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Pakistan's air defence Capabilities ...

hasnainfirst

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Oct 5, 2018
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Pakistan's Integrated Air Defence system



Pakistan's air defence as a whole is a well integrated defence network which consists of multiple layers of missile sites and their combination with multiple radar systems that provide near gap free surveillance, air borne surveillance aircraft ( AEW&C) , control centers and air bases which have to ability of scrambling F-16 or JF-17 on am interception mission with in a few mins. All this combination grants Pakistan a well organised (IADS) integrated air defence system which is equipped with modern air defence systems acquired and installed rather recently out of which only Crotale , Stinger and Type 65 are Cold war era two of which have been modernized resulting in Cortale 4000 and the Type 65 auto cannon getting automated with laser and ballistic computer systems meanwhile details on the stingers have remained classified.



9e24ffc688f92b6d8a73d316605baa8e8cd3c791v2_hq.jpg

AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar


Meanwhile the large number of high tech radar systems provide Pakistan continuous gap free surveillance of it's air space , radar systems such as the US AN/TPS-77 (a mobile, active phased array,

long range, L-band, 3D solid-state radardesigned to perform airspace surveillance missions) or the (AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar that has accurate target data at ranges up to 250 nautical miles and elevations up to 100,000 feet) provide Pakistan this advantage and can operate 24hours a day, even with no on-site personnel. These radars are also capable of eliminate the danger of deception jamming.



0b643f5e3aae5e6bf70f3227d6b02dd1b8c9c59ev2_hq.jpg

Karakorum eagle ZDK-03


PAF also maintains a fleet of 8 AEW&C planes to ensure long range surveillance beyond anything land based radars can detect. These AEW&Cs also serve as air borne control centers making them an important asset for any nation. Aside from that Pakistan military also possesses Electronic warfare capability and counter electronic warfare systems to keep it's air defence systems functional.



Once anything is detected the PAF can quickly deploy F-16s or JF-17s in the air with in mins on interception missions from near by air bases . This gives Pakistan a highly mobile air defence system to be used along with it's defence systems (ground based systems).



8d7ed98d8b4f9f8ac2214eb349ba317f252d7595v2_hq.jpg

F-16/JF-17/Saab 2000 Erieye


As far as types of ground based air defence systems available to Pakistan are concerned, Pakistan army and air force separately operate medium to small range SAM systems and mobile AA guns configured to destroy low flying Aircraft and incoming munitions around important military installations. Multiple types of man pads are also available for the troops to be used against low flying jets, helicopters and drones.



How ever the Pakistani military is still in need of a dependable long range air defence system , which it indents to fulfill with ether the HQ-9 or the S-400.



•=====================================•



Medium range SAMs



1: LY-80



e620c03f3857f1b0031d8c045537fff7dde97a67v2_hq.jpg

LY-80


2: Spada-2000



48ae590559d0b5d7e89c8ad6c70301d899d6407bv2_hq.jpg

Spada 2000


•======================================•



Short range SAMs



1: FM-90



e4f1121fc7fb18a26f91bd028791db3b5fe03b83v2_hq.jpg

FM-90


2: Crotale 4000



b62fb996d1eb5aaf6515be39cb5ea22a13d47d1br1-1080-810v2_hq.jpg

Crotale 4000


•======================================•



MANPADs



1: RBS-70



769e15a7f940382f74679c96ca17c2365d3a3e1ev2_hq.jpg

RBS-70 Manpad


2: Stinger



12b62f57ff2d10bba9012db81125fb36a144b904v2_hq.jpg

Stinger Manpad


3: Anza-III



21a0081936250ab269302beaef353074eeb425c4v2_hq.jpg

Anza-III Manpad


•======================================•



Towed and static anti-aircraft guns



1: GDF-007 (AHEAD) auto cannon



68ca15938b0e598088a8097074373759ccd54008v2_hq.jpg

GDF-007 (AHEAD)


2: Type 65 (Lazer/Computer guided) Auto cannon



e7f94e928cf9788a6e888c503786744481bc058bv2_hq.jpg

Type 65 Auto cannon


•======================================•



Long range SAM?



Many of these systems are recent additions to the country's air defence and next field Pakistan military aims to strengthen is long range air defence by acquiring long range Sam systems. Currently the top two contenders are the



1: Russian S-400 (a highly capable air defence system)



d19eac8463d2bae8a9169379c2540094cefe90ddv2_hq.jpg

S-400


2: Chinese HQ-9 (A modernized version of the S-300)



8dd1982e6f36acfb0cb6b099c0d020a3c5970291v2_hq.jpg

HQ-9


Pakistan has been in interested in the HQ-9 since 2015 now and had begun talks since then where as also showed interest in the S-400 and according to several Russian/Pakistani sources talks have begun. How ever it's most probable that Pakistan will go for the HQ-9 for several reasons, the most obvious of them being to avoid US sanction policy, Pakistan already operating somewhat similar HQ-16A and it's easier to access future upgrades. Another contributing factor can be the cost how ever should the situation change Pakistan has not ruled out S-400. It is expected Pakistan will soon induct the HQ-9.



Already in service?



According to some sources and analyst's Pakistan already operates 4 batteries of the HQ-9 , the claim that Pakistan already operates the HQ-9 under the designation of FS-2000 is backed by alleged satellite imagery taken from a Pakistani air base rather near Indian border. How ever officially the military has not announced anything regarding it receiving HQ-9 systems and probably does not.



3ae3b8724345b0bfab2a6fdb019727ca36529431v2_hq.jpg

Satellite image showing HQ-9s


Their are also reports by some sources and by the military exhibitions that it should be expected that the Pakistani military intends to soon induct the Pantsir-S1 air defence system and a unknown number of Igala Manpads. These hints by military especially in an exhibition should not be taken lightly as it has already happened a few times in the past such as Pakistan suddenly inducting the A-100 MLRS.

•======================================

cce5f30c50254fab1c72dd6bad37fbfff4b22474v2_hq.jpg
 

Foxtrot Delta

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Sep 18, 2015
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Pakistan's Integrated Air Defence system



Pakistan's air defence as a whole is a well integrated defence network which consists of multiple layers of missile sites and their combination with multiple radar systems that provide near gap free surveillance, air borne surveillance aircraft ( AEW&C) , control centers and air bases which have to ability of scrambling F-16 or JF-17 on am interception mission with in a few mins. All this combination grants Pakistan a well organised (IADS) integrated air defence system which is equipped with modern air defence systems acquired and installed rather recently out of which only Crotale , Stinger and Type 65 are Cold war era two of which have been modernized resulting in Cortale 4000 and the Type 65 auto cannon getting automated with laser and ballistic computer systems meanwhile details on the stingers have remained classified.



9e24ffc688f92b6d8a73d316605baa8e8cd3c791v2_hq.jpg

AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar


Meanwhile the large number of high tech radar systems provide Pakistan continuous gap free surveillance of it's air space , radar systems such as the US AN/TPS-77 (a mobile, active phased array,

long range, L-band, 3D solid-state radardesigned to perform airspace surveillance missions) or the (AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar that has accurate target data at ranges up to 250 nautical miles and elevations up to 100,000 feet) provide Pakistan this advantage and can operate 24hours a day, even with no on-site personnel. These radars are also capable of eliminate the danger of deception jamming.



0b643f5e3aae5e6bf70f3227d6b02dd1b8c9c59ev2_hq.jpg

Karakorum eagle ZDK-03


PAF also maintains a fleet of 8 AEW&C planes to ensure long range surveillance beyond anything land based radars can detect. These AEW&Cs also serve as air borne control centers making them an important asset for any nation. Aside from that Pakistan military also possesses Electronic warfare capability and counter electronic warfare systems to keep it's air defence systems functional.



Once anything is detected the PAF can quickly deploy F-16s or JF-17s in the air with in mins on interception missions from near by air bases . This gives Pakistan a highly mobile air defence system to be used along with it's defence systems (ground based systems).



