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RPVs TO UAVs SPIES DIRTY and Dangerous USA Escalation of Warfare ?

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RPVs TO UAVs SPIES DIRTY and Dangerous USA Escalation of Warfare or need for protection of world Peace?
Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) and Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft (UCAR) is three D dirty dull and dangerous escalation of arms race by USA

An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an aerial vehicle without a human pilot on board. It can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or radio controlled. In the past, the use of UAVs have been mostly related to military applications in order to perform the missions such as reconnaissance, surveillance and location acquisition of enemy targets.

Unmanned aircraft, known variously as "drones", "remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs)", and now "unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)", have been a feature of aviation for much of its history, though in limited or secondary roles Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, also known as a drone, an aircraft without a human operator on board. Pilot less drones have always been a bastard stepchild of the military, with the institutional bias favoring "manned platforms." (The best way to advance in any service is to see combat—in the Air Force, it's the flyboys who get ahead.)

Since September 2001, some twenty types of coalition UAV, large and small, have flown over 140,000 total flight hours in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) and Operation IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF). Intelligence.” Systems (UAS) continue to expand, encompassing a broad range of mission capabilities. These diverse systems range in cost from a few thousand dollars to tens of millions of dollars, and range in capability from Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) weighing less than one pound to aircraft weighing over
40,000, Pounds.

The largest modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have a wingspan of more than Helios (246-ft wingspan)—USA; the smallest UAVs Black Widow (6-inch diameter/2.0 oz)—USA can be carried in a backpack. UAVs originated during World War I (1914-1918), but modern UAVs were first developed in the 1970s.

In the push to miniaturize unmanned aerial systems, American military engineers plan to shrink robotic aircraft by 2015 to the proportions of the bird and, by 2030, to the insect. The vast majority of the roughly 1,500 drones flying in Iraq and Afghanistan, however, are much smaller craft, controlled by soldiers and Marines .

The concept of unmanned aerial vehicles was first used in the American Civil War, when the North and the South tried to launch balloons with explosive devices that would fall into the other side’s ammunition depot and explode. This concept was also used by the Japanese for around a month in World War II, when they tried to launch balloons with incendiary and other explosives. The United States did use a prototype UAV called Operation Aphrodite in World War Il.

The idea of using unmanned entities to wage aerial war isn't new. In the early days of the United States' involvement in World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved research into a plan to release bomb-wielding bats from airplanes. 6,000 bats lost life during experiment .HowStuffWorks "How the MQ-9 Reaper Works"
The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) spent more than $3 billion in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research and operations in the 1990s. UAVs play a very important role in military engagements in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, and Iraq as well as surveillance missions across the globe.

In the 1960s, the US started to develop ‘drones’, which were unmanned vehicles built for spying and reconnaissance. Honeywell, of Phoenix, received a $65 million production contract for its Micro Air Vehicle, now named the T-Hawk.

The leading service in this context is the US Air Force, which has been working with Darpa (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) since the 1990s on an ATD (Advanced Technology Demonstration) programme to develop and test a low-cost Ucav (Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle) designed for pre-emptive and reactive Sead (Suppression of Enemy Air Defences) missions against fixed and mobile targets. The underlying USAir Force philosophy is that its Ucav should be completely autonomous from take-off to landing, but then human involvement is required in targeting, weapons delivery and damage assessment.

Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft (UCAR) User Service: Army
Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman Inventory: 0 Delivered/4 Planned UCAR Darpa also has the lead for the early stages of the US Army Ucar (Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft) programme, which is aimed at demonstrating an affordable vertical take-off and landing combat drone system for the armed reconnaissance and attack roles. Ucar is an eight-year, four-phase programme.

In May 2002, Darpa and the US Army selected four teams (Boeing, Lockheed Martin/Bell, Northrop Grumman and Sikorsky/Raytheon) for the initial twelve-month concept development and systems trade-off phase. In July 2003, two teams (Lockheed Martin/Bell and Northrop Grumman) were selected to perform the 15-month Phase II, covering preliminary design. One of the losers appears to be the Boeing X-50A Dragonfly CRW (Canard Rotor/Wing) project.

Phase IV, covering system maturation, will lead to first flight in late FY2008 of an Ucar that will have around 70 per cent commonality with the operational vehicle. Subject to a favourable Milestone B decision at the end of FY2009, the lead will be transferred to the US Army for the SDD (Systems Design and Development) phase, leading to IOC (Initial Operational Capability) in 2015. The Ucar concept calls for massive advances in sensor performance, to allow targets to be identified at two or three times present ranges.

If the remotely-piloted Predator has an autonomy level of one, and a completely autonomous drone has a level of ten, then Ucar will represent a figure of around eight. This compares to a level of three or four for the Northrop Grumman RQ-8A Fire Scout, which the US Army has selected as its Class IV UAV, to provide wide area surveillance, target acquisition and communications, relay facilities.

