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Pakistani Ballistic Missiles: Indigenous Content & Development

Discussion in 'Pakistan Strategic Forces' started by The Deterrent, Sep 23, 2011.

  1. The Deterrent

    The Deterrent PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Pakistani Ballistic Missiles : How much Pakistani are they?

    "Defense is the right of every country.And the credible capability to defend or deter an enemy attack should be achieved,by any available means."

    There have been many foreign reports,which claim Pakistani Ballistic missiles to be simply "copies" of Chinese and North Korean missiles.Unfortunately,most of the people (foreigners) believe such reports blindly and accuse Pakistan of only performing the "Paint job".This article is intended to remove those confusions,and pin-point the developments made by Pakistan.However,there is no doubt that the very basic origins of the ballistic missiles of Pakistan lie in China and North Korea.

    In the following paras,we will see all of them one by one.

    Hatf-1 /Hatf-1A /Hatf-1B BRBM (Range 70-100km,Warhead Payload 500 kg)


    Development History :
    Hatf-1 was developed by SUPARCO and was first tested in March,1989.By that time SUPARCO had achieved significant expertise,because it had been developing and launching Solid-fueled sounding rockets since the 1970s.Hatf-1 had a poor accuracy(400-500 m CEP),with a very simple INS and a range of 70 km.

    Origins :
    It was based on the French Dauphin Sounding Rocket.But contrary to Dauphin,Hatf-1 was an Artillery Rocket launched at an angle.Notable differences between the two systems include:

    Aerodynamic tail fins on Hatf-1
    Altitude of 50km approx (150 km of Dauphin)
    500 kg payload (150 kg of Dauphin)
    1500 kg launch weight (1132 kg of Dauphin)
    Length 6.0m (6.21m of Dauphin)

    However,the diameter of both systems was same,i.e. 0.56m.

    French Dauphin Sounding Rocket:
    [​IMG]

    Pakistani Hatf-1 Ballistic Missile:
    [​IMG]


    What Pakistan did :
    In two years,Hatf-1 underwent an upgrade.The upgraded version was named Hatf-1A.It had an increased range of 100 km with increased accuracy.
    Later on,another upgrade was made to Hatf-1A.This time,its accuracy was further improved by adding an advanced INS which was made from the experienced gained during the development of other projects.Thus the CEP was decreased to 10-15 m.It was tested in 2000,and was designated Hatf-1B as a Guided Ballistic Missile.
    As of now,all previous Hatf-1 versions have been completely replaced by Hatf-1B.

    So,Hatf-1 is this much Pakistani :

    1. Modified aerodynamic (chopped) tail fins.
    2. Locally developed launch rail supported on a towed platform.
    3. Powerful Motor installed on Hatf-1A,increasing its range by 30 km.
    4. A simple INS integrated on Hatf-1A,reducing the CEP to 100 m.
    5. An advanced INS integrated on Hatf-1B,further reducing its CEP to 15 m.

    In effect,Pakistan transformed a sounding rocket into a Guided Ballistic Missile.


    Hatf-2 Shadoz SRBM (Range 300 km,Warhead Payload 500 kg) "Cancelled"


    Development History :
    Initially,Hatf-2 had the name of "Shadoz".It was developed by SUPARCO and was tested in 1989.
    Its accuracy was poor,relative to the newer Abdali.

    Origins :
    The first Hatf-2 was a two-stage version of the Hatf-1.It was based on the two stage French Sounding Rocket Eridan.It bore somewhat the same relative differences from Eridan,as Hatf-1 did from Dauphen.
    Later,the project was terminated,in favor of the more advanced M-11 missiles.

    French Eridan Sounding Rocket:
    [​IMG]

    Pakistani Hatf-2 Shadoz Ballistic Missile:
    [​IMG]


    What Pakistan did :
    It is clear that Hatf-2 Shadoz was heavily based on Eridan.But,it was this much Pakistani :

    1. Modified aerodynamic (chopped) tail and second stage fins.
    2. Locally developed launch rail supported on a towed platform.
    3. A simple INS installed,giving a CEP of ~200 m.