8d7ed98d8b4f9f8ac2214eb349ba317f252d7595v2_hq.jpg

F-16/JF-17/Saab 2000 Erieye


As far as types of ground based air defence systems available to Pakistan are concerned, Pakistan army and air force separately operate medium to small range SAM systems and mobile AA guns configured to destroy low flying Aircraft and incoming munitions around important military installations. Multiple types of man pads are also available for the troops to be used against low flying jets, helicopters and drones.



How ever the Pakistani military is still in need of a dependable long range air defence system , which it indents to fulfill with ether the HQ-9 or the S-400.



•=====================================•



Medium range SAMs



1: LY-80



e620c03f3857f1b0031d8c045537fff7dde97a67v2_hq.jpg

LY-80


2: Spada-2000



48ae590559d0b5d7e89c8ad6c70301d899d6407bv2_hq.jpg

Spada 2000


•======================================•



Short range SAMs



1: FM-90



e4f1121fc7fb18a26f91bd028791db3b5fe03b83v2_hq.jpg

FM-90


2: Crotale 4000



b62fb996d1eb5aaf6515be39cb5ea22a13d47d1br1-1080-810v2_hq.jpg

Crotale 4000


•======================================•



MANPADs



1: RBS-70



769e15a7f940382f74679c96ca17c2365d3a3e1ev2_hq.jpg

RBS-70 Manpad


2: Stinger



12b62f57ff2d10bba9012db81125fb36a144b904v2_hq.jpg

Stinger Manpad


3: Anza-III



21a0081936250ab269302beaef353074eeb425c4v2_hq.jpg

Anza-III Manpad


•======================================•



Towed and static anti-aircraft guns



1: GDF-007 (AHEAD) auto cannon



68ca15938b0e598088a8097074373759ccd54008v2_hq.jpg

GDF-007 (AHEAD)


2: Type 65 (Lazer/Computer guided) Auto cannon



e7f94e928cf9788a6e888c503786744481bc058bv2_hq.jpg

Type 65 Auto cannon


•======================================•



Long range SAM?



Many of these systems are recent additions to the country's air defence and next field Pakistan military aims to strengthen is long range air defence by acquiring long range Sam systems. Currently the top two contenders are the



1: Russian S-400 (a highly capable air defence system)



d19eac8463d2bae8a9169379c2540094cefe90ddv2_hq.jpg

S-400


2: Chinese HQ-9 (A modernized version of the S-300)



8dd1982e6f36acfb0cb6b099c0d020a3c5970291v2_hq.jpg

HQ-9


Pakistan has been in interested in the HQ-9 since 2015 now and had begun talks since then where as also showed interest in the S-400 and according to several Russian/Pakistani sources talks have begun. How ever it's most probable that Pakistan will go for the HQ-9 for several reasons, the most obvious of them being to avoid US sanction policy, Pakistan already operating somewhat similar HQ-16A and it's easier to access future upgrades. Another contributing factor can be the cost how ever should the situation change Pakistan has not ruled out S-400. It is expected Pakistan will soon induct the HQ-9.



Already in service?



According to some sources and analyst's Pakistan already operates 4 batteries of the HQ-9 , the claim that Pakistan already operates the HQ-9 under the designation of FS-2000 is backed by alleged satellite imagery taken from a Pakistani air base rather near Indian border. How ever officially the military has not announced anything regarding it receiving HQ-9 systems and probably does not.



3ae3b8724345b0bfab2a6fdb019727ca36529431v2_hq.jpg

Satellite image showing HQ-9s


Their are also reports by some sources and by the military exhibitions that it should be expected that the Pakistani military intends to soon induct the Pantsir-S1 air defence system and a unknown number of Igala Manpads. These hints by military especially in an exhibition should not be taken lightly as it has already happened a few times in the past such as Pakistan suddenly inducting the A-100 MLRS.

•======================================

cce5f30c50254fab1c72dd6bad37fbfff4b22474v2_hq.jpg

Pakistan relies more on Air to Air defence rather than surface to air defence doctrine we follow western nato style. Not chinese or russian doctrine.

Both have pros and cons. But surface to air defence is always primitive and less effective as compared to air superiority and interception by air to air assets. As primary first line defense.
 

SIPRA

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Pakistan's Integrated Air Defence system



Pakistan's air defence as a whole is a well integrated defence network which consists of multiple layers of missile sites and their combination with multiple radar systems that provide near gap free surveillance, air borne surveillance aircraft ( AEW&C) , control centers and air bases which have to ability of scrambling F-16 or JF-17 on am interception mission with in a few mins. All this combination grants Pakistan a well organised (IADS) integrated air defence system which is equipped with modern air defence systems acquired and installed rather recently out of which only Crotale , Stinger and Type 65 are Cold war era two of which have been modernized resulting in Cortale 4000 and the Type 65 auto cannon getting automated with laser and ballistic computer systems meanwhile details on the stingers have remained classified.



9e24ffc688f92b6d8a73d316605baa8e8cd3c791v2_hq.jpg

AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar


Meanwhile the large number of high tech radar systems provide Pakistan continuous gap free surveillance of it's air space , radar systems such as the US AN/TPS-77 (a mobile, active phased array,

long range, L-band, 3D solid-state radardesigned to perform airspace surveillance missions) or the (AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar that has accurate target data at ranges up to 250 nautical miles and elevations up to 100,000 feet) provide Pakistan this advantage and can operate 24hours a day, even with no on-site personnel. These radars are also capable of eliminate the danger of deception jamming.



0b643f5e3aae5e6bf70f3227d6b02dd1b8c9c59ev2_hq.jpg

Karakorum eagle ZDK-03


PAF also maintains a fleet of 8 AEW&C planes to ensure long range surveillance beyond anything land based radars can detect. These AEW&Cs also serve as air borne control centers making them an important asset for any nation. Aside from that Pakistan military also possesses Electronic warfare capability and counter electronic warfare systems to keep it's air defence systems functional.



Once anything is detected the PAF can quickly deploy F-16s or JF-17s in the air with in mins on interception missions from near by air bases . This gives Pakistan a highly mobile air defence system to be used along with it's defence systems (ground based systems).



8d7ed98d8b4f9f8ac2214eb349ba317f252d7595v2_hq.jpg

F-16/JF-17/Saab 2000 Erieye


As far as types of ground based air defence systems available to Pakistan are concerned, Pakistan army and air force separately operate medium to small range SAM systems and mobile AA guns configured to destroy low flying Aircraft and incoming munitions around important military installations. Multiple types of man pads are also available for the troops to be used against low flying jets, helicopters and drones.



How ever the Pakistani military is still in need of a dependable long range air defence system , which it indents to fulfill with ether the HQ-9 or the S-400.



•=====================================•



Medium range SAMs



1: LY-80



e620c03f3857f1b0031d8c045537fff7dde97a67v2_hq.jpg

LY-80


2: Spada-2000



48ae590559d0b5d7e89c8ad6c70301d899d6407bv2_hq.jpg

Spada 2000


•======================================•



Short range SAMs



1: FM-90



e4f1121fc7fb18a26f91bd028791db3b5fe03b83v2_hq.jpg

FM-90


2: Crotale 4000



b62fb996d1eb5aaf6515be39cb5ea22a13d47d1br1-1080-810v2_hq.jpg

Crotale 4000


•======================================•



MANPADs



1: RBS-70



769e15a7f940382f74679c96ca17c2365d3a3e1ev2_hq.jpg

RBS-70 Manpad


2: Stinger



12b62f57ff2d10bba9012db81125fb36a144b904v2_hq.jpg

Stinger Manpad


3: Anza-III



21a0081936250ab269302beaef353074eeb425c4v2_hq.jpg

Anza-III Manpad


•======================================•



Towed and static anti-aircraft guns



1: GDF-007 (AHEAD) auto cannon



68ca15938b0e598088a8097074373759ccd54008v2_hq.jpg

GDF-007 (AHEAD)


2: Type 65 (Lazer/Computer guided) Auto cannon



e7f94e928cf9788a6e888c503786744481bc058bv2_hq.jpg

Type 65 Auto cannon


•======================================•



Long range SAM?



