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Featured Pakistan's political history-Part 1

Discussion in 'Seniors Cafe' started by WAJsal, Nov 10, 2015.

  1. WAJsal

    WAJsal MODERATOR

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    (Or to be exact: Pakistan's political history: mistakes we made and what lesson we can learn from them. Due to the lack of time i didn't get much time to go through it properly, ignore the grammatical errors. I hope i have not made any error. And do give it a read.)


    Pakistan's political history-Part 1
    by: WAJsal

    The Initial Struggle

    [​IMG]
    14 August 1947: Birth of Pakistan. Dawn Newspaper front page.

    After decades of struggle and sacrifice Pakistan became an independent state in 14 August, 1947. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General of the newly formed state. Liaquat Ali Khan became the first Prime Minister and a government was set-up to run the state.

    Initially, the newly formed state faced many problems. The refugee crisis being on top of that list, as many refugees were coming in from India, they had to be provided with the essentials. There were constant riots, lack of resources and many such problems that had to be tackled.The 1947 partition of India and Pakistan led to the largest mass migration in human history of some 10-15 million people with Muslims migrating from present day India to present day Pakistan and Bangladesh (which was then known as East Pakistan) and Hindus migrating to present day India.

    Pakistan had no administrative structure, no industrial infrastructure; while India inherited colonial state’s central government apparatus and an industrial infrastructure which for all its weakness, was better developed than in areas constituting Pakistan. Pakistan had to form an administrative structure, with lack of resources it all became nothing less than impossible. India inherited government institutes left by the British, India didn’t have to form these institutes, unlike Pakistan. This paved way to many problems...The shortage of trained human power especially senior officers was a serious problem in the setting up of federal government in Karachi. Most of them had migrated to India. There was a shortage of office space, equipment and furniture. Solving the problem of the Muslim refugees who had nothing to eat, drink, wear, rest, etc.

    Newly formed state was financially very poor, initially there weren’t enough funds to run government buildings; with almost 70% of the budget being spent on the military due to number of reasons which were:

    1. Pakistan was not given military equipment, which it was supposed to get by India. The Indian government was not cooperative for transfer of record and equipment to Pakistan. The civil administration was not handing over the promised financial, military, and other shares that created mountainous hurdles to eradicate the pains and miseries of the refugees. The Indian Army was to be divided on basis of religion. The ratio of military assets were 64:36. There wasn’t a good number of Muslim serving in the Indian Army, which became a problem. Pakistan needed 4000 officers but only had 1500 officer, of which 500 were British. From 195000 ton ordnance store Pakistan received only 4703 ton, which was only 3%. Whatever equipment it did get was old, broken and useless…Total financial reserves were 4000 million rupees; Pakistan’s claim was a 1000 million rupees, but only 750 million were give, which is 15% of the total. 200 million were given directly and the rest 500 was associated with Kashmir. It was only due to efforts of leaders like Gandhi, who threatened of marn bert (fast until death) more funds were sent in early 1948 but no installment was later paid.[1]

    2. On October 1947, Dogra ruler of Jammu and Kashmir state under pressure and fear, had acceded his state to the Indian government. Quaid-i-Azam ordered the commander in chief of the time Sir Douglas Gracey to send troops to Kashmir to maintain control of the area and control law and order situation. According to Major General Shahid Ahmed: “On 27th October he (Quaid-i-Azam)ordered Gracery to move troops into Jammu and Kashmir and to seize Srinagar and the banihal Pass. Gracey repled that he could not comply with the order and must report the matter to Auchinleck as compliance would entail the issue of ‘Stand Down Order No.2’ which meant the withdrawal of the British officers from the Pakistan Army. According to Gracey’s private secretary, Wilson, Mountbatten rang up Gracey and threatened that if he moved any troops to Kashmir he would ensure that he would not get knighthood. Gracey capitulated.”[2]
    Failure of Pakistan army in Kashmir made it an utmost priority for the Pakistan government. To remain integrally strong and to protect itself in any future war Pakistan army had to be given huge funds. Kashmir war continued for some time and both side accepted to a cease fire. Both sides accepted to hold a referendum in Kashmir, and the rest is history. From a neutral point of view and from a Kashmiri point of view, more importantly, the best thing to do is to let the people decide. Kashmiris should be given this basic right. It is quite unfortunate that even after all these years the nations haven’t been able to solve this problem.