    French Dragon (background),Centaure (middle) and Belier (foreground) Sounding Rockets
    [​IMG]

    Note : Though the Centaure and Belier appear similar to preious Hatf-I and II,they were smaller in dimensions.

    Diagram of Initial Pakistani Hatf-1,Hatf-2,Hatf-3 SRBMS
    [​IMG]

    Hatf-2 Abdali SRBM (Range 180 km,Warhead Payload 500 kg)


    Development History :
    This system is advanced,modern and has a new design than the previous missiles in the series (regarding origins).Development was initiated by NDC around 1997-8,and continued by SUPARCO.The system was first tested in 2002.

    Origins :
    It does not resembles any foreign missile system in dimensions and the technologies used.
    The design incorporates technologies from Hatf-1 and Hatf-3 Ghaznavi missiles.It can be termed as the hybrid of the two systems.


    What Pakistan did :
    Over the decade,it was upgraded again and again.The latest version has a CEP of 25m approx (by using a modern INS which is assisted by satellite guidance),drastically shortened launch rail and probably fold-able tail fins.


    Hatf-2 Abdali SRBM (2007)
    [​IMG]

    Hatf-2 Abdali SRBM (2011)
    [​IMG]

    So,Hatf-2 Abdali is this much Pakistani :

    1. Indigenous airframe design.
    2. Locally developed solid-fueled propulsion system.
    3. Locally developed shortened launch rail.
    4. Local INS,giving a CEP of ~25 m.

    Overall,an indigenous missile with technologies incorporated from newer (larger) missile systems.
     
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  2. The Deterrent

    The Deterrent PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Hatf-3 Ghaznavi SRBM (Range 290 km,Warhead Payload 500 kg [Total 600 kg])


    Development History :
    Pakistan Army had a wide gap of local missile capabilities,with Hatf-1 having 100 km range and Shaheen-I having 700 km range,because Hatf-2 and 3 were cancelled.Therefore,around 1997-8,NDC (NESCOM) started the development of the Ghaznavi missile,with Abdali being developed in parallel by SUPARCO.The system was first tested in May,2002.

    Origins :
    In early 1990s,China provided Pakistan with 30-40 M-11 (DF-11) SRBMs,to help it strengthen its Armed forces.These missiles had a range of ~300 km,with a payload of 500 kg and a CEP of 500-600 m.

    In appearance and capabilities,Ghaznavi remarkably resembles M-11.In the 1990s,Pakistan also procured critical equipment and machinery for developing missiles locally.Initially,it was decided to mass-produce the M-11s with similar capabilities.Later on,it was decided to make an advanced version of M-11,equipped with modern technologies.

    Chinese DF-11A (CSS-7 Mod 2),an advanced version of DF-11/M-11
    [​IMG]

    Pakistani Hatf-3 Ghaznavi (IDEAS,2008)
    [​IMG]


    What Pakistan did :
    The local version,tested as late as 2002,had a better solid-fueled motor downgraded from Shaheen-1.Pakistan moved ahead of China,and inducted the aero-spike in the design,which enhanced the performance of the missile in dense atmosphere,enabling it to follow a depressed ballistic trajectory.Later on,China also inducted the aero-spike,in later versions of CSS-7 Mod 2 (DF-11A).Yet another major modification was made,and a locally developed advanced INS was installed,giving the missile a CEP of <50m (As stated by Chairman NESCOM) by aiding the warhead vehicle with a precise Post-separation Attitude Correction System.

    Pakistani Hatf-3 Ghaznavi (Azm-e-Nau 3 exercise,2010)
    [​IMG]

    Although Ghaznavi is an off-shoot of M-11 (which itself was an advanced version of Scud-B),induction of indigenous technologies show that Pakistan had the capability of designing SRBMs.But since it was really short on time,Pakistan chose M-11 as a platform and instead did R&D on improving it, according to the modern requirements of Pakistan Army.No doubt,Ghaznavi is the most advanced missile of the two systems, DF-11 (CSS-7) and Scud-B.