1960, a young Japanese-American engineer named Norman Sakamato began pushing a bright new idea: that the drones be equipped with a camera in the nose and used for aerial reconnaissance and espionage.In the 1960s and 70s, the United States flew more than 34,000 surveillance flights using the AQM-34 Ryan Fire bee, a UAV launched from a host plane and controlled by operators within that plane. The U.S. also employed UAVs called Lightning Bugs that were released from airborne C-130s for missions over China and Vietnam. Engineers from the manufacturer operated the aircraft with a joystick control. But then a manned U-2 spy plane was shot down by Soviet-made anti-aircraft missiles over Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis, pushing the superpowers to the brink. Suddenly, the Pentagon took notice; Sakamato's company, Ryan-Teledyne, was soon awash in contracts for a drone called the Firebee. By the Vietnam War, more than 1,000 Firebees were flying over enemy territory on photo-reconnaissance missions or jamming radars.

Then Woolsey remembered a secret UAV project run out of the Pentagon's civilian Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency using the design skills of a brilliant Israeli expert named Abe Karem. Woolsey tracked down Karem in California. Karem told him his craft, code-named Amber, had been cut from the budget by the Army in 1990 and was now lying in pieces in a California warehouse. What would it take, Woolsey asked, to get it flying again? "Six months and $5 million," he recalls Karem's saying. (Karem says the story is a bit more complicated, but Woolsey's version is essentially correct.) In the late 1990s the Gnat evolved into the Predator, a drone that could not only take pictures but fire missiles

A crucial advocate for the project was Gen. John Jumper, who was commander of U.S. air forces in Europe during the Kosovo conflict. He was exasperated that the early Predators didn't have GPS. (Jumper is recalled by a colleague remarking about a recon photo of a Serbian tank hiding in a forest: "That's a very nice tank. Where the f––– is it?") When Jumper returned to the United States to run Air Combat Command in 2000, he made a new push to get a weapon under the Predator's wings.

The Air Force ordered a reconnaissance version in December 1962. Originally named R-12 it was later renamed SR-71. The Lockheed SR-71 was an advanced, long-range, Mach 3 strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed A-12 and YF-12A aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works. The SR-71 was unofficially named the Blackbird, and called the Habu by its crews.The SR-71 line was in service from 1964 to 1998, with 12 of the 32 aircraft being destroyed in accidents, though none were lost to enemy action. Primary users was NASA.

In the late 1970s and 80s, Israel developed the Scout and the Pioneer, which represented a shift t¬oward the lighter, glider-type model of UAV in use today. The Scout was notable for its ability to transmit live video with a 360-degree view of the terrain. The small size of these UAVs made them inexpensive to produce and difficult to shoot down.

Israel was the first nation to make significant use of unmanned reconnaissance drones in combat during operations in Lebanon in 1982. The United States forces began full deployment and use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and related technology in the 1990s and UAVs—especially the Predator and Global Hawk—were extensively used by U.S. forces during Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom

The most widely used UAV in the United States military is the Predator, made by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., based in San Diego, California. The Predator weighs about as much as a small private airplane, such as a Cessna 172. It has a 110-horsepower (hp) engine, similar to a snowmobile motor, and a wingspan of 15 m (48 ft). It can remain airborne for 14 hours and travel 740 km (460 mi) from its base, while flying at up to 8,000 m (25,000 ft) above sea level .

The MQ-1 Predator is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) which the United States Air Force describes as a MALE (medium-altitude, long-endurance) UAV system, The aircraft has been in use since 1995, and been in combat over Afghanistan, Bosnia, Serbia, Iraq, and Yemen. It is remote-controlled by humans, not an autonomous aircraft (Wall Street Journal)

The MQ-1 Predator is a system, not just an aircraft. The fully operational system consists of four air vehicles (with sensors), a ground control station (GCS), a Predator primary satellite link communication suite and 55 people. In the over-all U.S. Air Force integrated UAV system, the Predator is considered a "Tier II" vehicle.

In February 2001 the Predator served its first offensive purpose, successfully firing an armed Hellfire missile in a test trial. It destroyed an unoccupied target tank in the process.

The Predator system was initially designated the RQ-1 Predator, with the "R" is the Department of Defense designation for reconnaissance, "Q" means unmanned aircraft system. The "1" describes it as being the first of a series of purpose-built unmanned reconnaissance aircraft systems. Pre-production systems were designated as RQ-1A, while the RQ-1B (not to be confused with the RQ-1 Predator B, which became the MQ-9 Reaper) denotes the baseline production configuration.

In 2002, the Air Force officially changed the designation to MQ-1 (the "M" designates multi-role) to reflect its growing use as an armed aircraft .