    Secondly Indian state not giving what was rightfully Pakistan sew the first seeds of enmity between the two nations. It was something the founding Father of India opposed, who had hoped for good relations between the two countries. Pakistan’s leadership and the intellectual felt India did not wish to see Pakistan strong, and expected (foolishly) Pakistan would collapse and rejoin India soon after its existence, it tried its level best to block these funds to suffocate the newly born state.

    Due to the failure of the army in Kashmir, to strengthen the state internally and to safeguard the motherland from foreign attack- it was essential to spend so much on the armed forces.


    [​IMG]
    Sept. 19, 1947: Muslim refugees sit on the roof of an overcrowded coach railway train near New Delhi in trying to flee India. Millions of Muslims migrated from India to Pakistan and vice versa



    10 years of Political and Military struggle
    Quaid-i-Azam wanted to get rid of the old mentality and old ways, applied by the British. He also wanted Pakistan to treat all citizens equal regardless of their religion, as for hundreds of years Muslims had suffered being a minority. He didn’t want to apply the same principle to the minorities living in Pakistan, wanted to establish a state where they have full religious freedom. He wished to create a progressive state.While explaining his policy he stated that, “You are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any places of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any caste or creed- that has nothing to do with the business of the state.

    Now i think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time, Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslim would cease to be Muslims, not in religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in political sense as a citizen of the State.” [3]

    He had hoped to give the state a constitution, a proper system which the coming generations could run the country by. Unfortunately, it was not to be. He was going to governor's house from the airport, in an army ambulance. The ambulance broke down on the road into town, and the Governor-General and those with him waited for another to arrive; he could not be placed in the car as he could not sit up. They waited by the roadside in oppressive heat as trucks and buses passed by, unsuitable for transporting the dying man and with their occupants not knowing of Jinnah's presence. After an hour, the replacement ambulance came, and transported Jinnah to Government House, arriving there over two hours after the landing. Jinnah died at 10:20 pm at his home in Karachi on 11 September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan's creation.

    It was a great setback for all Pakistanis, the founder of Pakistan had just passed away. He cared not for his health, instead worked day and night for Pakistan, Fatima Jinnah later wrote, "even in his hour of triumph, the Quaid-e-Azam was gravely ill ... He worked in a frenzy to consolidate Pakistan. And, of course, he totally neglected his health ..."

    If only he had a chance to give the nation a strong constitution, if only he had time to give the nation a strong base.




    [​IMG]

    Fatima Jinnah and Dina Jinnah mourning at Quaid-e-Azam Funeral

    [​IMG]

    Special services and prayers were held in the Kwitang mosque of Jakarta (Indonesia) after the death of Jinnah.


    Khawaja Nazimuddin became the second Governor General of Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan did the heavy lifting and used governor General's powers.

    Ayub Khan was made Commander in Chief of the Army in 1951. Ayub had to face mutiny in the army, as soon as he took the charge. At the time it was called Rawalpindi Sazish. It is stated that General Akbar and his supporters were keen to take over the government and bring a Socialist revolution in the country. If this revolution was successful Pakistan’s history would be much different. Feudal system would be abolished, chances of military interventions would be slim-it was something not to be.

    On 16th October Liaquat Ali Khan was shot to death in Liaquat park Rawalpindi, his killer was shot at the spot. His death is termed as: eerie. Some state those who profited the most from his death are responsible. The reason why he was killed is still unknown to this date. His killer was identified as Saad Akbar Babrak. It was a great setback for the nation. After Jinnah Liaquat Ali Khan had also died. After his death major problems started occurring. There was no other leader in Muslim league to take his place-which caused some major problems in near future, Muslim league could not establish itself as a dominant political forces and started fading away.