Many of these systems are recent additions to the country's air defence and next field Pakistan military aims to strengthen is long range air defence by acquiring long range Sam systems. Currently the top two contenders are the



1: Russian S-400 (a highly capable air defence system)



d19eac8463d2bae8a9169379c2540094cefe90ddv2_hq.jpg

S-400


2: Chinese HQ-9 (A modernized version of the S-300)



8dd1982e6f36acfb0cb6b099c0d020a3c5970291v2_hq.jpg

HQ-9


Pakistan has been in interested in the HQ-9 since 2015 now and had begun talks since then where as also showed interest in the S-400 and according to several Russian/Pakistani sources talks have begun. How ever it's most probable that Pakistan will go for the HQ-9 for several reasons, the most obvious of them being to avoid US sanction policy, Pakistan already operating somewhat similar HQ-16A and it's easier to access future upgrades. Another contributing factor can be the cost how ever should the situation change Pakistan has not ruled out S-400. It is expected Pakistan will soon induct the HQ-9.



Already in service?



According to some sources and analyst's Pakistan already operates 4 batteries of the HQ-9 , the claim that Pakistan already operates the HQ-9 under the designation of FS-2000 is backed by alleged satellite imagery taken from a Pakistani air base rather near Indian border. How ever officially the military has not announced anything regarding it receiving HQ-9 systems and probably does not.



3ae3b8724345b0bfab2a6fdb019727ca36529431v2_hq.jpg

Satellite image showing HQ-9s


Their are also reports by some sources and by the military exhibitions that it should be expected that the Pakistani military intends to soon induct the Pantsir-S1 air defence system and a unknown number of Igala Manpads. These hints by military especially in an exhibition should not be taken lightly as it has already happened a few times in the past such as Pakistan suddenly inducting the A-100 MLRS.

•======================================

cce5f30c50254fab1c72dd6bad37fbfff4b22474v2_hq.jpg

Good presentation.
 

Meliodas

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Mar 17, 2019
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Pakistan relies more on Air to Air defence rather than surface to air defence doctrine we follow western nato style. Not chinese or russian doctrine.

Both have pros and cons. But surface to air defence is always primitive and less effective as compared to air superiority and interception by air to air assets. As primary first line defense.
I think we need to improve on both doctrines and
Pakistan relies more on Air to Air defence rather than surface to air defence doctrine we follow western nato style. Not chinese or russian doctrine.

Both have pros and cons. But surface to air defence is always primitive and less effective as compared to air superiority and interception by air to air assets. As primary first line defense.
We still have along way to cover both, but we should pick and choose as per our on ground needs and be a mix of both.
 

Pied Piper

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Salaam!

https://www.defensenews.com/global/...-pakistan-need-to-close-its-air-defense-gaps/












Asia Pacific
What does Pakistan need to close its air defense gaps?
By: Usman Ansari   15 minutes ago
military standoff between India and Pakistan has exposed longstanding gaps in the latter’s defenses that now appear to be receiving renewed attention.

Pakistan reportedly deployed medium-range LY-80/HQ-16 air defense systems in Kashmir to deter further Indian incursions, but analyst and former Pakistan Air Force pilot Kaiser Tufail believes this may not be enough.

During a Feb. 26 airstrike on Pakistani soil, an Indian aircraft reportedly launched ordnance 40 kilometers away from Balakot, but any penetration of Pakistan-controlled airspace could not have been deeper than 6 kilometers. “Nonetheless, there is a pressing need for long-range SAMs [surface-to-air missiles] in this era of standoff weapons delivery. There should be no doubt about that,” Tufail said.

In March, Maj. General Asif Ghafoor, the head of Inter Service Public Relations, the Pakistani military’s media branch, announced that the country was in talks with Russia for the procurement of defense equipment, including aircraft as well as anti-tank and air-defense systems.

Pakistan previously showed interest in Russia’s S-300 SAM system, but analyst and former Australian defense attache to Islamabad Brian Cloughley says Russo-Indian defense relationsmay prevent such a sale.


Pakistan sends subtle messages to India, US with military parade
Participation of the Mi-35P Hind helicopter gunships, recently delivered to Pakistan by Russia, showcased “part of the drift away from the U.S. as an arms supplier."

By: Usman Ansari
“As the Indians are getting the S-400, I doubt that Russia would provide Pakistan with any SAM system,” he said.

Rather, Pakistan might reconsider another former interest — China’s HQ-9. Though certainly more affordable, it’s debatable whether any HQ-9 variant available to Pakistan is as capable as the latest version of the S-300.

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FPZ5BV7EY5F4VO6DPA6OVHQH54.jpg

An S-300 anti-aircraft missile launches during a Greek Army exercise on Dec. 13, 2013. (Costas Metaxakis/AFP via Getty Images)
However, citing the “close nature of the defense relationship between Pakistan and China,” aerospace expert Douglas Barrie, with the International Institute for Strategic Studies, believes sourcing a Chinese system “has considerable attraction, not least of all in potentially being able to plug into any future developments China might have.”

But an HQ-9 acquisition may demand organizational changes.

Tufail noted that although the Pakistan Air Force is “responsible for the overall command and control of air defense and operates all early warning airborne [systems] and radars” as well as airfield defenses, the Army operates SAM systems that defend “countrywide vulnerable areas/points as well as over the battlefield.” However, long-range SAM systems would need to be under Air Force control, Tufail added, as the service has “a far greater visibility of the air defense ground environment and can not only manage such a system better, but can prevent fratricide in a [beyond-visual-range] shooting scenario."

While the acquisition of a long-range SAM system remains possible, an accelerated replacement of the legacy Mirage III/5 and F-7P/PG fighter jets is less likely. Pakistan analyst Kamal Alam says options are limited.

“[The Air Force] will look for more in-house capability, as its foreign options are dry, given American pressure on almost all European countries to not supply fast jets to Pakistan. That would mean China is the only option unless America eases up on its [foreign military sales] ban,” Alam said.

Mirage/F-7 squadrons are replaced with JF-17 combat aircraft at a rate of one squadron per year. “However, this would still take five years at least, and could go beyond that time frame if [JF-17] export orders have to be filled,” Tufail noted.

No immediate plans seem to be in place for new air-to-air missiles, however “all weapon systems get upgraded in due course, so we are likely to see newer missiles in the coming years,” he added.

Claims that Pakistan tested the latest Chinese PL-15 beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) appear inaccurate, and Tufail thinks the SD-10A-equipped F-16/JF-17 fighter combo remains effective in light of current threats.


India flexes its ‘space power’ muscles with anti-satellite missile launch
Indian scientists used a missile to destroy a low-Earth orbit satellite, the country's prime minister says.

By: The Associated Press
Future weapon systems upgrades could include a ramjet-powered system in light of India’s interest in the Meteor BVRAAM to replace R-77/AA-12 Adder missiles and Mica missiles, though Tufail likens Indian criticism of those missiles to “a bad workman blaming his tools.”

VSY2MGJWUBBNZE3BORDPY7YWVI.jpg

A Mirage jet flys with Mica missiles. (Jeuland Anthony/MBDA)
He highly rates the R-77 and Mica and believes the Indian Air Force “simply got surprised and overwhelmed” by the Pakistani daytime strike on Feb. 27. That airstrike took place over the cease-fire line in the disputed region of Kashmir. Indian jets responded and a confrontation ensued.

“That is not to say that the Meteor is not amongst the best, but it, too, might be rendered toothless if the [Indian Air Force] employs it as poorly as it did on Feb. 27,” he said.
 

CrazyZ

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In this recent confrontation we saw the threat from stand off bombs which were able to penetrate our air space. We need to defend against stand off bombs, missile and drones as well. The Indians will for sure use missiles and drones next time (manned approach didn't go so well for them). The mix above may not be the best for these new type threats.

An advanced AAA system that can track automatically and shoot down stand off bombs, missile and drones would be great for point defense of critical assets. A smaller longer rang missile, special designed for the new types of threats should be developed for an additional protection layer.
 

Signalian

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He has mixed up PA and PAF AD assets but @Tps43 has explained PAF's Radars already in his thread so i will go with PA AD. @Inception-06 was thorough in this department also. I already didn't make a separate topic for Air Defence divisions since AD formations hold confidential information in terms of TOE, deployment, weaponry and Radar systems. I will give a basic idea though.