    So,Hatf-3 Ghaznavi is this much Pakistani :

    1. Introduction of the drag-reducing aero-spike on the warhead cone.
    2. Locally developed advanced INS,giving a CEP of ~50 m, assisted by
    3. Locally developed Post-separation Attitude Correction System.

    In effect,indigenously developed Warhead Assembly mounted on "license-produced" missile motors.


    Hatf-4 Shaheen-1 SRBM (Range 800 km,Warhead Payload 600 kg [Total 700 kg])


    Development History :
    Pakistan Army required a longer range SRBM,other than the Hatf-2 and 3 to strike a bit deep inside Indian territory, because of the lessons learned from Iran-Iraq War.Hence,development of Shaheen-1 started around 1993 by newly formed NDC.The system was first tested in April,1999.Development for Shaheen-1 was given more priority than Abdali and Ghaznavi because of its psychological impact,therefore Ghaznavi and Abdali appeared late.

    Origins :
    According to several Western (US) analysts,Shaheen-1 is a locally produced version of M-9 (DF-15).Others suggest it to be a bigger version of the M-11 (DF-11) missile.However,this is not entirely correct.

    Shaheen-1 does not resembles that much to M-9 (DF-15) ,neither in appearance (shape/dimensions) nor in capabilities.
    Shaheen-1 is 2.9 m longer and carries 200 kg heavier payload to 150 km more distance than the M-9 (DF-15). Furthermore,Shaheen-I has a launch weight of 9500 kg as compared to 6200 kg of DF-15.

    Chinese DF-15 (M-9)
    [​IMG]


    Pakistani Shaheen-1 (IDEAS,2008)
    [​IMG]


    What Pakistan did :
    Shaheen-1 has incorporated technologies which were locally developed by extensively studying the M-11 missile and its components.The same facilities set up by the help of China to make M-11 type missiles were given the task to develop Shaheen-1.Some very critical components were bought from China,and the first version of Shaheen-1 was ready by 1999.

    Pakistani Shaheen-1 (The black patches near the small stabilizing fins may be antennae intended to service very accurate satellite navigation systems : RD Fisher)
    [​IMG]

    Further development :
    Shaheen-1 V1 (version 1) used only Post-separation Attitude Correction System,which correct the trajectory of the Re-entry Vehicle (ReV) immediately after termination of boost phase.Therefore its accuracy was relatively poor,and lied in the same range as of DF-15 (300-500 m).
    However,in early 2000s,NDC began development of a modern version,version 2.The Shaheen-1 V2 was more accurate,giving a CEP of <90 m.The new version included Terminal Correction System which corrected the warhead's trajectory in terminal phase by using thrusters mounted in the warhead assembly.Also included was an improved design for the ReV,which enabled it to re-enter the atmosphere at higher speeds.

    Shaheen-1 V1 (1999)
    [​IMG]

    Shaheen-1 V2 (Azm-e-Nau 3 exercise,2010) {zoom to see the changed shape of ReV cone}
    [​IMG]


    It can be assumed that though Shaheen-1 has incorporated technologies from M-11 and M-9,still it cannot be termed as an M-9 copy,because it is far more advanced than the M-9.Rather,it is a highly improved and modified version of M-9.

    So,it is this much Pakistani :

    1. Locally developed, much powerful missile motor giving more range and payload capacity.
    2. Locally developed Post-separation Attitude Correction System.
    3. Indigenously developed Terminal Correction System.Both are assisted by
    4. Indigenously developed Satellite guidance system,which also corrects the errors developing in INS during flight.

    Overall,a locally developed advanced missile using the M-11/M-9 as a base.
     