    Liaquat Ali Khan’s death is considered to be part of some well-planned conspiracy. After Liaquat Ali Khan’s death Ayub Khan writes about the behavior of Cabinet ministers in his book, ‘Friends not Masters’:

    “....I met several members of the new Cabinet in Karachi-Prime Minister Khwaja Nazimuddin ...and others. Not one of them mentioned Liaquat Ali’s name, nor did i hear a word of sympathy or regret from any one of them. Governor General Ghulam Muhammad seemed equally unaware of the fact that the country had lost an eminent and capable Prime Minister...I wondered at how callous, cold-blooded, and selfish people could be...it seemed that every one of them had got himself promoted...it was disgusting and revolting...I got the distinct feeling that only person who might have kept them under control had disappeared from the scenes…”[4] (It is upto you to believe this revelation, it is indeed quite startling.)

    Some Mistakes made….
    Some major mistakes were made in this starting period: India had established its constitution in 1949, which brought all institutions under the constitution. And a system was formed, which was respected and followed. India was quick to rid of the British system and ways, getting rid of the feudal system, abolished Princely states. This was done for a number of reasons, as these landlords and princes had been principal collaborators with the British in ruling India and could, therefore, be attacked fairley and revengeful as enemies of both the nation and the people. Pakistan, instead of getting rid of the old ways: the Feudal system, they were made politically strong; which again was a failure of the state.

    India was quick to realize the fault in the system, on 15 August commander in chief's rank was removed, as it was a very powerful rank. Army was kept away from politics and through time Army was brought completely under civilian control. Pakistan never did this and continued the commander in Chief's rank, who was by protocol equal to President, Prime Minister and etc, etc... In 1972 Bhutto changed the structure of the army, till then much had already happened.

    Pakistan had retained the structure of the colonial state from its inception. Lacking an indigenous bourgeoisie, dominated by a feudal elite totally dependent upon the colonial bureaucracy, deprived of well structured programme-oriented and duly encarded political parties and without a judiciary which would jealously protect civil authority and the citizen rights, Pakistan saw a gradual choking of the democratic spirits from it’s early days.

    (@Indos ,@Nihonjin1051 ,@Daneshmand ,@Chinese-Dragon ,@Serpentine )
     
    Last edited: Nov 10, 2015
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  2. WAJsal

    WAJsal MODERATOR

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    The struggle continues
    Khuwaja Nazmuddin resinged as a governor general and became the second Prime minister of Pakistan. Bureaucrat, Minister of Finance, Ghulam Muhammad became the Governor General of Pakistan.

    It is to note that when Khawaja Nazimuddin was a Governor General, Liaquat Ali Khan would often use his powers, when Khawaja Nazimuddin became Prime minister his powers were being used by the Governor General, this attitude was incorrect and paved way to future problems. Ghulam Muhammad becoming a Governor General was clearly against Quaid-i-Azam’s policy. He was against bureaucracy in power-which was the very thing he feared and struggled against to form Pakistan. While addressing to the Gazetted Officers of Chittagong on 25th March, 1948 , he stated(a speech i will constantly be making mention of):

    “I want you to realize fully the deep implications of the revolutionary change that has taken place. Whatever community, caste or creed you belong to you are now the servants of Pakistan. Servants can only do their duties and discharge their responsibilities by serving. Those days have gone when the country was ruled by the bureaucracy. It is people’s Government, responsible to the people more or less on democratic lines and parliamentary practices. Under these fundamental changes I would put before you two or three points for your consideration:


    You have to do your duty as servants; you are not concerned with this political or that political party; that is not your business. It is a business of politicians to fight out their case under the present constitution or the future constitution that may be ultimately framed. You, therefore, have nothing to do with this party or that party. You are civil servants. Whichever gets the majority will form the Government and your duty is to serve that Government for the time being as servants not as politicians. How will you do that? The Government in power for the time being must also realize and understand their responsibilities that you are not to be used for this party or that. I know we are saddled with old legacy, old mentality, old psychology and it haunts our footsteps, but it is up to you now to act as true servants of the people even at the risk of any Minister or Ministry trying to interfere with you in the discharge of your duties as civil servants. I hope it will not be so but even if some of you have to suffer as a victim. I hope it will not happen –I expect you to do so readily. We shall of course see that there is security for you and safeguards to you. If we find that is in anyway prejudicial to your interest we shall find ways and means of giving you that security. Of course you must be loyal to the Government that is in power.


    The second point is that of your conduct and dealings with the people in various Departments, in which you may be: wipe off that past reputation; you are not rulers. You do not belong to the ruling class; you belong to the servants. Make the people feel that you are their servants and friends, maintain the highest standard of honor, integrity, justice and fair-play. If you do that, people will have confidence and trust in you and will look upon you as friends and well wishers. I do not want to condemn everything of the past, there were men who did their duties according to their lights in the service in which they were placed. As administrator they did do justice in many cases but they did not feel that justice was done to them because there was an order of superiority and they were held at a distance and they did not feel the warmth but they felt a freezing atmosphere when they had to do anything with the officials. Now that freezing atmosphere must go and you must do your best with all courtesy and kindness and try to understand the people. May be sometimes you will find that it is trying and provoking when a man goes on talking and repeating a thing over and over again, but have patience and show patience and make them feel that justice has been done to them.”[5]

    This clearly shows how weak federal government really was. Parliament had no say in running the state of affairs, decision were made outside of parliament. Politicians, if they would have should a little unity and exerted a little pressure things would be much different.

    Ghulam Muhammad gave an extension to Ayub Khan to get his support, he was to retire on January 1955. By 1953 civil servants were completely dominated on civil servants. Prime Minister was given no respect, cabinet ministers Iskandar Mirza by passed Prime Minister, Karamat Ali states:

    “How ruthlessly this unholy alignment of power worked was narrated to me by an ambassador in Tokyo, Mr Qamarul Islam, an old ICS himself with the encyclopedia knowledge of the Pakistani bureaucracy. His was an eyewitness account. The time was 1953 and the cabinet of Khawaja Nazimuddin was convened to decide the line of action in regard to the sectarian violence then consuming Lahore. In the middle of the heated debate, Iskander Mirza, then cabinet secretary, rose and left the room without seeking PM’s permission. He returned to the cabinet session ten minutes later and calmly announced to its participants not to bother themselves any more as he had spoken to Lt-Gen Azam Khan , Lahore’s corps commander who was all primed to declare martial law in the city next morning. That ended the discussion. Neither the PM nor anybody else dared challenge Mirza over his arbitrary decision or insolent behavior.” Karamat ullah ghori.

    On 16th April 1953, Governor General Ghulam Ali dissmissed Prime Minister Khuwaja Nazmuddin, even he had the support of the assembly. This decision was purely on personal bases of Ghulam Ali. (Ghulam Ali-a disabled bureaucrat-made some unconstitutional decisions in his tenure, such as making West Pakistan one unit, and not accepting the majority of East Pakistan.)

    Muhammad Ali Bogra became the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Bogra was wishful of making constitutional changes, through which Governor General's powers were to be reduced. This was kept a secret from Ghulam Ali. It was something not to be as: on 24th October 1954, Governor General implemented Martial law in the country and broke the assembly. Speaker of the Assembly challenged this decision in Sindh Chief court. The court ruled in favor of the assembly stating that it was a constituent assembly and it could not be broken, until it reaches it’s goal, which was to draft a constitution. The federal Government went to Federal court on this decision, which changed the decision in favor of the federal government. This was the first of many shameful decisions made by the Judiciary, instead of protecting the parliament and following the constitution, a bad example was set. According to Hammed Khoro, “Governor General had called Justice Munir in his office and asked him to cooperate. Chief Justice Cooperated.”[6]

    Ayub Khan became Minister of Defence and joined the Cabinet-truly a shameful inclusion, including army into Politics is a dangerous mix, then again a person who is hungry for power is willing to go to any limits to safeguard his authority.

