, and treaties of commerce were executed.

    As the market for slaves in the West Indies, in South America and the Southern Indian Ocean declined, the trade northwards to supply the slave-markets of Egypt, Turkey, Arabia and Persia increased, in spite of the efforts somewhat spasmodically made by the English Government to stop it by sea. Of course it was easy for British consuls to prove by argument that in the long run such a drain of the local labour market was not only inhuman but impolitic. The Seyyid, however, and his followers and advisers caring less for humanity than for their own immediate profit, and still less for the future policy of their successors, were by no means willing to give up or restrict a traffic which insured them a cheap and abundant supply of slave labor, and afforded an article of export more profitable and easy of transport than elephants' teeth.

    Nevertheless, at the repeated solicitations of his English allies the Seyyid executed more than one treaty for the suppression of the slave traffic. The provisions of these engagements were not always very effectual in view, but they enabled a succession of active and independent consuls, aided by energetic naval officers, employed on the coast to prove the possibility of putting an end to the traffic by sea.

    Seyyid Sa'id embarked once more for Zanzibar ; but 'the decree of fate' overtook him in the Sea of Sayebelles. He died on board his frigate, the Victoria, on the 19th of October 1856, at the age of sixty-five, after a reigu of fifty-two years.

    @Ahmed Jo

    I managed to "cheat" the system by copying the page before that annoying box pops up telling me that I have viewed more than 5 pages this month. Will try to cover the remaining articles this way.:lol: Wait a second. I covered all the essentials already.
     
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  13. Ahmed Jo

    Ahmed Jo FULL MEMBER

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    The Royal Air Force of Oman’s Evolution
    Since the 1980s, with the support of the Royal Air Force, the Royal Air Force of Oman has become a powerful regional air force.

    The 1980s and 1990s saw significant investment in the Royal Air Force of Oman’s capabilities. This was supported by the process of Omanisation, which has seen many Omanis take on key roles in the air force.

    From the Sultan of Oman’s Air Force to the Royal Air Force of Oman
    After the end of the Dhofar War, the Sultan of Oman’s Air Force continued to modernise and re-equip. Noticeable additions were the gift of 32 Hawker Hunter FGA9s from King Hussein of Jordan in 1975. More significant was the purchase of the SEPECAT Jaguar in 1977, which provided an important step change in operational capability.

    On 1 August 1990, the Sultan of Oman’s Air Force officially changed its name to the Royal Air Force of Oman. The Royal Air Force of Oman’s capabilities now span the range of control of the air, attack, air mobility and situational awareness and intelligence. This is encapsulated in Royal Air Force of Oman’s motto, ‘Strike and Support’.

    Omanisation
    Since the 1980s, Omanis have increasingly staffed the Royal Air Force of Oman with a reduction in the number of RAF loan officers. In June 1990, Air Vice-Marshal Talib bin Meran bin Zaman Al-Raeesi became the first Omani to be Commander of the Royal Air Force of Oman. This has mirrored broader trends in Oman and was formalised in the policy of Omanisation in 1988. Omanisation has sought to replace expatriate workers in skilled jobs with highly trained Omanis. The Royal Air Force continues to support the training of Royal Air Force of Oman personnel with key loan officers serving in training positions.
    Training and Teamwork
    [​IMG]After the Dhofar War, the Sultan of Oman’s Air Force recognised the need to recruit and train in country. Aspiring recruits went through the Sultan’s Armed Forces Training Regiment for basic training before undergoing further training. Opened at RAFO Masirah in 1986, the Sultan Qaboos Air Academy now provides initial officer, flying and ground training for the Royal Air Force of Oman.

    In 1973, Airworks set up the Technical Training School to train Omani recruits as mechanics. In 1974, this became the Technical Training Institute at RAFO Seeb and was finally renamed the Air Force Technical College, which now provides trained airmen in the many trades required to operate a modern air force. As well as attending staff courses abroad, RAFO officers also attend the Joint Command and Staff Course at Bayt al Falaj.
     
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  14. al-Hasani

    al-Hasani ELITE MEMBER

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    Some videos;







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  15. al-Hasani

    al-Hasani ELITE MEMBER

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