The Predator flies at medium altitudes and is capable of long reconnaissance and surveillance missions. In conjunction with weapons systems, Predator craft are also used for target acquisition. The Predator's two fuel tanks combined carry up to 600 pounds of 95-octane to 100-octane reciprocating aircraft engine fuel. The Predator uses 7.6 liters of standard motor oil for lubrication. In addition to venting, conventional automotive antifreeze is used to cool the engine

The U.S. Air Force is planning on replacing its MQ-1B Predators with the new U.S. Army MQ-1C Sky Warrior. The latter is developed from the former and both are built by the same manufacturer.

General Atomics, the manufacturer of the Predator UAV, is developing the new Sky Warrior UAV, which enters service next year. The army wants 45 squadrons (each with 12 UAVs), at a cost of about $8 million per aircraft (including ground equipment).

The Sky Warrior weighs 1.5 tons, carries 300 pounds of sensors internally, and up to 500 pounds of sensors or weapons externally. It has an endurance of up to 36 hours and a top speed of 270 kilometers an hour. Sky Warrior has a wingspan 56 feet and is 28 feet long. The Sky Warrior is heavier than the one ton Predator and a bit larger and more capable in general. Basically, it's "Predator Plus", with the added ability to land and take off automatically, and carry four Hellfire missiles (compared to two on the Predator).

Persistence is a unique capability for UAVs, Weatherington said. The Predator can stay in the air for up to 14 hours. The Global Hawk — at ranges measured in thousands of miles — can loiter in an area for more than 24 hours

RQ-4 Global Hawk 12 Delivered/58 Planned (7 ACTD + 51 Production aircraft)
The biggest UAV in use today is the rq-4 Global Hawk, made by Northrop Grumman Corporation of Los Angeles. With a 35-m (114-ft) wingspan, the jet-powered Global Hawk can cruise at 20,000 m (65,000 ft) for 24 hours, up to 2,220 km (1,400 mi) The U.S. Air Force and Navy flew a RQ-4A Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system across the Atlantic Ocean in late September 2008, demonstrating further how the military may leverage UAS technology to achieve global surveillance. The Air Force flew the vehicle, attached to the 9th Reconnaissance Wing at Beale Air Force Base, Calif., from Patuxent River Naval Air Station, Md., to Southwest Asia-with the two services working jointly on the mission. Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International

Global Hawk Maritime Demonstration (GHMD) base. Inventory: 0 Delivered/2 Planned In 2001 a Global Hawk flew from Edwards Air Force Base in southern California to Australia, the longest flight ever by a UAV.The Global Hawk, is capable of operating at higher altitudes (in excess of 60,000 ft) on and features an integrated sensor system that enhance its intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities.

RQ-5A/MQ-5B Hunter User Service: Army Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman Inventory: 62 Delivered/35 In-Service The U.S. Army 28/11/2008 awarded Northrop Grumman of Los Angeles a $97 million contract to procure and modify a dozen Hunter MQ-5B unmanned aerial vehicles, six One-System Block II ground control stations, among other system components.
RQ-7A/B Shadow 200 User Service: Army Manufacturer: AAI Inventory: 100 + Delivered/332 Planned Shadow systems have been deployed to Iraq in support of GWOT and to South Korea

RQ-8A/B Fire Scout User Service: Army and Navy Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman Inventory: 5 Delivered/192 Planned The Navy has selected the RQ-8B to support the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) class of surface vessels. http://uav.navair.navy.mil/.

Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems (J-UCAS) User Service: Air Force and Navy Manufacturers: Boeing, Northrop Grumman Inventory: 2 X-45A Delivered, 1 X-47A Demonstrated/3 X-45C Planned, 3 X-47B Planned .

Future Combat System (FCS) User Service: Army Manufacturer: The Boeing Company Inventory: 0 Delivered/TBD Planned that are expected to appear in an experimental brigade in 2008 and reach IOC in 2014. TRADOC designated Raven as the Interim Class I UAV, an improved Shadow as the interim Class III UAV and Fire Scout as the Class IV UAV in April 2004. A fifth UA category, Class IV B, has been created, requiring 24-hour endurance by a single aircraft, perhaps the eventual ER/MP UA.

I-Gnat-ER User Service: Army Manufacturer: General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. Inventory: 3 Delivered/5 Planned the Army has had I-Gnat-ERs deployed to Iraq since March 2004

Extended Range/Multipurpose (ER/MP) UA User Service: Army Manufacturer: TBD Inventory: 0 Delivered/90 Planned (Increment 2)

X-50 Dragonfly Canard Rotor/Wing (CRW) User Service: DARPA Manufacturer: Boeing Inventory: 2 Delivered/2 Planned The second X-50 is now being readied to continue the flight testing, planned for summer.