PA has excellent low altitude AD assets, this is because threat has been envisioned from UAV's, UCAV's, Gunships and Ground attack aircraft's which can fly at low altitudes to release payload. In peace time also, PA is constantly threatened by UAV's hovering above LOC. Medium altitude SAM umbrella is provided by LY-80, which could be used for area defense.

Regiment Types

PA has a few types of AD Regiments.
1. SAM or Missile Regiments
2. Mixed Regiments (AAA and SAM). The AAA Guns are Radar controlled. (AAA = anti aircraft artillery)
3. Surveillance and Reporting Regiments.

Apart from Regiments, there are Air Defense Brigades and Air Defense Divisions in Pakistan Army. The notable are Air Defense Brigades attached to Armored Divisions, which have SP assets and modern radar systems. The Air Defense Divisions were formed to give AD coverage to Corps sized formations or provide AD cover of miles and miles to an area of strategic interest. This division can further be distributed and deployed with various formations when needed. The foremost role being to provide AD coverage using different assets like AAA and different types of SAM's having multiple range and altitude capability with layering type system as well as integrated with Radars.

The Force structure for AD varies a lot as it handles different types of equipment and roles. Its role can be defending a strategic area like bridge, strategic installation, troops, depots, peaks etc to moving along with armored formations as well as serving un-mounted role of infantry.

Regimental Structure

The troops strength in a regiment is 300 to 400 troops. The AD Regiments usually have three batteries, with 6 AAA guns or 4- 6 launchers. These can vary depending upon deployment, launcher per battery can vary from 4 to 8 launchers. Batteries are usually, not always:
P-Papa Battery
Q-Quebec Battery
R-Romeo Battery

Plus there could a Radar section or battery managing Radar systems if not with in allotted batteries of an AD Regiment, otherwise Radar management troops can be at Brigade level. Battery commander is usually a Major, although due to shortage of officers, can be a captain also. There is also reported to be a section of RPV (remote piloted vehicle) controllers. The RPV's are used as target practice in exercises.

Being a support arm, AD Regiment is usually distributed with various infantry or armor or artillery formations. So the CO (Commanding Officer) is briefed already about his AOR (area of responsibility) and allocation of batteries to support fighting (infantry/Armor) Brigades. The Regiment surveys these areas in technical manner for threat types/levels, altitudes, weather, placement of guns/launchers and maps are drawn. This is done to effectively place guns/launchers during combat. Maps are even drawn for enemy zones, since the brigade or division is supposed to advance and capture enemy territory. Liaison with PAF assets is conducted for services inter-operation capability.

Mixed formations of AAA and SAM's are used for complimenting each other and handling different threats. The Sky Guard Radar can control 2 AAA Guns and 2 SAM's, which makes weapon inter operatibility easier. AAA guns are used for the same purpose of usage of CIWS in naval ships for interception, basically close range defense with maximum fire power. The inadequacy of AAA guns in range and altitude is compensated with SAM's. Since AAA guns are radar controlled, therefore accuracy is not an issue. The radar locks onto the target and the barrels of the guns vector towards target calculating its altitude and speed.


Anti Aircraft Guns

The different types of AAA guns are :

1. 12.7 mm
Basic AA gun, deployed on MBT, APC's, SP Arty (M-109) and tripods.

2. 14.5 mm
AA Gun deployed on tripods and some Vehicles.

3. 35 mm
Mated with Sky Guard radar, it can intercept missiles (GDF-007 version). Radar can control two guns and two SAMs simultaneously.
Radar range 20,000 m
Radar altitude 3000-4000 m for guidance of cannon
Radar altitude 3000-4000 m for guidance of SAM

4. 37 mm / 40 mm

Single or twin barreled. Ranges/altitude similar to Oerlikon 35mm. Reported to have been mated with a radar just like GDF-007.

5. 57 mm (not sure if in current use)
Altitude a bit higher than other AAA guns.

SAM's

1. Anza Mk I,II,III
Low altitude Shoulder Fired, IR Guided.
Range 5000 m
Altitude 4000 m

2. FIM-92 Stinger
Low altitude Shoulder Fired, IR Guided.
Range 7-8000 m
Altitude 3500 m

3. RBS-70
Low altitude Shoulder Fired, Laser Guided. Also Giraffe Radar can be connected to 9 launchers. So it can be radar guided also.
Range 8000 m
Altitude 5000 m

4. FN-6
Low altitude Shoulder Fired, IR Guided.
Range 6000 m
Altitude 3800 m

5. FM-90
Low altitude SP AD, Radar Guided
Range 15000 m
Altitude 6000 m

6. LY-80/HQ16
Medium altitude SP AD, Radar Guided
Range 40,000 (70,000 m upgraded)
Altitude 15000 m

Supporting AD Units

1. Mujahid Force
National Guard unit tasked with Air Defence of urban areas. Has been reported to use 12.7 mm and 14.5 mm AD guns. Mujahid force had been deployed in Indo-Pak wars under National Guard command for AD role. They are also deployed in Surveillance and Reporting roles.

2. Pakistan Marines
One AD battalion have been formed, 21st AD Battalion. tasked for coastal Air Defence using Mistral SAM. Mistral is an IR guided,Mach 2.6 speed missile with Range of 6000 m and altitude of 3000 m.


PA Armored warfare and IAF CBU-105 Threat

The major concern for members here is that PA has mostly low altitude SAM systems which provide no credible deterrence against CBU-105 equipped IAF aircrafts like Jaguar or SU30 MKI. PA armored formations use RBS-70 based SAM system with Giraffe Radars. These are low altitude SAM's to engage UAV's and Helicopter Gunships.

If PA armored forces conduct an offensive operation inside Indian territory then the threat of IAF aircrafts equipped with CBU-105 is expected. The release altitude of CBU-105 is 12000 m, which means the aircraft has to fly at this altitude to release the weapon. Interestingly, LY-80 envelops this altitude and can engage the IAF aircraft. However, its doubtful if LY-80 will accompany PA armored forces inside Indian territory. The mention of PAF is debatable for providing AD cover to PA inside India against IAF. Thus PA will require a more agile AD SP system to to counter the CBU threat with engaging altitude above 12000 m. The Russian Pantsir series of AD systems could be a viable option.

To escape detection from enemy sensors as well as avoid getting targeted, Armored and Mechanized forces use different methods.

1. Camouflaging methods to avoid detection by FLIR and other sensor through air. Camouflage nets are used for this purpose. Armored track prints formed in sand and desert are covered.
In exercises, PA uses camo nets on armored vehicles to avoid detection by air. This was performed by a MIB (Mechanized infantry Battalion) back in 2011/12 against PAF aircraft in the desert. The aircraft's sensors could not locate an entire Battalion camouflaged in the sand.
The number of crew (3) of Modern PA MBT's became debatable when the issue of continuously covering tracks came up which can cause fatigue to crews. Make-shift methods were employed to cover tracks during exercises as the Tanks rolled in the desert .

2. It is desired to make contact with enemy as soon as possible and preferable over run enemy position. This denies enemy air strike on that position due to presence of enemy troops who are wounded or POW's.

3. Tanks are mobile and are expected to be in transit most of the time. They can be ordered to stay between populated places (like villages) after crossing border, so the enemy Air Force cannot strike them.

4. Another technique used by armored Formations is to move over a large front, covering a large area but finally converging at one or two points for final phase of attack. This thins them out initially but brings them around the target from different angles, which not only has more chances of a successful attack but also confuses enemy to judge the intended area of attack and if attacked from air requires higher number for aircraft to break off the attack.

PA requires an effective AD SP system with in its Armored formations to pose a credible threat to IAF aircraft and Gunships.

The HQ-9

HQ-9, if acquired, should be used as Anti-ballistic Missile system primarily which Pakistan lacks at the moment. There have been rumors about it's acquisition however nothing concrete has surfaced as yet. It can be a suitable answer to India's S-400. A Naval version should also be considered.

Army Aviation

PA is now buying modern Gunships (T-129 and AH-1Z), which have the capability to fire Air to Air missiles (Mistral/Aim-9 etc). These will be used for self defense purpose, but can also target enemy slow flying aerial assets.
 