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  3. The Deterrent

    The Deterrent PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Hatf-5A Ghauri-1 MRBM (Range 1300 km,Warhead Payload 600 kg [Total 750 kg])


    Development History :
    The development of Ghauri-1 started around 1993,by Khan Research Laboratories (KRL). As a liquid fueled missile,this system was first tested in April 1999.Ghauri-1 gave a significant boost to Pakistan's strategic offensive capabilities.

    Origins :
    This system is infamous for being exactly similar to North Korean Nodong-1 Missile,both in appearance and capabilities.In Mid-1990s,North Korea exported around 10-15 Nodong missiles,in component form.North Korea also provided some necessary machinery for producing these missile locally.Therefore,Pakistan immediately started replicating the components and assembling them to form Ghauri-1 missiles.In other words,Pakistan "License-produced" Nodongs.

    Strange thing,but North Korea itself deployed the Nodongs as late as 1998 (despite the first Nodong was tested in 1990),about 9 of them,according to US Rumsfield report.The North Korean delay was caused by technical difficulties and economic sanctions.This suggests that either Pakistan was given more priority to North Korean Armed Forces,or Pakistan obtained only some components in mid-1990s and perfected the design much quickly.

    The CEP of Nodong and Ghauri-1 systems was previously thought to be very poor i.e. around 1000 m.However,the FAS and Missilethreat have admitted in their reports that both systems use the spinning mechanism of missile before the separation of warhead,which remarkably increases accuracy.This mechanism is not found in Scud-C missile,of which the Nodong is highly advanced version,with twice the range and payload.The "revised" CEP of these system is 190 m.

    There are very little (1 or 2) authentic pictures available of the Nodong-1 system.Most of the pictures display the diagram only,the rest show the Musudan-1 missile,which is very different from the Nodong-1.

    North Korean Nodong-1 MRBM (the best picture I found)
    [​IMG]

    Pakistani Hatf-5A Ghauri-1 MRBM (1998)
    [​IMG]


    What Pakistan did :
    So,Hatf-5A Ghauri-1 is this much Pakistani :

    1. Locally developed Re-entry Vehicle (ReV).
    2. Local improved INS,giving a CEP of ~150 m.

    Overall,Ghauri-1 constitutes of Pakistani ReVs mounted on locally produced Nodong missile motors.

    Hatf-5B Ghauri-2 MRBM (Range 2300 km,Warhead Payload 1000 kg [Total 1200 kg])


    Development History :
    Development of the single stage Ghauri-2 started two years later than Ghauri-1's by KRL..First tested in April 1999,Ghauri-2 proved itself to be much more advanced than Ghauri-1.

    Origins :
    Some western reports claim Ghauri-2 to be a local version of Nodong-2.However,this is not correct.Nodong-2 was never materialized,due to technical flaws and economic restraints.Instead,all efforts were converged on the Musudan missile,which is a different and separate missile from the Nodong (its thicker and shorter,with a differently shaped ReV).


    What Pakistan did :
    Ghauri-2 was 2.1 m longer, 1950 kg heavier and delivered a warhead payload of 300 kg more to 1000 km more distance than its predecessor.In effect,Ghauri-2 achieved these capabilities by adding just 1000 kg of higher quality propellents.This also means that a more advanced and powerful liquid-fueled rocket engine was designed for it.The diameter of Ghauri-2 was same as Ghauri-1,i.e. 1.35 m.

    In 2010,Ghauri-2 was tested at just 1300 km range,which is the max range of Ghauri-1.Also,all the tests occurring from 2002 were of Ghauri-2 actually.Therefore,it would be safe to assume that Ghauri-1 has been retired from service,because Ghauri-2 has similar dimensions as Ghauri-1,but advanced capabilities.

    Pakistani Hatf-5B Ghauri-2 MRBM
    [​IMG]

    Though Ghauri-2 is a highly upgraded version of Ghauri-1,which itself was a license-produced Nodong,it would not be fair to give it North Korean origins,since the modifications/upgrades were solely made and tested by Pakistan.