A-160 Hummingbird User Service: DARPA/Army/Navy Manufacturer: Boeing/Frontier Inventory: 4 Delivered/10 Planned

Cormorant User Service: DARPA Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Inventory: 0 Delivered/TBD Planned The Cormorant project is currently conducting a series of risk reduction demonstrations for a multi-purpose UA that is “immersible” and capable of launch, recovery, and re-launch from a submerged SSGN submarine or a surface ship.

DP-5X User Service: DARPA Manufacturer: Dragonfly Pictures Inventory: 0 Delivered/TBD Planned The unique construction allows it to be rapidly launched by two operators. The vehicle can serve as a tactical Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) and Communication Relay platform to the Army small unit commanders at the Battalion and below level.

Long Gun User Service: DARPA Manufacturer: Titan Corporation Inventory: 0 Delivered/TBD Planned

Eagle Eye User Service: Coast Guard Manufacturer: Bell Textron Inventory: 0 Delivered/69 Planned The Coast Guard selected the Bell model TR911D Eagle Eye tiltrotor in February 2003 to serve as the cutter-based UA in its Deepwater program. The Deepwater programs begin evaluation of a prototype aircraft in 2007.

Neptune User Service: Navy Manufacturer: DRS Unmanned Technologies Inventory: 15 Delivered/27 Planned Neptune is a new tactical UA design optimized for at-sea launch and recovery. Carried in a 72x30x20 inch case that transforms into a pneumatic launcher, it can be launched from small vessels and recovered in open water. It can carry IR or color video sensors, or can be used to drop small payloads.

Maverick User Service: DARPA/Army/Navy Manufacturer: Boeing/Frontier/Robinson Inventory: 4 Delivered/5 Planned Maverick is an unmanned version of the Robinson R22 helicopter. Frontier modified it in 1999 to serve as a testbed for developing the control logic for their DARPA A-160 UA effort. Subsequently, the Navy decided to acquire four Mavericks in 2003.

XPV-1 Tern User Service: SOCOM Manufacturer: BAI Aerosystems Inventory: 65 Delivered/65 Planned Tern was operated in support of Special Operations Forces by Navy personnel from Fleet Composite Squadron Six (VC-6, previously the USN's Pioneer UA Squadron) in Afghanistan to perform force protection missions and to dispense an unattended ground sensor weighing over 20 pound.

XPV-2 Mako User Service: SOCOM Manufacturer: NAVMAR Applied Sciences Corporation/BAI Aerosystems Inventory: 30 Delivered/30 Planned. Mako is a lightweight long endurance versatile unmanned aircraft capable of a variety of missions, yet of sufficiently low cost to be discarded after actual battle, if necessary. It is a single engine, high wing, Radio Controlled or computer assisted autopilot UA capable of daylight or infrared reconnaissance and other related missions.

CQ-10 Snow Goose User Service: USSOCOM, Army Manufacturer: MMIST Inc.
Inventory: 15 Delivered/TBD Planned USSOCOM selected the CQ-10A Snow Goose to dispense leaflets for Psychological Operations (PSYOP), deliver small supply bundles to Special Operations Forces, and provide aerial surveillance and communications relay capabilities. The first flight occurred in April 2001, and IOC was achieved in Jan 2005.

The U.S. Navy operates the Pioneer UAV. Designed to operate over Open Ocean, the Pioneer design incorporates a low radar cross section and reduced infrared signature. Pioneer craft were first used during operations in Grenada and strikes against Libya.

The Shadow UAV offers day and night surveillance capability and can carry a 330 lbs. Payload while operating at 10,000 ft. The U.S. Army uses Shadow UAVs to call in or lock on (calibrate) artillery attacks.

Mini UA In 2001 the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps tested a small UAV called Dragon Eye. It is a 1.9-kg (4.3-lb) battery-powered UAV with a 114-cm (45-in) wingspan. The Dragon Eye Manufacturer: AeroVironment is hand-launched and can be carried in a backpack.

Mini UA FPASS Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin User Service Air Force, a 1999 U.S.Central Command (CENTCOM) request for enhancing security at overseas bases. CENTAF refers to the FPASS vehicle as Desert Hawk. Each system consists of six aircraft and a laptop control station. Delivery of initial systems began in July 2002.

Mini UA FQM-151 Pointer Manufacturer: AeroVironment User Service SOCOM, AF, FQM-151/Pointers have been acquired by the Marines, Army, and Air Force since 1989 and were employed in the Gulf War and are currently used in OEF and OIF. USSOCOM acquired 60 systems (2 aircraft each) and is using them in both Afghanistan and Iraq. (e.g., uncooled IR cameras and chemical agent detectors) and have operated with the Drug Enforcement Agency and National Guard. Some 50 systems remain.