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Q.Why Air Defence Corps of the Pakistan Army is among the Lethal Corps?
Ans=Pak Army Air Defence Corps
With the passage of time, Pakistan army infantry, armoured corps and artillery became strong against the ground threats of the enemy. But it was not strong against the enemy's air attacks and threats as compared to ground threats. So, there was a need for the air defence corps in the Pak army which can completely tackle all the air attacks of the enemy along with the Pakistan air force.
Hence, the corps of air defence was introduced in the army which is responsible for the air defence of the country. As the name indicates, it provides defence as well attack to the enemy air weapons. The enemy air weapons may include jets and missiles.
✔The beret color is Maroon.
✔Air Defence Operation Center
Initially, the Pakistan air force was responsible for the air defence of its country, but now it coordinates with the army and navy for further effective air defence system.
For this purpose, there is an Air Defence Committee which is commanded by the chief of air staff of the Pakistan air force. This committee also includes officers from the Pak army and Pak navy.
✔Training Centers
After passing out parade from the PMA Kakul, the selected second lieutenants go to the School of Army Air Defence, Karachi. These young second lieutenants attend the Young Officers’ Course on their entrance in the different units of the corps of air defence of the Pak army.
All other officers, JCOs and NCOs are given the required training during different courses according to their ranks to tackle all the expected air threats.
✔Latest Weapons
As the enemy is equipping itself with the most dangerous air crafts and jets, so it is necessary to have an effective air defence system that is capable of detecting the enemy aerial threats. Thus, the effective air defence system must consist of radars, fighter jets, ground to air missiles, and anti-aircraft guns and cannons. These air defence systems are discussed in the following paragraph.
Regiments Of Pak Army Air Defence
Although there are many air defence regiments in the Pak army that are equipped with the latest and deadly air defence weapons systems but here few regiments are given below.
✔134 Radar Control Gun AD regiment
This regiment is equipped with the latest 35 mm orlikon guns and sky guide radars. Sky guide radar is the ultimate weapons to detect the enemy presence.
Vehicle mounted giraffe radar are also the part of this regiment that can detect the enemy air crafts presence in the range of 40 km.
✔146 Light Air Defence Gun Missile ✔Self-Propelled regiment
This regiment consists of missile systems that are installed on self-propelled vehicles. The prominent missile system is APC mounted RBS 70 missile system that can destroy the enemy aircraft before releasing the weapons with the help of giraffe radar.
89 Surface To Air Missile regiment
The deadly FM 90 weapon system is the part of this regiment. FM 90 missile system is the ground to air missile system and it consists of tracking radar and missiles. FM 90 weapon system not only detects the enemy air crafts but it can also detect cruise missiles, air to ground missiles and armed helicopters and can destroy all of these.
❤Corps Of Signals❤
Although the infantry is the Queen Of Battle but it does not become queen by itself. There are many people around the infantry which give it the status of queen. The corps of signals along with some other corps like corps of engineers gives the status of the queen to the corps of infantry. The corps of signals is responsible for making the communication between the soldiers. During the war times, the soldiers have to connect with each other from different places for the better war strategy and to kill its enemy effectively.
✔Insignia And Beret Color
The insignia of the signals corps contains a crescent and a star in between the two tilted flags. The beret color of signals corps officer is dark black and the motto is Tez-o-Yaqini. The nickname of this corps is the Kabutars.
✔Training Center
The cadets studied their engineering degree in Military College of Signals, Rawalpindi. After 4 years of the study period, they go to the Pakistan Military academy for the military training. After becoming officers, this college also offers different courses for the grooming and enhancement of skills of these officers in the fields of Software and Telecommunication.
The Military college of Signals is also the center for the training of the junior commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of the Pak army.
✔Training And Promotion Courses
All the newly commissioned officers are offered the Young Officers' Course that helps them to grow technically in the field of the signals. As the time passes, these all the officers undergo for the Mid-Career Course. But as the officers reached the rank of major, then the next high courses are given to the selected officers who have performed well previously. These high courses are the specialized courses that help a major to become a successful battalion commander. These high courses include the Junior Staff Course and the Unit Command Course.
The very famous Foreman of Signals Course is offered for the training purpose of the selected JCOs and NCOs.
✔Latest Weapons Of Pak Army
With the passage of time, Pak army has developed latest telecommunication equipment by itself. The Pakistan army has also research and developments center for the corps of signals. Some of the equipment are given here.
✔Signals communication and IT concept vehicle
This vehicle consists of different types of radios which include the satellite radios, tactical fiber optics radios which help the soldiers in receiving and sending data along with voice communication. The invention of satellite radios helps in the better communication between the military soldiers in the every new and challenging environment. These environments may include the huge mountains and sea areas.
✔Radio direction finder
It helps in finding the direction of the enemy communication system. The army and navy usually have long wavelength radio direction finders because it can locate the enemy communication systems in seas and mountain areas from many kilometers away.
Besides these, Army tactical communication system and Microwave communication system are also playing their vital roles in the field of communication.
❤Army Aviation Corps of the Pakistan Army❤
Pak Army Corps of Army Aviation
The history of corps of army aviation of the Pak army is not very old. There was no corps in the initial years and there were just few helicopters in the Pak army after the independence in 1947. But in the last 40 years, Pakistan army not only introduced the corps of army aviation but it also grew very rapidly during these years.
In today’s word, helicopters are not only important in war operations but they are also used in peace times like earthquakes and floods. Army aviation is the need of infantry, it is the need of armoured corps and it is the need of every corps. Now, Pak army is taking full advantage of its corps of army aviation. The Pakistani cobra attack helicopters made effective attacks during all the operation against terrorism.
✔Beret Color And Insignia
The beret color for corps of army aviation is dark maroon and the insignia is positioned at the front of the beret. The insignia contains a flying eagle.
✔Training Center
The volunteer cadets from the Pak army and the Pak navy join corps of army aviation after their selection from GHQ, Rawalpindi. The training center for army aviation is located in Gujranwala. It is called Army Aviation School. This school not only helps in the training of army aviation pilots but it also helps in the helicopter training of the air force and navy pilots. The pilots get trained on both Mushshak planes and Sikorsky S-300 helicopters. Sikorsky is a light observatory helicopter used for the reconnaissance purposes. As it is a light-weight helicopter, it is also used in the high altitudes like Siachen in the Pakistan.
✔Promotion Courses
Different courses are offered here in this school to the pilots. There are some courses which every pilot officer has to do like instrument Flying course. There is 1-year basic fixed wing course for plane training and 1-year basic rotary wing course for helicopter training. But there are some courses which are offered to the selected officers. These selected officers are those officers who have performed very well their career. The high-level course is offered to such officers like Cobra qualification course. The promotions of the pilots depend upon their previous performances in their career as well as on the acquired courses.
✔Conclusion
Currently, the Pakistan army aviation is using very old helicopters. There are old Mi-17 helicopters of the 1980s which are still in use for the transportation of troops. And these old Russian Mi-17 are crashing after every 3 months and causing martyrdoms of the senior ranked pilots to the Pakistan army. There are old versions of Cobra attack helicopters which are in use of the Pak army aviation. Though these cobras have been upgraded and used effectively in the military operations against the terrorists but even these upgraded cobras cannot match the latest generation helicopters. But thanks to Allah who blessed Pakistan with the General Qamar Bajwa. He is not only working for the peace of the Pakistan but he is also upgrading the Pak army.
The Good News is that the Pakistan army is going to equip with the latest generation attack helicopters very soon in the upcoming 2 years. These attack helicopters include the Russian Mi-35M Crocodile, the American AH-1Z Viper, the Russian Mi-28N Havoc and the Chinese Z-10 Fierce Thunderbolt. The three Z-10 helicopters are already in service of the Pak army.
❤The Gunners - Pakistan Army Artillery Corps❤
✔Pakistan Army Artillery Corps
Pak Army Artillery Corps that deals with the cannons. The soldiers from this corps fight with the cannons. They are also called the gunners. The artillery provides the firepower to the infantry. One can conclude the decision of the battle just by its artillery power because it results in a great destruction of the enemy.