    So,Hatf-5B Ghauri-2 is this much Pakistani :

    1. Locally developed much more powerful missile engine.
    2. Locally developed higher quality propellents.
    3. Locally developed Re-entry Vehicle (ReV).

    Overall,a very advanced,local version of Nodong-1.

    Hatf-6 Shaheen-2 MRBM (Range 2500 km,Warhead Payload 1000 kg [Total 1250 kg])

    Development History :
    Development started around 1999,and the system was first tested in 2004.

    Origins :
    Several western reports claim Shaheen-2 is a copy of M-18.Now,according to FAS,Missilethreat and Globalsecurity,the M-18 is a two stage missile and has a range of 1000 km with a max payload of 500 kg.
    So strictly speaking,Shaheen-2 carries twice the payload to 2.5 times longer range.These facts negate the possibility of Shaheen-2 being even derived from M-18 (there is NO credible picture available of the M-18).


    What Pakistan did :
    The re-entry vehicle carried by the Shaheen-2 missile has a mass of 1250 kg, which includes the mass of a nuclear warhead and a terminal guidance system.This re-entry vehicle is unlike that of the Shaheen-1 (which has four moving delta control fins at the rear) and has small liquid-propellant side thrust motors, which are used to orientate the re-entry vehicle before and during re-entry to improve accuracy by providing stabilization during the terminal phase. This can also be used to fly evasive maneuvers and change the trajectory several times during the terminal phase, making it immensely problematic for existing anti-ballistic missile (ABM) defense systems to successfully intercept the missile. The re-entry vehicle is also stated to utilize a satellite guidance system to provide updates on its position, further improving its accuracy and reducing the CEP.

    Pakistani Hatf-6 Shaheen-2 MRBM (2006)
    [​IMG]

    Pakistani Hatf-6 Shaheen-2 MRBM (2008)
    [​IMG]

    So,Hatf-6 Shaheen-2 is this much Pakistani :

    1. Totally indigenous design (airframe + propulsion system).
    2. Indigenous ReV design,which is maneuverable,by incorporating an
    3. Indigenously developed Terminal Correction System,which works by four side-mounted thrusters.
    4. Indigenously developed Satellite guidance system,which also corrects the errors developing in INS during flight.

    Overall,a 95% Pakistani missile.

    Hatf-9 Nasr SRBM (Range 60 km,Payload unknown)

    I don't need to explain this system,since it can be very clearly assumed from its capabilities and pictures,that it is a 100% Pakistani product.



    References :


    1. Dauphin
    2. Sud Aviation Rockets
    3. Sounding Rocket Data
    4. Hatf-1 - Pakistan Missile Special Weapons Delivery Systems
    5. MissileThreat :: Hatf 1
    6. ASIAN DEFENCE: Pakistani ballistic missiles: Original of the Hatf Series
    7. Pakistan Military Consortium :: www.PakDef.info
    8. Abdali-I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    9. MissileThreat :: Hatf 3
    10. DF-15 [CSS-6 / M-9] - China Nuclear Forces
    11. MissileThreat :: Hatf 4
    12. Dr. Samar Mubarakmand's Interview with Geo TV
    13. International Assessment and Strategy Center > Research > Pakistan&#8217;s Long Range Ballistic Missiles: A View From IDEAS
    14. No-Dong 1 - North Korea
    15. MissileThreat :: No Dong 1
    16. MissileThreat :: Hatf 5
    17. The North-Korean Nodong missile family (R-18, Nodong, Ghauri, Shahab, Ghadr)
    18. M-18 - China Nuclear Forces
    19. MissileThreat :: M-18
    20. Shaheen-II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
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  4. HANI

    HANI FULL MEMBER

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    So in simple words u wana say that non of our missiles are fully indigenous and all are based on other missiles from different countries???
     