Mini UA Raven Manufacturer AeroVironment User Service Army, SOCOM, AF, Raven, is two-thirds the size and weight of the backpackable Pointer. Introduced into Iraq for “over the hill” and route reconnaissance, Raven requires minimal operator skills and maintenance. The Army is buying 185 three-aircraft systems, specifically for OEF/OIF, the Air Force 41 two-aircraft systems, a SOCOM 70 three-aircraft systems.

Mini UA BUSTER Manufacturer Mission Technologies, Inc. User Service Night Vision Labs, US Army BUSTER is a UAS on contract with the U.S. Army Night Vision Laboratories, Fort Belvoir, VA. The Night Vision Lab is using BUSTER as a testbed for sensors. Nine systems are being delivered through the remainder of this year. Other contracts in being are with the United Kingdoms Ministry of Defense JUEP/JUET program with BUSTER training being conducted for the Royal Artillery, the Royal Air Force and the Special Operating Forces.

Mini UA Silver Fox Manufacturer Advanced Ceramics User Service Navy The Office of Naval Research is testing its utility for ship security and harbor patrol. It demonstrated an endurance of 8 hours and is attempting to control four airborne aircraft simultaneously. Canada’s armed forces are acquiring a system for joint evaluation.

Mini UA Scan Eagle Manufacturer Insitu Group/Boeing User Service Marine Corps It recently supported JFCOM’s Forward Look exercises, and two systems of eight aircraft each deployed to Iraq to provide force protection for the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF). Scan Eagle’s longest endurance flight aloft is 20.1 hours. A planned version will feature improved endurance of over 30 hours. Scan Eagle is a low-cost, long-endurance, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) developed and built by Boeing Feb. 28, 2006, Scan Eagle had surpassed 10,000 combat flight hours in less than two years supporting U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy operations

Mini UA Aerosonde Manufacturer Aerosonde/Lockheed Martin User Service Navy Aerosonde is currently operating at NASA’s Wallops Island Flight Facility, at an a
Arctic facility in Barrow, Alaska, and at two locations in Australia. The Office of Naval Research has purchased several aircraft along with services for instrument/payload development. Aerosonde has also been selected for the USAF Weather Scout Foreign Cooperative Test.

Mini UA BATCAM Manufacturer ARA User Service SOCOM The Battlefield Air Targeting Camera Micro Air Vehicle (BATCAM) is the result of a Secretary of the Air Force (SECAF) acquisition initiative. First flown in 2003, The BATCAM provide the ability to covertly navigate, reconnoiter, and target objectives, ultimately enhancing situational awareness, reducing fratricide, increasing survivability, and mission success rates.


Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) MAV/Wasp/Hornet

MAV User Service DARPA and the Army are exploring designs for MAV. Manufacturer Honeywell was awarded an agreement to develop and demonstrate the MAV as part of the MAV ACTD, which pushes the envelop in small, lightweight propulsion, sensing, and communication technologies. Following its military utility assessment (MUA) in FY05-06, 25 MAV systems was transfer to the Army in 07.

Wasp has developed a 6-ounce MAV, the Manufacturer aero Vironment User Service DARPA Wasp, having an integrated wing-and-battery which has flown for 1.8 hours. Wasp variant has flown at sea level and at 5,000 feet and 105º F, and is capable of several hands-free, autonomous flight modes, including GPS waypoint navigation, loiter, altitude and heading hold. Prototype Wasp vehicles have flown off the USS PHILLIPINE SEA in theatre in early FY04. Spiral 1 Wasp vehicles are currently (FY05) in user evaluations with the US Navy’s STRIKE GROUP 11 and a number of Wasp systems was inducted FY05 and early FY06.

Hornet Manufacturer Aero Vironment User Service DARPA .Hornet became the first UA totally powered by hydrogen fuel when it flew in March 2003. Its fuel cell is shaped to also serve as the wing.

Aeronautics Defense Systems recently launched a new Mini UAV called the Orbiter. What makes the Orbiter Mini UAV so special is that it can be carried in a backpack, assembled in 10 minutes and operated by a single person. It has night vision capabilities, can be launched by hand and has a parachute so there is no need to land it on a runway.

These small UAVs may be used in cities, to patrol the area around a base or to protect a ship in port. For example, a UAV might fly around the edge of a base and detect would-be attackers who could not be seen by a sentry on the ground. Designers have even experimented with tiny “micro-UAVs” that can fly inside buildings.