In today’s world, the artillery is not limited to only cannons. With the passage of time, the artillery is now dealing with the firepower of the missiles. It can fire the missiles in the range of up to 2500 km. It can fire deep inside the enemy territory apart from the front line fires. It operates along with the infantry and armoured corps. The cannon commander observes the enemy posts and then allows its soldiers to fire at the given target. The famous General Musharraf belonged to this beautiful corps of artillery.
✔Motto
The motto of the Pakistan artillery is Izzat o Iqbal.
✔Cap Color
The beret color of the Pak army artillery corps is dark blue.
✔Training In Pakistan Army Artillery Center
The selected cadets after passing out from the Pakistan military academy as the second lieutenant go to the School of Artillery, Nowshera. The officers are given the high-quality training which meets the international standard. The foreign officers also get trained from this school.
The regimental center of the Pakistan army artillery is in the Attock. The soldiers get their artillery training here in this center.
The famous artillery mess is located in Rawalpindi.
Pak Army Artillery Regiments/Units
The Pakistan army artillery corps is divided into various types of artillery. These are Field artillery, Medium artillery, Heavy artillery and Self propelled artillery of Pakistan army. With the passage of time, modernization has came in the Pakistan artillery.
The locating artillery is unique in contrary to other artillery types because it provides defense and attack together. It is equipped with the modern radar systems that can locate the enemy artillery fires effectively and can encounter its cannons.
The prominent artillery regiments of Pakistan army are given below along with the artillery equipment and guns.
✔35 SP regiment
This Pakistan army artillery unit/regiment consists of self-propelled (SP) artillery guns and cannons. This regiment got the title of "Shairni" when this regiment stop the enemy advancement in Lahore in the 1965 war. It contains M110 A2 8 inch howitzer guns which are self-propelled. These howitzer guns can fire its shells up to 30 km.
✔15 SP regiment
It consists of M109-A-155mm series artillery guns. These are the Pak army self-propelled guns. The prominent gun is M109 A2 155 mm which can penetrate the enemy area up to 23 km.
✔172 MBRL regiment
This regiment consists of multi-barrel rocket launchers that can fire 360 rockets in just 15 seconds. These are long-range rocket launchers and are used for greater destruction in the enemy area.
✔5 MLRS regiment
It contains multi-launch rocket systems that can fire up to 120 km. it is completely automatic.
✔159 locating regiment
This regiment has Fired finder radar equipment. The famous SLC-2 belongs to this regiment. It can detect the enemy fired cannon shells in the range of 35 km and can detect the enemy fired rockets in the range of 50 km.
❤Pakistan Army Armoured Corps Uniform❤
The Armoured corps in the army is called the "king of the battle". You must have seen black uniform in Pak army. In Pakistan army, the armoured corps officers and soldiers wear the black uniform while driving the tank. This is the field uniform of armoured corp So, they are also called Men in black. This corps is the sign of horror for the enemies on the battlefield.
✔Uniform Beret
The beret color of Pak army armoured corps is Black.
✔What Does An Armoured Corps Officer Do
The armoured corps officers are responsible for providing support to foot troops with the help tanks in a battlefield. For this purpose, they are trained to drive tanks. They also do complex study of these tanks. These officers also take different courses for their promotion. The tank is the track vehicles that are used for the purpose of the great enemy destruction. It is the armoured tank that protects the soldiers from being vulnerable along with providing great firepower towards the enemy. The tank has no eyes which mean it rolls everything that comes in its way. It also becomes submarine while passing the trenches that are filled with the water.
No doubt, Armoured corps tanks are the king of the battle. But for successful operations, some supporting corps is also present along with the armoured corps. This supporting corps is infantry. So, tanks cannot operate solely nor they can hold the ground. They either lead the infantry or move along with the infantry in the battle.
✔Armoured Corps Centre Nowshera
The armoured corps regimental center is located in Nowshera. The School of Armour and Mechanized Warfare is also in Nowshera cantonment. This place becomes more beautiful as it is present on the Kabul river bank. Keep in mind, Kabul river comes from Afghanistan and flows in Pakistan.
✔Armoured Corps Regiments
The Pakistan army has many armoured corps regiments which are equipped with the heavy tanks. The prominent regiments are:
✔25th cavalry
It participated in the 1965 war with the great valor and got the name of The Men of steel. Only this armoured corps regiment from Pakistan army was enough to kill the Indian army. It remains active throughout the 17 days of the war in 1965. This regiment has 5 Sitara e Jurat and 10 Tamgha e Jurat.
✔51 lancers
The soldiers of this regiment are known as Silver Eagles. This regiment is awarded1 Sitara e Jurat and 2 Tamgha e Jurat on the bravery of its soldiers.
✔4th cavalry
They are known as Valiants. It participated in 1965 and 1971 wars. It is the first regiment of Pakistan armoured corps who participated in operation Al-Mizan. 26 soldiers of this regiment gave their lives while defending their homeland.
✔6th lancers
(the strike of my sword is the wrath of the Allah). It participated in 1st Pakistan parade.
This regiment has 2 Sitara e Jurat and 2 Tamgha e Jurat.
✔Pakistan Army Tank List, Al-Khalid And Al-Zarrar Tanks
The armoured corps of Pak army was using the T-59 tank as the Main battle tanks in the 1960s. T 59-M2 was also the medium battle tank at that time. Both of these tanks are also in service currently today. Both are used for the semi-hilly and plain areas. Al-Zarrar tank is the upgraded version of T-59.
Al- Khalid and T-80UD tanks are now the main battle tanks of the Pakistan army. Al-Khalid tank is made by the Pakistan in the Heavy Mechanical Complex, HMC Taxila and is capable of fighting in day and nights. It can defend itself from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. It has a 125 mm gun. These both tanks are used for deserts areas of the Pakistan because of their high performance. Al-Khalid tank is making its name in world ranking.
✔Al-Haider tank
In 2016, Pakistan army has announced that it is going to construct a next generation tank which is named as Al-Haider tank.
❤Queen of the Battle - Pakistan Army Infantry Corps❤
Infantry is called the queen of the battle. The infantry is based on the foot soldiers or ground troops. Without infantry, the war cannot be won. The history of infantry is as old as the war itself. The infantry was the first combat corps in the history of any army in the world.
All the armies in the world trained their infantrymen through different exercises. Same is true with the Pakistan’s Infantry.
There are two types of infantry in the Pakistan army. One is light infantry and the other is heavy infantry. The light infantry is equipped with the light weapons such as light machine guns, Ak-47, MP5 while the heavy infantry is equipped with the armored vehicles like APCs. The heavy infantry is also called mechanized infantry.
The mechanized infantry is discussed completely at the end of this article.
✔Why Pak Army Infantry is Best
Though the Pakistan army infantrymen like other army infantries of the world are trained for the wars through the different mock exercises but Pak army infantry goes beyond these mock exercise and fight in the real wars. This made the Pak army unique and better from many infantries of the world due to the following reasons.
1. All Terrain Warriors
The Pakistan army is all terrain warrior. The reason is that the Pakistan army is operating in all the hard terrains of the North-West Pakistan from the past 15 years and now it is fully war trained in the high mountainous areas.
Pak army was already the champion of winning the wars in the semi-hilly and desert areas of the Pakistan against its enemy India. But in the wars against terrorism from the past 15 years, it is now the master of winning the wars in the mountainous areas.
The North-West terrain of the Pakistan is same as that of the Afghanistan. Even the American and the Russian armies have failed to get the required results in such terrains of the Afghanistan. But Pakistan army made it possible.
2. 100% Output
Unlike military exercises, where soldiers are fully confident that they will not get any injuries and causalities but in real wars against terrorism, soldiers not only make long range battles but also get close quarter battles with the enemies which made them more advanced with the both respects of the war.
Moreover, the wars against terrorism made the Pakistan SSG as the No.1 Special force of the world due to their courageous performance in the hard and mountainous terrains of the North-West area of the Pakistan. The corps of infantry of the Pakistan army has an elite force which is called the Special Service Group, SSG.
✔Training of Infantry
The cadets of Pakistan military academy are inducted into infantry corps after the passing out parade. The induction of cadets is purely on the basis of merit. And the merit is based on the basis of performance and skills.
These young second lieutenants then go the prestigious School of Infantry and Tactics, Quetta. The life of the Pakistani army infantry officer starts from this school.
As far concerned with the military training of the infantrymen, Pakistan army stresses on the physical training of all the soldiers. For this purpose, the assault course is a must for every soldier. Then it comes to the training of military weapons. The gun of an infantryman is his best friend.
Different types of weapons like G3 and MP5 are in use of the Pakistan’s army infantry. The soldiers and officers also get the hand to hand combat training.
Pakistan Army Mechanized Infantry
The need for mechanized infantry was felt when the foot infantry faced huge causalities while moving towards the enemy area and in capturing the enemy territory.
The motorized vehicles also need plain and good paths to move but in small hilly and trench areas, these motorized vehicles are not able to move. So, there was a need for the track vehicles that could drive in the trench and hilly field areas.
