What's new

Featured Pakistan: The Archaeological Marvel

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
The oldest and only Gandharan mosque of northern Pakistan:
Udegram Mosque. The mosque is arguably the oldest of northern Pakistan and the only one to employ Gandharan architecture; mainly Gandharan stone masonry in the form of usage schist slabs and stones.


1616347519137.png







1616347541829.png





1616347577956.png





1616347603777.png
 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
The Mosque at Lahore, Circa 1905.

1617926500011.png



Photograph of the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, built during the Mughal era in 1671-3, of red sandstone, with three domes and of four octagonal minarets at each corner. The mosque complex is enclosed with four more octagonal minarets (two visible in this photograph).

The mosque fell into disrepair after the demise of the Sikh Kingdom and subsequent British control, so the minarets are missing canopies; since then the mosque has been fully restored. The Prince and Princess of Wales (later King George V and Queen Mary) stayed in Lahore in Punjab, now Pakistan, from 28th November to 1st December 1905.

© Royal Collection Trust
 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
1618075736420.png





1618075770166.png




Beautiful Haveli/Palace ruined into Island of Baqar Lake, Dist Sanghar, Sindh.

According to locals palace belong to wealthy Junejo tribe who migrated from Rajputana and Jaisalmer.

Palace built on Sand Dunes but because of increasing water now stuck on Islands.
 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
1618080863371.png




The Thul Mir Rukan is a Buddhist Stupa, according to locals this built possibly between the 6th to 11th century CE , located near Daulatpur in the Sindh.

This monument has domed ceiling and it is 60 feet high, constructed with baked bricks.
 

Kambojaric

MODERATOR
Apr 6, 2010
5,117
13
8,632
Country
Pakistan
Location
Sweden
400-year-old tunnel discovered in Shahi Qila
Despite being buried in heart of Lahore for centuries, structure is still firmly in place

1618140826464.png



LAHORE:
A 400-year-old tunnel has been discovered during restoration work at the Royal Fort in Lahore.


Despite being buried in the heart of the city for centuries, this tunnel is still firmly in place today. The tunnel is well ventilated and lighted, while niches had been made for lighting the lamps.

As per the opinion of experts, the tunnel was used as drainage and secret passage. The royal fort of Lahore is an important monument of the Mughal period. Under the existing buildings of the fort, there are secret basements, and a network of corridors and tunnels.

Buried in the heart of Lahore, the walls of this tunnel are firmly in place. Walled City of Lahore Authority (WCLA) Sub-engineer Hafiz Umran, who was working on the project, told The Express Tribune that a while ago when the rehabilitation and renovation work of Moti Masjid and Maktab Khana was started, traces of the tunnel were found during excavation.

“Further excavations and research reveals that this is a drain system that was built 400 years ago. Initially, the 625 feet long tunnel has been restored while more work will be done in the next phase.”

This tunnel passes under different parts of the royal fort, he added. “There are many small tunnels along the main tunnel when we enter in the tunnel. Lighting and air supply are also arranged at different distances.”

The tunnel was large enough to pass through easily.

1618140857395.png



According to the WCLA sub-engineer, the water collected in the fort during the rainy season used to accumulate in the tunnels, which had damaged various parts of the fort, including the Moti Masjid, Maktab Khana, Haveli Mai Jindan and the museum building.

Initially, the 625-foot-long tunnel had been repaired and cleaned to enable drainage, and rainwater flowed out of the ancient tunnel.

1618140868559.png


1618140876378.png



According to the experts, restoring the tunnel and drain, which had been closed for 400 years, was a difficult task.

In developed countries, modern machinery and equipment were used for such tasks but we have done it in the traditional way, they added. “Snakes and scorpions were also found during the excavation. We are happy that the tunnel is functional."

Archaeologists say the tunnel was apparently used for the drainage system. However, it is very large and the niches are placed inside it to hold the lamp, which suggests that the tunnel may have been used as a secret passage.

After excavating in different parts of the royal fort, the Walled City of Lahore Authority had also discovered ammunition, royal kitchen, Jahangir-era baths, basements under the Black Bridge and corridors.

Experts added that the fort had seven layers, meaning it was demolished and rebuilt seven times. If excavations are started in any part of the fort, many artifacts will be recovered from below.