Some UAVs are now being designed for the sole purpose of carrying weapons. These aircraft are sometimes known as unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs). The X-45A, made by The Boeing Company and first flown in June 2002, is a 1,000-km/h (600-mph) jet designed to carry two 500-kg (1,000-lb) bombs. It is known as a “stealth” fighter because it is made of special materials and designed in a way to make it difficult to detect by radar

Since its combat debut in Afghanistan in October 2007.The Air Force has announced "Reaper" has been chosen as the name for the MQ-9 unmanned aerial vehicle, the Air Force's first hunter-killer UAV. Formerly known as the Predator B, the MQ-9 is still in final development but is larger and much more powerful than the MQ-1 Predator and is designed to go after time-sensitive targets with persistence and precision, and should the Reaper ever be assigned your case, you are indeed very likely to become toast. Each Reaper system consists of four individual Reaper drones operated by four different flight teams. The whole system costs about $54 million to build [source: USAF].

Compared to the current MQ-1, which could carry two Hellfire missiles Reaper is much more capable, and can carry 14 Hellfire II anti-armour missiles. The MQ-9 can also deploy precision guided weapons such as the GBU-12 and 500lb GBU-38 JDAM (Joint Direct Attack Munition). Similarly, the Reaper can carry an internal sensor payload more than twice that of MQ-1, now has an operational ceiling of 50,000 ft and can cruise above clouds at 260 knots for 14 hours at a time.

The Air Force has seven MQ-9 Reapers in its inventory, with a full-rate production decision expected in 2009.A 900 hp turbo-prop engine, compared to the 119 hp Predator MQ-1 engine, powers the aircraft. It has a 64-foot wingspan and carries more than 15 times the ordnance of the Predator, flying almost three times the Predator's cruise speed.

IN 2007, the U.S. Air Force formed the first UAV Wing. The 432nd Wing contains eight squadrons (six Predators, one Reaper and one maintenance). Each UAV squadron has at least twelve UAVs, and sometimes as many as 24. Squadrons have 400-500 personnel. Only about two thirds of those troops go overseas with the UAVs. The rest stay behind in the United States, and fly the Predators via a satellite link

The 432nd has at least 60 MQ-1 Predators and six MQ-9 Reapers (also called Predator B) UAVs. When in a combat zone, each UAV averages about 110 hours in the air each month. Each aircraft flies 6-7 sorties a month, each one lasting 17-18 hours on average.

In three years, the air force expects to have fifteen UAV squadrons, and at least one more UAV Wing. During that period it is buying 170 MQ-1 Predators, and up to 70 MQ-9 Reapers (or Predator B). While the Predator was a reconnaissance aircraft that could carry weapons (two Hellfire missiles, each weighing a hundred pounds), the Reaper was designed as a combat aircraft that also does reconnaissance. The Reaper can carry over a ton of GPS or laser guided 500 pound bombs, as well as the 250 pound SDB, or hundred pound Hellfire missiles .

The Predators cost about $4.5 million each, while the Reaper goes for about $8.5 million, for the basic aircraft, but nearly twice as much once you add high grade sensors. The Reaper can only stay in the air for up to 24 hours, versus 40 hours for the Predator.

The dual purpose of the Reaper is best understood when it's compared to the Predator in action. In June 2006, a Predator tracked and located Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of al-Qaeda, in Iraq. However, the Predator flight crew had to request assistance with the mission from an F-16 because the Predator didn't have enough explosive ordnance to destroy the safe house where al-Zarqawi was hiding. It turned out that the al-Qaeda leader was killed by the F-16, but the delay could have allowed him to make a getaway. With this type of scenario in mind, the Reaper was designed to eliminate any delay in tracking a target and striking it -- it can do both.

The air force expects to stop buying the Predator until 2011, and then switch over to the Reaper, and new designs still in development. The Predator operates between 15,000 and 25,000 feet. It carries three sensor systems: a color video camera and synthetic-aperture radar.

The Air Force has also placed Hellfire missiles aboard the Predator. In the near future, the UAV might aim a laser at a target and attack it. The combat Predator can also mark targets with its laser for other aircraft or read targets marked by other source.

The Global Hawk is a jet-powered UAV taking to the skies over Afghanistan. Still under development, it is at the same stage the Predator was when it first flew over Bosnia. The Global Hawk operates around 60,000 feet and its suite of sensors is akin to what the U-2 reconnaissance plane carries. [Source: Broshear].

The author of a recent Air Force report on its U.A.V.’s found that they were crashing at three times the rate of manned aircraft, mostly because of errors of the pilots who were flying the planes remotely. But the author, Robert T. Nullmeyer, said the problem was more the newness of the technology than the fact that the airplane operator was nowhere near the plane.

A more complete data set, including non-combat losses, is available for the period of 1991-2003, which covers the major conflicts Desert Storm (1991), Allied Force (1999) and OEF and OIF (2001-2003).

Over that 13-year period 185 UA losses were recorded, an average of 14.2 per year. Considering the specific periods of major conflict; 20 RQ-2 Pioneer UA were lost in Desert Storm over a period of less than a year, 18 were combat losses and two were non-combat losses. In Operation Allied Force in Kosovo, 45 UA of various types were lost. Of the 45 losses, 26 were combat and 19 were non-combat.