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  5. Ziras

    Ziras FULL MEMBER

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    The same can be said about any invention in the world..If you read about anything ever invented...you will find that two or more people independently made the same thing and all claim to be inventors of that thing...
    About Pakistani missiles..Unless its Hypermoronic Hazoomazunga Daftonic technology...somebody somewhere wil have something similar and no matter how indigenous Pakistan created her missiles..since somebody else had it before Pakistan..Pakistani missiles will always be called copy...
     
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  6. Hulk

    Hulk ELITE MEMBER

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    Not only that, he is also saying that changes done were minor as compared to development effort.
     
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  7. The Deterrent

    The Deterrent PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Yes,they are not "fully indigenous"...but we have made considerably advanced modifications and development,which prove that we could develop systems of our own,if we had more time and money...
     
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  8. The Deterrent

    The Deterrent PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Agreed...Even the Russian Scuds themselves originated from the R-11 missile,which was a direct reverse-engineered copy of German V-2 rocket.

    The thing is,by going through this "copying" logic,all of the missiles of China,North Korea,Pakistan,Iran,Iraq originated from the basic Scuds,which in turn originated from V-2 rocket.The thing that counts is,how many modifications and upgrades did a coubtry make...

    Scuds formed the basic design of all ballistic missiles of the above mentioned countries.
     
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  9. longbrained

    longbrained SENIOR MEMBER

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    All missiles are based on German V-2's. There is no need to invent the wheel again. Once a nation builds something under sanctions just Pakistan did under 1990's sanctions, it is a home grown technology. Simple as that. Now we can talk about the level of sophistication of that technology be it missiles or cars but the truth stands that once a nation is building something it means that they have the technology. All these missiles are as Pakistani as any missile can get. But it is a good thing to learn about the history of development. If Pakistan had not started with sounding rockets and would say, oh, it is French, we would not have Shaheen-2. You have to start somewhere. US and Russia started by copying V-2. Pakistan started by copying French sounding rockets. China started by copying Scud-A. Iran by copying Scud-B. Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Indonesia and Sudan did not copy anything, so they still have no technology yet.
     
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  10. The Deterrent

    The Deterrent PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Whoa whoa...slow down...

    I know the thread title is misleading...it gives a sense that Pakistani missiles are just copies...but I have written this article to highlight the opposite thing,in a neutral way.I don't mean to defame anyone/anything...Read the whole article carefully,then I'm sure how much I have resolved the allegation of Pakistani missiles being mere copies...
     
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  11. The Deterrent

    The Deterrent PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    A mature post indeed...that is my whole point.There is no shame in accepting it.Afterall,it was necessary for the country's defence.If we hadn't done it,we wouldn't be at this stage of development.
     
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  12. The Deterrent

    The Deterrent PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Minor Changes?

    Read it again...the minor changes were done only in the primitive design,such as Hatf-2 (cancelled),and Ghauri-1.

    The other systems have been massively upgraded,and systems like Shaheen-1,Shaheen-2 and Ghauri-2 are almost new sysetms,as I have compared them with the missiles they are said to be copies of.
     
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  13. ChineseTiger1986

    ChineseTiger1986 ELITE MEMBER

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    Only capable of threatening India with your BMs is not enough, remember the biggest threat for your nation is USA.

    So Pakistan needs some 20-30 MIRVed ICBMs to defence itself from USA, since hundred of them are too expensive to be maintained for the current economy of Pakistan.
     
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  14. muse

    muse PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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    Girlfriend, Pleez! What difference does it make? Whoever gets on the wrong side of these will end up just as dead -- or will some then be asking, How dead?
     
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  15. fd24

    fd24 SENIOR MEMBER

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    I think as long as they defend Pakistan or act as a deterant i couldnt care less about anything else.
    BTW AhaseebA sahib i find it strange a guy from Pindi lives literally on IDF? Strange coz i think the activity is painfully slow on their. Whats the fascination with India? Do they have ballistic missiles that they have are better?