Hence, the mechanized infantry was introduced to tackle these difficulties. It can withstand the small arms. The purpose of mechanized infantry is same like that of foot infantry i.e capturing and holding the enemy ground.
The mechanized infantry is totally trained like the foot infantry with the additional training. The additional training includes the use of weapons while sitting in the armored vehicle.
✔Mechanized Infantry Advantages
As the Armored corps tanks are made with the highly advanced armored materials, so it can lead the attack towards the enemy because it can withstand the high weapon resistance due to its structure. In this way, it gives the protection to the foot infantry from being hit by the heavy enemy fire.
But soon when the tanks entered in the enemy area, then there will be the need of the soldiers to capture and hold the enemy ground. Here comes the importance of the mechanized infantry.
As the foot infantry operates on the feet and is unable to reach the enemy area quickly like that of the tank, so for this purpose the mechanized infantry comes in action because they can join the armored corps tanks in the enemy area with the speed while sitting in their armored vehicles and thus can capture the ground.
✔Armor Personnel Carriers, APCs
APC stands for armor personnel carriers. Different types of armored vehicles are used in the Pakistan army for the mechanized infantry. Pakistan army is using APC M-113p and APC M-113p A2 extensively for the mechanized infantry.
Some APCs like APC M-113p A2 are also installed with the Baktar-Shikan anti-tank guided missiles along with anti-aircraft machine gun.
Some regiments of the Pakistan army like 27 Baloch regiment and 228 independent Azad Kashmir heavy anti-tank are equipped with the deadly APC M-113p A2.
✔APCs Operation
The vehicle commander is usually a major in the Pakistan army. The commander stands in the centre-top of the vehicle while the section (10-12) of his soldiers sits in the vehicle. The commander is also the gunner of the vehicle. He usually targets the helicopters with its anti-aircraft machine gun weapon mounted on the top of the vehicle.
The signal officer of the vehicle can also coordinate with the signal officer of the other vehicle through the company radio in the vehicle for the purpose of deployment and exchange of information. He can also contact with the battalion commander through second radio installed with the first radio.
The commander of the vehicle can also coordinate with the driver and commander of other vehicles with the specially mounted helmet which he wears while the vehicle moves.
Pak Army Corps Of Engineers
This is the corps of the Pak army which deals in the civil engineering. The corps of engineers provides support and service to its allied forces like mechanized infantry and armoured corps. In this way, the infantry and armored corps can fight in an effective way with the help of engineers. Because of this, Corps of engineers is also called sappers.
This corps also helps in the surviving of its allied soldiers during the time of war by providing shelters, water etc.
Motto Of Corps Of Engineers
The motto of Pak army corps of engineers is Roh e Rawan. As the motto says that the purpose of corps of engineers is to keep the flow of its allied vehicles and soldiers forward to the defensive posts and to the enemy territory.
Beret Color
The beret color of corps of engineers is dark blue.
Training Centers
Though the engineering skill is the main purpose of engineers and operators but the officers and soldiers of this corps are also trained to fight like infantry.
The Engineers Center Risalpur is responsible for teaching engineering skills to the soldiers of Pak army. The soldiers also get the military training here in this center.
The officers get their engineering degree from the Military College of Engineering. After completing their degree period, they go to the PMA Kakul for the military training.
War Time
When it comes to settle the mines in the ground, only corps of engineers dares itself for this work. And when to come to find the enemy deposited mines, only this corps put its life in danger.
Besides this, the making of infrastructures like bridges over the trenches or rivers during the war time can be done in few minutes with the help of these engineers.
Peace Time
The corps of engineers of the Pak army also keeps itself busy on different projects during the peace time. These projects may include the making of roads in the plain and mountain areas of the Pakistan. The best of bests highway "Karakorum highway" is the result of the skills and the hard work of corps of engineers.
When the Pakistan faces calamity from earthquakes or floods, then this corps comes in action for the people of its country.
Pakistan Army Engineers Equipment
AM 50 bridge
This vehicle is used for putting down its bridge on the dry trenches and canals. This can also be used on large water trenches. This helps the armored vehicles to move forward in very few minutes.
Armored vehicle-launched bridge
This bridge is located on the M47 armored vehicle-launched bridge. This bridge is used for the crossing of the vehicles over small trenches and canals. This vehicle can put down its bridge within 8 minutes.
Mine protected clearance vehicle buffalo
This latest machine is equipped with the video cameras and explosives devices that can make the IEDs and explosives useless in a very effective way.
Troll Anti-Mine
This weapom is a purely anti-mine vehicle that can detect the presence of mines that are settled by the enemy in the ground.
Assault track way vehicle
This automatic track vehicle can help it allied vehicles like tanks and mechanized infantry in the marshy and muddy areas where this vehicle can put down its track on these marshy and muddy areas for the further movement of its allied vehicles.
Vehicle Ribbon Bridge
This is purely a floating bridge can it is used for crossing the tanks and vehicles forward to the enemy line. This vehicle is capable of putting down its ribbon bridge on the large rivers and canals. A bridge of 100 meters can easily be set in 1 hour.
❤The Snowy Lions Of Northern Light Infantry Regiment Of the Pak Army❤
Northern Light Infantry regiment, NLI
The Northern Light Infantry regiment which is usually written as NLI regiment is the regiment of the lions. The NLI is the part of the Pakistan army infantry corps. This regiment comprises of mostly the soldiers from the Northern areas of the Pakistan but the officers and soldiers which are from different provinces of the Pakistan are also the part of this sacred regiment.
The northern light infantry regiment of the Pakistan army is the guardian of the snowy mountains of the Pakistan.
This regiment has the honor to fight on the highest battlefields of the world. The Siachen and the Kargil are the highest war places of the world. No country can even imagine of fighting on such high and snowy altitudes. But the NLI regiment of the Pak army had not only made it possible to fight in such places but it also had won the war against its biggest enemy.
✔Training Centers Of Northern Light Infantry
The regimental center of NLI is in Bunji, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The officers, junior commissioned officers, and non-commissioned officers get their military training center in this center. This center also becomes the place for the regiment ceremonial days.
The officers, selected JCOs and NCOs go to the School of Infantry and Tactics for different military courses.
✔Beret Color and Insignia
The beret color of northern light infantry is white and there is white feather which is fixed on the front of the beret. The insignia of NLI contains an antelope (dear with large and curved horns). The antelope is found in large number in the mountains of Gilgit-Baltistan, so this is the reason for the insignia of NLI regiment.
✔Martyrs Of Pak Army
The different battalions of this regiment sacrificed their lives for the motherland. Some are given below.
✔6 NLI regiment
A large number of soldiers of 6 NLI regiment of the Pak army embraced martyrdom when a huge glacier fell on the army post in Gayari sector near Skardu in 2012.
✔12 NLI regiment
This is the dream regiment for every officer who passed out from the prestigious PMA, Kakul. The reason is that Captain Kernel Sher Khan and Havaldar Lalak Jan belong to this beautiful regiment. This regiment has 120 martyred so far and this regiment is honored with 2 Nishan e Haider, 9 Sitara e Jurat, 1 Sitara e Basalat, 21 Tamgha e Basalat.
❤The Lethal Frontier Force Regiment❤ From Infantry Corps Of Pakistan Army
Frontier Force Regiment
The Frontier force regiment commonly known as FF regiment was the regiment of the Pathans before the independence of the Pakistan. Only Pathans were the part of this force at that time.
This force was designed by the British army for the safeguarding of the borders of the North-West Frontier area. But soon after independence, the officers and soldiers from all the provinces of the Pakistan are included in this regiment.
The history of FF regiment is full of bravery and courage. The soldiers of this regiment are usually called by the nickname of PIFFERS.
✔Training Centers
The FF regiment is one of the huge regiments of the corps of infantry of the Pakistan army. The regimental center of these PIFFERS is in the Abbottabad. All the officers and soldiers go this center for the training purpose.
All the officers and the JCOs and NCOs who performed well are offered different courses in the School of Infantry and Tactics.
✔Ceremonial Days
This regiment center is also the place for the regiment’s ceremonial days. One of the famous ceremony held at PIFFERS center is Piffer week. As initial Frontier Force regiment had a lot of British soldiers, so there is still a bond of love of these soldiers with the FF regiment. In Pifffer week, get together is held and the memories are revised.
✔Beret Color
The beret color of FF regiment is dark green.
❤Regiment's Martyr
✔6 FF
Major Shabbir Sharif and Major Mohemmed Akram belong to this battalion of FF regiment. Both these officers set the example of bravery in the war of 1971. In their, both of these officers were awarded the highest gallantry award of Pakistan, the Nishan e Haider.
General Raheel Sharif was also the part of this brave battalion.
✔34 FF
This is known as Raiders battalion. This battalion had participated in the 1971 war with bravery and courage. It also participated in the operation Al-Mizan against terrorists. 34 soldiers of this battalion gave their lives for the Pakistan.
 