Data available from OEF and OIF over the period of 2001-2003 show a substantial decrease in UA loss rates, with an average of 2.0 combat losses and 2.7 non-combat losses per year over the three-year period.

The threats encountered by UA since the 1960s have evolved over time. In the Vietnam War, the principal threat to the A/BQM-34 was Soviet MiG fighter aircraft. In the 1980s conflicts in Syria and Angola, the Soviet SA-3, -6, and -8 surface-to-air missiles were the principal threat. While in more recent conflicts combat UA losses have been attributed primarily to small arms, air defense artillery, and unspecified ground fire. Any number of tactical, strategic, technological, and political factors will continue to affect the threats UA face in the future.

In November, 2002, a CIA-operated Predator operating over Yemen fired a missile that killed bin Laden's top lieutenant in Yemen, Qaed Salim Sinan al-Harethi, and five other al-Qaeda suspects.who blow the COLE Naval ship in Yemen .Predators are station in

(Until 1 May 1960) flights made by Lockheed U-2 super-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft over the entire territory of the USSR and even above Moscow (now it has been documentary proved), C. Pibles, Tainye polyoty, Moscow, 2002.

The U-2 is a jet-powered reconnaissance aircraft specially designed to fly at high altitudes (i.e., above 70,000 ft [21 km]). It was used during the late 1950s to over fly the Soviet Union, China, the Middle East, and Cuba; flights over the Soviet Union, the primary mission for which the plane was designed, ended in 1960 when a U-2 flown by CIA pilot Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union.

This event was a major political embarrassment for the U.S. A redesigned version of the U-2, the U-2R, was used from the late 1960s through the 1990s. The U-2R was used extensively during the Gulf War of 1991, for example, to monitor Iraqi military activities. A more recent version of the U-2, the U-2S, is deployed today. The U-2S has been used recently by both the United States and United Nations weapons inspectors to make observations of North Korea and Iraq.

The Condor was a revolutionary aircraft built entirely of all-bonded composite materials, designed for remote-controlled, high-altitude, long-endurance missions. During its 141-hour flight-test program during 1988 and 1989, it set several records for piston-powered aircraft by reaching a top altitude of 67,028 feet and staying aloft for nearly two and one-half days. However, it could not find a customer. Because of its large size, slow speed and lack of stealth,

Fastest: D-21 (Mach 4)—USA, Highest: Helios (96,500 ft)—USA, Biggest (size): Helios (246-ft wingspan)—USA ,Biggest (weight): RQ-4 Global Hawk (25,600 lbs)—USA Smallest (size/weight): Black Widow (6-inch diameter/2.0 oz)—USA ,Longest flight (duration): Heron UAV (52 hours)—Israel ,Longest flight (distance): RQ-4 Global Hawk (8,580 miles) - USA ,Most expensive: RQ-4 Global Hawk ($40 million)—USA ,First Trans-Atlantic flight: Aerosonde (Aug. 20-21, 1998)—USA ,First Trans-Pacific flight: RQ-4 Global Hawk (Apr. 22-23, 2001)—USA

The Army is developing a tactical UAV called ‘Shadow 200’, which will give the leaders ‘over-the-hill’ surveillance capabilities. The Marine unit has Dragon Eye, a small, hand-¬launched UAV that can give small-unit leaders a view of the battleground

Civilian UAVs The Pathfinder is a solar-powered UAV that was built in the 1990s for civilian purposes, such as collecting weather and climate data. has recorded reaching heights of 67,350 feet (20.5 kilometers), a record for solar aircraft [source: NOVA].

It Swiss UAV Technology The Swiss military has developed UAVs in whole or in concert with other nations' UAVs. Currently, the Swiss military uses the Oerlikon Ranger, surveillance UAV. Switzerland has also designed an unmanned helicopter -- the Neo S-300 -- for commercial purposes like checking on oil pipelines

Conclusion

As USA continues to adopt and adapt UAV technologies, plenty of questions have come up. For instance, will nations using UAVs invade the airspace of other nations for military or intelligence purposes more often?

Concerns have been raised about whether the increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (as well as ground-based unmanned vehicles) will fundamentally change the nature of war. Will use of UAVs lead to further increases in the number of assassinations being carried out against terrorist suspects?

Reapers aren't equipped to locate other airplanes, which leaves them susceptible to midair collisions.

We’ll look at more peaceful uses of the same unmanned flight technology now being used to hunt and kill.

