First, I am not one of those who says automatically that Indians and Pakistanis are two same people divided by borders. Similar, yes, sharing huge sections of their culture and heritage, including military and political heritage, yes, same people, no. Second, the objection of the fundamentalists and of Azad was of the order of wishing that the country should stay unified, so that the rest of the kaffirs could be converted too. That is exactly the point. That Pakistan was never designed to be an Islamic state. It was designed to be a state for the Muslims, as a majority, to govern for the benefit of all citizens. No comments. That is the only goal that I have read about. Jinnah dealt with that. If he had wanted to introduce the Constitution of Madina, he could easily have done so. Instead, during a meeting of the Muslim League before independence, a member stood from the floor, and said that he had campaigned for the League for the national elections, and had had excellent responses based on the slogan "Pakistan ka matlab kya, La illaha il Allah". Jinnah's reaction was to say loudly,"Sit down, sit down. We do not need to use this slogan to catch a few votes." Jinnah was clearly not in favour of Islamicising the country. If you look at the electoral results, at the beginning, the Mullahs did keep Jinnah at bay. It was only due to his untiring efforts that the Indian Muslims slowly but surely took to him. Above all, Jinnah's charisma gave him and the Muslim League the upper hand. Why can't this same magic be repeated in today's Pakistan? Simple; none of your politicians is that magician; none of them is Jinnah. They are, frankly, not fit to wipe his shoes. And finally, what did he do to convince millions to leave their home and head for a new place, helpless and homeless? He did nothing; it was NEVER his intention to have people leave their homes for Pakistan. He even commented on it, that the people left behind in India would have to make this supreme sacrifice for the creation of Pakistan. That may be true of Iqbal; he flirted with heresy in earlier life. But I have read NOTHING about Jinnah that gives us those impressions. Even his 11th August (date?) speech made his intentions clear. That is sufficient; it will serve, and will do so in royal manner. No comment. Here I wish to suggest to you that the ends justified the means, for Jinnah; they did not, for the Khadim. No, you have made your point, and I am not the person to retort to it; @SoulSpokesman and I shall carry it to the appropriate person and carry his answer back to you. Because of Jinnah's personality and charisma. That is why we do look at him the way we look at him, with awe; he created Pakistan single-handed. There was no intention on my side to downplay the diabolical nature of the intolerant.