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Pakistani Fighter

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Pakistan's Integrated Air Defence system



Pakistan's air defence as a whole is a well integrated defence network which consists of multiple layers of missile sites and their combination with multiple radar systems that provide near gap free surveillance, air borne surveillance aircraft ( AEW&C) , control centers and air bases which have to ability of scrambling F-16 or JF-17 on am interception mission with in a few mins. All this combination grants Pakistan a well organised (IADS) integrated air defence system which is equipped with modern air defence systems acquired and installed rather recently out of which only Crotale , Stinger and Type 65 are Cold war era two of which have been modernized resulting in Cortale 4000 and the Type 65 auto cannon getting automated with laser and ballistic computer systems meanwhile details on the stingers have remained classified.



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AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar


Meanwhile the large number of high tech radar systems provide Pakistan continuous gap free surveillance of it's air space , radar systems such as the US AN/TPS-77 (a mobile, active phased array,

long range, L-band, 3D solid-state radardesigned to perform airspace surveillance missions) or the (AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar that has accurate target data at ranges up to 250 nautical miles and elevations up to 100,000 feet) provide Pakistan this advantage and can operate 24hours a day, even with no on-site personnel. These radars are also capable of eliminate the danger of deception jamming.



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Karakorum eagle ZDK-03


PAF also maintains a fleet of 8 AEW&C planes to ensure long range surveillance beyond anything land based radars can detect. These AEW&Cs also serve as air borne control centers making them an important asset for any nation. Aside from that Pakistan military also possesses Electronic warfare capability and counter electronic warfare systems to keep it's air defence systems functional.



Once anything is detected the PAF can quickly deploy F-16s or JF-17s in the air with in mins on interception missions from near by air bases . This gives Pakistan a highly mobile air defence system to be used along with it's defence systems (ground based systems).



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F-16/JF-17/Saab 2000 Erieye


As far as types of ground based air defence systems available to Pakistan are concerned, Pakistan army and air force separately operate medium to small range SAM systems and mobile AA guns configured to destroy low flying Aircraft and incoming munitions around important military installations. Multiple types of man pads are also available for the troops to be used against low flying jets, helicopters and drones.



How ever the Pakistani military is still in need of a dependable long range air defence system , which it indents to fulfill with ether the HQ-9 or the S-400.



•=====================================•



Medium range SAMs



1: LY-80



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LY-80


2: Spada-2000



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Spada 2000


•======================================•



Short range SAMs



1: FM-90



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FM-90


2: Crotale 4000



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Crotale 4000


•======================================•



MANPADs



1: RBS-70



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RBS-70 Manpad


2: Stinger



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Stinger Manpad


3: Anza-III



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Anza-III Manpad


•======================================•



Towed and static anti-aircraft guns



1: GDF-007 (AHEAD) auto cannon



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GDF-007 (AHEAD)


2: Type 65 (Lazer/Computer guided) Auto cannon



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Type 65 Auto cannon


•======================================•



Long range SAM?



Many of these systems are recent additions to the country's air defence and next field Pakistan military aims to strengthen is long range air defence by acquiring long range Sam systems. Currently the top two contenders are the



1: Russian S-400 (a highly capable air defence system)



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S-400


2: Chinese HQ-9 (A modernized version of the S-300)



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HQ-9


Pakistan has been in interested in the HQ-9 since 2015 now and had begun talks since then where as also showed interest in the S-400 and according to several Russian/Pakistani sources talks have begun. How ever it's most probable that Pakistan will go for the HQ-9 for several reasons, the most obvious of them being to avoid US sanction policy, Pakistan already operating somewhat similar HQ-16A and it's easier to access future upgrades. Another contributing factor can be the cost how ever should the situation change Pakistan has not ruled out S-400. It is expected Pakistan will soon induct the HQ-9.



Already in service?



According to some sources and analyst's Pakistan already operates 4 batteries of the HQ-9 , the claim that Pakistan already operates the HQ-9 under the designation of FS-2000 is backed by alleged satellite imagery taken from a Pakistani air base rather near Indian border. How ever officially the military has not announced anything regarding it receiving HQ-9 systems and probably does not.



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Satellite image showing HQ-9s


Their are also reports by some sources and by the military exhibitions that it should be expected that the Pakistani military intends to soon induct the Pantsir-S1 air defence system and a unknown number of Igala Manpads. These hints by military especially in an exhibition should not be taken lightly as it has already happened a few times in the past such as Pakistan suddenly inducting the A-100 MLRS.

•======================================

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Wished they had shot IAF planes down on 26th Feb
 

mdmm

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Apr 17, 2009
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Kindly put details on following terms.
1- Pantsir Missiles
b- Is Pakistan buyingT-90 tanks from Russia

Pakistan decides to buy state of the art 'Pantsir' missile defence system from Russia:
Report-1 May, 2019

NEW DELHI - Pakistan has decided to buy Russian-made Pantsir Missile System from Moscow.Pantsir is a medium-range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery weapon system.Pakistan is now planning to send a delegation to Moscow to finalise the deal and also have an arrangement for training defence personnel to Pantsir Missile System. "Pakistan is buying the latest and modernised weapons system to counter India. Pakistan is eyeing to procure tanks to anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air missile system from Russia ," an Indian Defence Ministry official, aware of these developments, told to Zee News..
https://www.mathrubhumi.com/news/in...ile-air-defense-system-from-russia--1.3765439
Pandeyer is a missile system that uses targeted radar to destroy enemy aircraft, drones, and helicopters. Pandits are capable of attacking even the low the lowly flying targets......
_________________________________________________
https://swarajyamag.com/insta/shake...s-to-buy-russian-anti-aircraft-missile-system
Pantsir, a medium-range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery system, is what Pakistan is eyeing to buy. Islamabad is reportedly planning to send a delegation to Moscow to seal the deal and also have an arrangement for training defence personnel to Pantsir Missile System.Further, Pakistan has plans to buy 360 T-90 tanks from Russia to bolster its capabilities along its border with India. The same T-90s are the backbone of the armoured regiments of the Indian Army
 

mdmm

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I concluded there was no truth in Indian media news.
Like before , it is a big big shame for Indian media to broadcast false news and propagenda as their genetic habits.
How ever I heard that both China and Russia are offering Pakistan militiary hardwares at affordable price.
Now Pak Army have to decide ,when money in pockets.
 

SarmadK

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Are the reports about acquiring the Mikoyan MIG-35 are real? PAF looking to get the deal done with Russia soon?

mig-35_01-op-1170x610.jpg
 

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