 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
Sikhs of Dhamali

by Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro

April 9, 2021





Grave of Baba Karmat Hussain Shah Sabiri in Dhamali




Share on FacebookShare on Twitter


There still live many oral historians and village intellectuals in the towns and villages of Pothohar who have preserved the history, heritage and lost traditions of their respective areas. During my research which spans two decades in the Pothohar region in Punjab, I met many such historians and village intellectuals to collect information on the oral history of villages and towns and their lost built heritage, traditions and customs of Pothohar. I met one such village intellectual in Dhamali village on the 14th of March 2021, who has not only preserved the oral history of his village but also the surrounding villages. His name is Jahandar Khan and he is 88 years old. He is a retired school teacher who possesses a wealth of knowledge which he has acquired through his lived experience in village and traveling in different regions of Pakistan.
Dhamali is located about 5 km east of Kallar Syedan town on the Kallar Syedan-Doberan Road. There are two important sacred Muslim spaces in Dhamali village which include the shrine of Baba Karmat Hussain Shah Sabiri and a communal grave called Pakki Qabar. Legend has it that buried in Pakki Qabar are the first Muslim proselytizers who came from Central Asia to preach Islam in the village in the twelfth century.


Before the Partition of 1947, Dhamali also called Thamali, was mainly inhabited by the Sikh community. There were also few households of the Hindu community. According to Jahandar Khan, there were only three households which belonged to the Awan family. The notable Awans of these three families were Malik Karam Khan, Malik Fazal Illahi, Malik Khan Muhammad and Malik Waris Khan.





Donar plaque with the name of Sardar Santokh Singh Gandhi from Dhamali or Thamali in Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib Kanoha
The Sikhs of Dhamali were merchants and agriculturalists. They owned the markets and agricultural land in the village. There were three bazaars in Dhamali. All the shops in bazaars were owned by Sikhs and some by Hindus. Sikhs controlled the business of Dhamali and Doberan villages. They were also influential in other villages and towns namely Manglora, Kallar, Kanoha, Thoha Khalsa, Dera Khalsa in Kahuta tehsil (now Kallar Syedan) district.

There were about 40 magnificent havelis of Sikhs and Hindus in Dhamali, all of which have now disappeared save one which was built by Parmeshri Kaur. Only the front of the choubara (mansion) of Parmeshri Kaur is extant now. It was a two-storeyed structure. The remains and ruins of the rooms and halls of the haveli of Parmeshri Kaur are extant in the heart of Dhamali village. It was a stone-built structure decorated with floral and geometric designs. The stone carvings on the pillars and spandrels of the haveli were remarkable, the traces of which can still be seen in the structure. In the same street were the havelis of some other notable Sikhs of the village.

The havelis of Gopal Singh and his brother Dayal Singh were also famous buildings in the village. In fact, the havelis of both brothers were two-storeyed structures and noted for their wooden balconies and doors. The sons of Gopal Singh had a transport business. Dayal Singh had four sons: Jawant Singh, Kartar Singh, Rajandar Singh and Mehtab Singh. Jawant Singh, who was the elder son of Dayal Singh, had a cloth shop in the Dhamali bazaar. Kartar Singh son of Dayal Singh had a grocery shop in the Dhamali bazaar.




Chariyan Wala Kunwan

Mohan Singh, Charan Singh, Gian Singh, Gokal Singh, Kharak Singh, Labh Singh, Mahinder, Hardit Singh, Ram Singh, Santokh Singh, Ganda Singh, Hira Singh, Suraj Singh, Harbans Singh and Sardar Singh were all known notables of Dhamali.

The havelis of these village elites dominated the landscape of Dhamali village. Ram Singh ran the business of brick kilns in Dhamali and neighbouring villages. The havelis of Suraj Singh and Hira Singh were also noted for their woodwork and embellishments. And the haveli of Sardar Singh was also a famous building in Dhamali. He had a jewellery shop in the bazaar. He was also assisted by his son Kuldip Singh. The wife of Sardar Singh, Rakhi Kaur, was an influential lady in Dhamali village. All the havelis have become history now.


There existed a well which was believed to have been dug by Hari Singh Nalwa, a famous general of Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Wells and tanks built by Sikhs still mark the landscape of Dhamali village. Maha or Mai Rami who was known for her welfare works in the village got a well dug for the villagers. But the water well was brackish and it was soon abandoned. Another well in the village was dug by Balwant Singh which was located near a school in the village and was named after him.

There also existed a well which was believed to have been dug by Hari Singh Nalwa (d.1837), a famous general of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Hari Singh Nalwa’s in-laws were from Dhamail village. The famous well in Dhamali was Chariyan wala Kunwan. This well was used by the villagers and was located near the Shamshan Ghat (Hindu crematory ground). Two of the old village tanks are still extant in the village which were built by Sikhs of Dhamali. There was also a single-story house of Sain Lok. Now this Sain Lok had a large snake and he used to entertain the villagers and earn his livelihood by this profession.