2nd part Peace Purpose to dangerous escalation by UAVs in global war on terror
Usman karim Based in Lahore Pakistan lmno25@hotmail.co
 

usman_1112

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Let we start discussion,we must need transfer of technolgy about drones from USA,if we want to compete in south asia.USA and Israel is spending $billions on dollars on research and devolpment project about Uavs.we are spending a lot of money on convetional weapons.yes we has to spend a lot of money to compete our enemy india in convetional weapons.next war will be ................
 

Hulk

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The US won't sell us Predator. What are the chances for US drone TOT to Pakistan?
I think none, given the image Pakistan has worldwide, I am surprised how you guys think that such technology will be transferred to Pakistan.
 

usman_1112

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i think USA IS GIVING PAKISTAN some technology ?or some Predators to use them .see what result came out from President Vist to USA in this month.pakistan has long list of shopping and also drones technology is also on negoation .hope full matter will be solved in that tour of president.
 

Vassnti

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Wether we like it or not it is the future of warfare. In every line of work robotics are taking over dangerous or unplesant jobs from cleaning sewers to bomb disposal, it is only a logical extention that warfare follows the same path.

Two problems, one is that wars arent unpopular because of the enemies body count they are unpopular because of your own. If you only need to send in a battalion of robot tanks to attack the enemy rather than have "your boys" coming home in body bags the temptaion to interfere in other nations might be higher.

The other is no matter how many safties you install, making an autonomus battlefield robot means one day you are going to lose control.
 

usman_1112

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will nations using UAVs invade the airspace of other nations for military or intelligence purposes more often.will NEW UAVs law is going to write.how the sovergity and integrity of a nation will be safe gaurded?
 

Vassnti

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will nations using UAVs invade the airspace of other nations for military or intelligence purposes more often.will NEW UAVs law is going to write.how the sovergity and integrity of a nation will be safe gaurded?
If an intelligence sevice thinks they can get away with it they will :azn:

Once Nano UAV's become cheep i can imagine the numbers flying between India and Pakistan will look like a sandpiper migration.

World's Smallest UAV Weighs 10 Grams, Flaps Like a Bird - Military - Gizmodo
 

Comet

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will nations using UAVs invade the airspace of other nations for military or intelligence purposes more often.will NEW UAVs law is going to write.how the sovergity and integrity of a nation will be safe gaurded?
Its a good question, I think UAV's will not be used by a nation more often id the other side also has UAV? because, once you use it you give the other side right to use it too and thus it will become a huge problem.
 

usman_1112

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problem is integrity of other nation,and soverinty too.pakistan and other central asian countries air space is violted by USA in these days .what about china and usa next hot problem will be these UAVs
 

usman_1112

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Respected British aerospace journal Flight International currently lists 59 companies worldwide which manufacture UAVs, including ATE and Denel. (The CSIR is not a UAV manufacturer; it only produces a handful or less of each of its designs, and they are all for research purposes, not for series production.)US aerospace and defence market analysis company Teal Group recently forecast that the global UAV market will be worth more than $62-billion over the next ten years. It states that UAVs are the most dynamic segment growth sector in the global aerospace industry. Currently, total world expenditure on UAVs amounts to $4,4-billion a year, and this should reach an annual figure of $8,7-billion after ten years.
Pakistani civilian lives, I doubt if it'll happen any time soon. While Washington has offered the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles) technology to its allies in Europe, it has been reluctant to make it available to Pakistan. Meanwhile, the Indians are likely to get the US armed drone know-how through the Israelis. The main world producers of UAVs are Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical and Northrop Grumman in the U.S., Target Technologies and Aerospatiale in Europe. I.A.I. in Israel, Kentron in Africa, and Fuji Heavy Industries in Asia.
Israel managed to create its strong position in the UAV industry by adopting a technology-focused industrial policy, acting as an enabler for the country dense population of dynamic entrepreneurs.
Why has Israel, a small country with a relatively young population of six million inhabitants, emerged as a dynamic force in high technology? For many experts and specialists in Israel, the success of this country in the high-tech field is mainly due to the influences of the Israeli Defence Forces, the country’s military industries, its military intelligence units, its research institutes, and its universities. The success of the UAV is one such example that is linked to the Israeli model of development.
US will account for 77% of the worldwide UAV RDT&E spending (vs. its 67% global defense RDT&E share) and about 64% of the procurement (vs. its 37% overall global share).
Robotic warfare expert Peter Singer, who advised President Barack Obama's campaign team and has authored "Wired for War," says that remote warfare is changing mankind's monopoly on how conflict is fought for the first time in 5,000 years. All that limits its advance is its application, not the technology.

There are now more than 7,000 UAVs ranging from the workhorse, the Predator, and its beefier, deadlier kin the Reaper, to army drones like the tiny hand-launched Raven and the larger Shadow.
 

usman_1112

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Just imagine more than 600 Hellfires fired by Predators, over 95 percent hit their targets.the future has only just begun due to spending on high tech which pakistan is lack of funds.
 

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