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Pakistan through history.

ghazi52

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Major Foreign Invasions Against Pakistan From Western Borders

Assyrian Empire 800 BC
Achaemenid Empire 530 BC
Alexander of Macedon 326 BC
Indo-Greeks 206 BC
Scythians 90 BC
Parthians 21 AD
Kushans 45 AD
Huns 450 AD
Muslims 644 AD
Genghis Khan 1221 AD
 

ghazi52

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Two great battles were fought in same area of Punjab, Pakistan but over 2000 years apart.

Battle of Hydaspes between Raja Porus & Alexander in 326 BC
Battle of Chillianwala between Sikhs & British in 1849.

European invaders did not win both the battles.


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ghazi52

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Natural unity of landmass of Indus Valley Civilisation (Pakistan) served by a single major river valley made Indus Valley Civilisation a contiguous geographical entity. Identified as Meluhha by Mesopotamians, later named Hind, Indos & India & called Pakistan by its own people.


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Major Foreign Invasions Against Pakistan From the East

Mauryan Empire (323 BC)

Gupta Empire (319 AD)

Rai Dynasty (489 AD)

Harshvardana Empire (606 AD)

Rai Maharath (640 AD)

Rajput (647 AD) Pala Empire (770 AD)

Mahratha (1757 AD)

British (1843 AD)
 

ghazi52

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180 BC Sirkap, part of Taxila city of Pakistan was planned & laid-out almost like 5000 year old planned cities of Harappa/Mohenjodaro & Grecian city planning principles.

Streets cutting at right angles with well aligned blocks of buildings. Was preserved in same manner till end.



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ghazi52

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Pakistan's history can be traced back to millions of years. 3 million years old tusks of extinct elephant family were found near Jhelum. 2.2 million years old stone tool was found at Rawat near Islamabad.

1 million years old extinct elephant family tusk was found near Gujrat.
 

ghazi52

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Boat bridges for river crossing in Pakistan have been used since 1000s of years:

Assyrians - 800 BC

Alexander - 326 BC

Muhammad Bin Qasim - 712 AD

Amir Taimur - 1398 AD

Mughals - periodically used such bridges

Ranjit Sing - periodically used such bridges

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ghazi52

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The world famous archaeologist and scholar Dr Dani, who was part of the team that excavated Mohenjodaro called Indus Valley Civilisation as "Ancient Pakistani Civilisation".
 

ghazi52

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First military expedition to survey Indus River in Pakistan was organised in 6th century BC by King Darius of Persia (550-486 BC).

It carried out reconnaissance of Indus River Valley to ascertain if the area was worth conquering and to locate where Indus River flowed into the sea.

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Natural unity of landmass of Indus Valley Civilisation (Pakistan) served by a single major river valley made Indus Valley Civilisation a contiguous geographical entity. Identified as Meluhha by Mesopotamians, later named Hind, Indos & India & called Pakistan by its own people.


Image

Major Foreign Invasions Against Pakistan From the East

Mauryan Empire (323 BC)

Gupta Empire (319 AD)

Rai Dynasty (489 AD)

Harshvardana Empire (606 AD)

Rai Maharath (640 AD)

Rajput (647 AD) Pala Empire (770 AD)

Mahratha (1757 AD)

British (1843 AD)
You forgot to mention Sikhs..... Attack on Pakistan from East
 

ghazi52

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Herodutus (400 BC) said, land of Indos/Pakistan is a populous place having different cultures, ethnicities speaking different languages.

He also said, after River Indos (Indus) there is a desert & after that only 2 known tribes exist; one is cannibal & other roam nude in jungles.


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ghazi52

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In 644 AD Buddhist monk Xuanzang wrote, King Ashoka’s son was blinded by courtiers who were exiled & some moved to Khotan, China.

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In 1901, Aurel Stein found tablets in Takla Makan, China with same story written in Kharoshti script/Prakrit language spoken in Punjab & KP, Pakistan.


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ghazi52

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In 1221 AD, Chengez Khan led his Mongol army into Pakistan from Parachinar area, in pursuit of Jalauddin Khwaresmi, a Persian prince of Khwaresmi Empire and defeated him.

The battle took place on northern bank of River Indus.
This was the only time Chengez Khan entered Pakistan.



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