Dilapidated haveli of Parmeshri Kaur in Dhamali


Jahandar Khan studied in the primary school of Dhamali and remembers the names of his Hindu and Muslim teachers too. The names of school teachers in Dhamali were Parcha Singh of Dhamali, Ujjar Singh who was a resident of Doberan, Sant Singh Suri, who was from Choa Khalsa, Sardar Khan of Manglora village, Karam Das of Mali Malikan and Master Muhammad Shafi of Mali Vens village.



Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib at Kanoha


According to Master Jahandar Khan, there were about ten households of Hindus in Dhamali. The names of notable Hindus of Dhamali included Dr. Dhanraj and three brothers Indar Chander, Balam Khand and Tara Chand. The havelis of Hindus do not exist now. The temple, which was located in Dhamali village, has also disappeared now.


There was also a gurdwara in Dhamali village which has disappeared now. It is believed that Sant Attar Singh Ji of Mastuana (1866-1927) undertook Akhand Paath (a three-day uninterrupted rendition of sacred hymns from the Guru Granth Sahib) in the Gurdwara of Dhamali. He was invited by his friend Bhai Sant Ram Singh.

The Sikhs of Dhamali were followers of Sant Attar Ji. The Sikhs were also followers of Baba Khem Singh Bedi as he was a spiritual leader of Sikhs of Kallar, Kahuta and other areas in Rawalpindi district. After his death in 1905, many Sikhs of Dhamali became the disciples of Sant Attar Singh Ji. The gurdwara of Dhamali was built by Sant Bhai Ram Singh who was also known for his piety in the village and area.

The gurdwara was located on a picturesque setting at the bank of stream locally called Kasi. The brother of Sant Bhai Ram Singh, Sant Bhai Jawahar Singh was also a pious person. He served every passerby, sadhus and sants, with food. And he also provided shelter to them. It was believed that nobody went hungry from this gurdwara. Today, this place is called Sanata dera. There was also a well there which was called Kasi wala Kunwan or Sanatan wala Kunwan.




Old Ban or tank in Dhamali

After his death in 1927, his ardent disciple Sant Teja Singh Ji (1877-1965) continued to spread the thought and ideology of his mentor. Sant Teja Singh Ji toured the entire Pothohar region, collecting donations for the construction of the Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib at Kanhoa.

The Sikhs of Dhamali generously contributed to the construction of Gurdwara Tapiana sahib at a place where Sant Attar Singh Ji had mediated. The Sikhs of Dhamali also attended the inauguration ceremony of Taposthan Kanoha alias Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib. Like many others in Dhamali village, Jamadar Gurdit Singh of Dhamali was a devout disciple of Sant Teja Singh Ji.

The Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib is a three-storeyed building. There are about 18 donor plaques in Gurmukhi on the walls of the gurdwara which I have documented. At least 5 donor plaques record the names of residents of Dhamali who contributed to the construction of the gurdwara. From these donor plaques, one also comes to know the family names – Suri, Sarka, Gurpur, Gandhi, Bindra – of some of the notable Sikhs of Dhamali.

The name of one of the donors appears on the chaukaath (wooden door frame) of the gurdwara as Santokh, who donated wooden frame and marble in memory of his father Hira Singh. The second donor plaque reads Mai Gur Daee wife of Sardar Atma Singh Ji Munshi who donated Rs. 201 in memory of her son Sardar Nirvair Singh Ji Gurpur resident of Thamali/Dhamali. The third donor plaque bears the name of Raja Singh Ji Sarla who donated Rs. 51 in memory of his respected father Sardar Teja Singh Ji Gadari Wale Haal Dhamali through Jamadar Gurdit Singh. The fourth donor plaque reads only that Lambardar Dhamali donated Rs. 21.

The fifth plaque records the name of Raj Devi wife of Sardar Uttar Singh Bindra of Thamali/Dhamali who donated Rs. 25 through Sardar Hukam Singh. Bhai Sardar Hukam Singh was the resident of Bishan Daur (now called Dewan Huzoor village) in Sohawa, Jhelum. He was a member of Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib Committee which also comprised Bhai Sanokh Singh and other prominent persons of the area. The main duty assigned to Bhai Bishan Singh was to look after the construction of Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib at Kanoha. Bishan Singh also was from Bishan Daur village in Sohawa, Jhelum. He got two small rooms constructed but could not undertake the construction of the Gurdwara Tapiana Sahib and disappointed, he went to his village Bishan Daur.