    A new assembly was elected, which was based on these members, due to not getting a majority in the assembly both Governor General Ghulam Ali and Prime Minister Bogra had to leave their positions. Iskander Mirza became the caretaker Governor General, and Chaudhry Muhammad Ali became the Prime Minister. After nine years Pakistan’s first constitution was Passed, on 29 February 1956. Iskander Mirza became the President. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali resigned as Prime Minister. Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy became the Prime Minister, who was a popular leader; who was made to resign due to spending ten Million dollars of National Shipping corporation in East Pakistan. Ibrahim Ismail Chaudhry became the sixth Prime Minister of Pakistan, on December 16th, 1957. He couldn’t stay Prime Minister for more than two Months. Firooz Khan Noon became the Seventh Prime Minister of Pakistan.

    This constant change of Prime Ministers showed how weak Political parties were and how they had kneeled infront of civil and military bureaucracy.

    “Neither the people of Pakistan through their lack of education, nor the politicians through their alleged ill disciplined and corruption were to be blame for the demise of Pakistan’s democracy. The responsibility lay with Mirza, Ghulam Muhammad and Munir(Judge) who provided a legal smokescreen for their authoritarian activities.” Ian Talbot [7] This is an excellent analysis of failure of democracy in early days of Pakistan. Muslim League not establishing itself as a dominating force, created many problem. It lead bureaucrats to remain in power without any sort of opposition or any pressure. And like this first ten precious years of Pakistan were wasted, Ayub was more interested in Politics rather than doing his job, Civil-Military bureaucrats had gone completely opposite to the stated policy of our Quaid and institutions could not be powered, army was not brought under civilian control. Non-continuity of a government, a system made any real progress a challenge.

    There was massive pressure on Iskander Mirza due to the rallies and protests by Khan Kyum and other politicians, Iskander feared if he held elections he would no longer be in power. If elections were held much could have be averted, our history would be much different. Democracy was not given a chance to prosper...

    To be continued....


    [2]”Divided by democracy”(page 98 to 100)

    [4] ”Friends not masters”-General Ayub Khan(Page 41)

    [5]Speech to Gazetted Officers of Chittagong on 25th March, 1948

    [6]”M.Ayub Khuhro”-Hameed Khoro(page 409)

    [7]”Pakistan a modern history”-Ian Talbot(Page 129)

    (@Slav Defence ,@Bratva ,@Jungibaaz ,@haviZsultan ,@Arsalan )
     
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  3. VCheng

    VCheng ELITE MEMBER

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    The real mistake was the Objectives Resolution that intertwined matters of state with matters of religion. Everything else was downhill from there.
     
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  4. Indos

    Indos PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Awesome writing.
     
  5. Joe Shearer

    Joe Shearer PROFESSIONAL

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    @WAJsal a delightful account, but there are warts. Good going.
     
  6. I.R.A

    I.R.A ELITE MEMBER

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    Yes they did and they are maintaining that highest standard of honor to date. :tdown:

    If only they had the character like Muhammad Ali Jinnah may be they would have put National interest foremost than their individual interests. I wish if we could have learnt from our mistakes but alas the talk of unity faith and discipline remained a talk and Pakistanis chose to divide themselves on lines of ethnicities, language, regions etc, the common traits were / are rampant corruption, taking pride in false idols, short cuts to success, and individual interests.

    Pakistan as a country is a wonderful region but Pakistanis as people (in general, exceptions are not counted) and society have never been fair and just, this is reflected in our daily lives and conduct.
     