The author is an anthropologist. He may be contacted at zulfi04@hotmail.com. Excerpts have been taken from the author’s forthcoming book “History and Heritage of Pothohar.” All photos are by the author


 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
The Gori Temple Nagarparkar Sindh.
It is a Jain temple built in 1375-1376 CE.
The temple was exclusively allocated to the 23rd Jain Tirthankar Lord Parshwanath.


1618763706336.png





1618763744736.png





1618763780338.png




1618763812977.png

..

1618763917049.png
 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
Takht i Bahi "Throne of water spring" is an Indo Parthian archaeological site of an ancient Buddhist monastery in Mardan, KP, Pakistan. It is considered among the most imposing relics of Buddhism in all of Gandhara.

1618769479474.png





1618769406214.png






1618769428683.png





1618769455700.png
 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
The Kot Diji Fort (Fort of the Daughter)

1618771326396.png



Formally known as Fort Ahmadabad, is an 18th-century Talpur-era fort located in the town of Kot Diji in Khairpur District, Pakistan, about 25 miles east of the Indus River at the edge of the Thar Desert. The fort sits above a pre-Harappan Civilization archaeological site dating to 2500 to 2800 B.C.E. (Wikipedia)
 

Kambojaric

MODERATOR
Apr 6, 2010
5,117
13
8,632
Country
Pakistan
Location
Sweden
Conservation Of Saddozai Chieftain's Tomb Near Completion In Multan

MULTAN, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News - 23rd Apr, 2021 ) :The tomb of Shah Hussain, the chieftain of Saddozai tribe, who and later his scions, left indelible mark on Multan history through their political influence and subsequent over six decades rule, was nearing completion in the city of saints under a Rs 8 million project.

The project would hopefully be completed within the ongoing Ramzan ul Mubarak or after Eid ul Fitr, an official of Punjab archaeology department told APP.

Shah Hussain Saddozai was the first from Saddozai clan to have reached and settled in Multan from Afghanistan in the mid seventeenth century after having his relations strained with Safavid kings of persia for whom the tribe used to guard the highways.

He was the grandson of Asadul Ain alias Saddo Khan, the progenitor of Saddozai clan. Upon arrival in Multan, Shah Hussain Saddozai was received by Prince Aurangzeb who later became empror. He was given the title of 'Wafadar Khan'and was given a 'Jageer'making Multan the second home to Saddozai Afghans. Later, his scions ruled Multan, prominently among them were Nawab Zahid Khan, Nawab Shuaja Khan and Nawab Muzaffar Khan.

Saddozais maintained their political relevance under rule by different powers over Multan. In 1746, Ahmad Shah Abdali confirmed Nawab Zahid Khan Saddozai as the Governopr of Multan and fifteen years later, Ahmad Shah Durrani appointed Shuja Khan, the younger son of Zahid Khan, as the Governor of Multan.

By 1772, Durrani ruler died and his heir Timur Shah Durrani retained Haji Shareef Saddozai in the same capacity. Bhangi Sikhs captured citadel of Multan on Dec 27 in 1772 and they ruled till 1780, the time when they were defeated by Timur Shah Durrani assisted by young Saddozai Nawab Muzaffar Khan. Nawab Muzaffar Khan Saddozai governed Multan for next 36 years but was martyred in 1818 by the army of Ranjit Singh, ending their rule over Multan.

The tomb of Shah Hussain Saddozai is located inside Abdali Masjid. The Rs 8 million project was approved in 2018-19 but executed in 2019-20 under Punjab annual development plan.

Officials said that the project would complete at a cost of Rs 6 million and the Rs 2 million saving was being utilized for conservation of mausoleum of Hazrat Sakhi Sultan at Suraj Miani in Multan under another ongoing project.

Application of Kankar lime plaster on dome and walls of Saddozai's tomb, both interior and exterior, has been completed,however,work on putting a finer layer of lime plaster on the interior is yet to be completed. Kashikari work on tiles has been completed. Underpinning of walls, interior and exterior besides brick imitation work, fresco and stucco work has been completed. Floor in Persian blue tiles is awaiting completion while brick-on-edge flooring has been done on the historical tomb that is square in shape at the ground level and octagonal at the upper storey supporting a dome.



1619227758070.png
 

Kambojaric

MODERATOR
Apr 6, 2010
5,117
13
8,632
Country
Pakistan
Location
Sweden
400-year-old fort to undergo facelift

1620205280702.png


LAHORE:
Punjab Archaeology Department has decided to restore a 400-year-old Mughal-era fort-like palace in Sheikhupura. According to experts, a study will be conducted in the first phase on the restoration of the fort.

Many changes were made in the structure of the building in different periods. However, much of the building is dilapidated and the exterior wall restoration work is under way.