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  7. vsdoc

    vsdoc BANNED

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    Haven't really read the OP piece. It's length and my level of interest seem to be at odds with each other.

    But I'll participate where I feel I can.

    To your statement quoted, maybe it is a reflection of the region and its people and their history as the gateway to the Indic civilization.

    An overland gateway to trade and plunder alike.
     
  8. I.R.A

    I.R.A ELITE MEMBER

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    Read your statement multiple times but could not understand the link between Indic civilisation and unjust and non fair people of my society today? My original statement is out of my frustration others may not feel like I do, and I am afraid this discussion will go off topic :undecided:
     
  9. vsdoc

    vsdoc BANNED

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    Take the culture of Delhi for instance.

    A city of displaced refugees.

    This is over 70 years.

    In Pakistan's case, its been molded over centuries, millennial even.
     
  10. I.R.A

    I.R.A ELITE MEMBER

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    I had no intentions of comparison doc topic is about Pakistan's political history. However, I think people on both sides are nearly the same when it comes to corrupt practices and expression of misplaced emotions. There may be difference between appearance of an Indian politician and a Pakistani politician but aims and goals don't differ much? And to be honest I have zero knowledge of Indic civilisation and people of that civilisation and how its bloodlines affect the behavior of today's society.
     
  11. Joe Shearer

    Joe Shearer PROFESSIONAL

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    It really is none of my business, and I may be inviting a rebuff. Perhaps what you are being told is that Pakistan is like a 'Marcher' province of India, just as there used to be Marcher provinces in Europe, including in Britain, ruled by Markgrafs, or Marquises. Residents of these provinces naturally had a difficult life, interrupted as they were by constant warfare. I believe you are being told that this constant warfare, and the difficulty of leading normal lives, therefore, leads to a particular mind-set, where the present and survival is all that matters, and other issues go to the wall. Perhaps, the implication seems to be, the leadership in these areas is dedicated to getting what they can, while the going is good, being aware that no opportunity for survival or for prospering can be guaranteed or that times can be guaranteed.

    I don't know if this is making sense.
     
  12. I.R.A

    I.R.A ELITE MEMBER

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    Sir g the residents of India do they have an easy life? And how do I convince myself when government of India is not even interested in playing cricket series with us, how do I not fear warfare? If someone thinks of conquering their lost lands in today's times sigh.............. He is a free soul and can think all he wants but it does not seem possible to me now. Otherwise I would have bought a sword and marched on Delhi long ago.

    Sir g Pakistanis are leading normal lives according to their personal desires and wishes, the level of prosperity is such that today even a street chowkidar carries a better cellphone than me, and amazes an illiterate like me with use of whats app and blah blah. I am mainly disturbed by the social evils of my society, people not all but most are modern now but their conduct in daily lives as government servants or as a normal citizen is shameful and the biggest hindrance in our emergence as a developed civilised people. I don't believe Indians are any better than us, we both kill our own, we both bribe and take bribes, we both rape and dehumanize women, we both are keen in finding shortcuts to circumvent law, we both want maids, servants, bungalows, luxuries and nice stuff and we both are willing to do whatever it takes to accomplish these petty individual dreams.

    I hope I am making any sense here.
     
  13. Joe Shearer

    Joe Shearer PROFESSIONAL

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    :o:
    I hasten to add that this was my interpretation of Doc's words, and do not necessarily reflect my personal views.

    You have summed up the human condition in south Asia brilliantly. May I use these words?
     
  14. I.R.A

    I.R.A ELITE MEMBER

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    Sir g I understood your interpretation's reference correctly. If you can read English version of Urdu or Hindi I have an interesting saying to share for this situation "Saas nay jab bahoo ko baty sunani hoti hain to wo apni beti ko sunati hy" this is what I did :p:

    And sir you can use whatever words you wish, you can even scold me I won't mind :)
     
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  15. Joe Shearer

    Joe Shearer PROFESSIONAL

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    LOL!