Study tours from Lahore to Qila Sheikhupura and Hiran Minar have also been suggested. There can be entertaining and informational tours to Sheikhupura Fort and Hiran Minar from the provincial capital and for this some parts inside the fort will be restored. Given the current state of the fort, only guided tours will be allowed inside.

Sheikhupura Fort is perched on a high mound in the south of the city. The magnificent fort is a symbol of the glory of the Mughal era.

1620205322880.png


The fort is spread over an area of more than 64 kanals. Experts suggest that it was not a traditional fort but the residence of Emperor Jahangir. According to Tuzak-e-Jahangiri, this fort-like palace was built in the year 1607. This fort was not built for any military purpose but Emperor Jahangir used to stay here with his companions and army when he came to hunt in the area.

Archaeology Department Malik Maqsood Ahmed says the fort was not built for military purposes but as a palace. "You can call it a castle-like palace."

More than half of the Rani Mahal has collapsed, but the entrance is still open. Above the queen's palace was a palace of mirrors. The roof still exists to some extent, but access to the top is limited.

Also read Pir Ghaib, today, tomorrow and after

Maharaja Ranjit Singh built many mansions here where his wives and children used to live. But the strength of the foundations was not taken into account in these constructions, which is why most of the building has collapsed.

The fort was also used as a military base during the Sikh and British eras. After the establishment of Pakistan, a refugee camp was set up here.

1620205365930.png



In addition, several government offices were built here, which caused changes in the building structure and severely damaged the original historic look of the building.

The locals of Sheikhupura say that the fort is the identity of the city. A mechanic who has been working in front of the fort for many years, says that if the government builds a food street after doing a little restoration work in the fort, it will not only increase business activities but also tourist interest.

A local youth said the government had closed the fort to tourists. “This is our historical heritage and it should be restored so that the younger generation especially the students can know about this historic fort.”

Secretary Tourism and Archaeology Ehsan Bhutta said that when the fort was handed over to Punjab Archaeology Department in 2011, its condition was very bad.

In 2017, the department launched a restoration project at the site, which is still ongoing. Under the project, the outer wall of the fort is being repaired while the interior portions have been renovated and some benches have been placed there. Information display boards have been installed at various places.

Ehsan Bhutta said the department had sent a plan for approval last year, under which a detailed study of the fort will be done by national and foreign experts.

They will assess the condition of the foundation of the building and whether the walls and roof can be restored. An allocation of Rs10 million has been proposed for the study.

After that, if archaeologists find the foundations of the fort to be viable, there will be further restoration work, which will cost around Rs90 million.

 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States



Bilal Hassan

Ali Mardan Khan Tomb

Ali Mardan Khan was the Safavid governor of Qandahar. He had been in obligation with his revenues. Shah Tahmasp requested him to appear at the court. He desired the assistance from the governor of Kabul. The commander of Ghazni surrendered Qandahar to the Mughals in 1638. He took refuge in Delhi. Mughal court honored him. Shah Jahan gifted one lakh of tankas for himself. He gave two lakhs for his brother and the officers of his army. He was the governor of Kashmir, Kabul and Lahore.

He received the title of Amir al-Umara in 1639. He became a Haft Hazari who was leading to commanding an army of 7,000 troops.


Image result for Ali Mardan Khan Tomb





Image result for Ali Mardan Khan Tomb


He was appointed as the viceroy of Punjab which at that time developed from Kabul to Delhi. Ali Mardan Khan provided guidance on canal instruction as a Mughal officer. He served his guidance in regard to the Shah Nahar canal of Shalimar Gardens. He died in 1657.

He was buried adjacent to his mother in the tomb prepared for her next to the canal at Mughalpura.

The authorities have built a kilometer long passageway from the street to the tom. The visitors has to pass from trespassing on the rail yard grounds as it sits within the confines of a modern-day rail yard

The Ali Mardan Khan Tomb itself is a massive brick construction work. It is octagonal in plan with a high dome and kiosks on angular points. It is standing on an eight-sided podium. Each side of Ali Mardan Khan Tomb is measuring 58 ft. It was originally a magnificent structure with the dome finished with white marble inlaid with floral design in black marble. Lofty Timurid aiwans breaked the sides surmounted by a massive 42′ diameter dome raised on a drum.

Shorn of surface decoration except the remains of frescoes in some of the alcoves. The exterior walls have carried scintillating tile mosaic as can be seen in the extant gateway at some distance to the north of the sepulcher. The chambers had peitra dura work in the massive marble columns. It has fresco paintings on walls and ceilings.

The graves were on a three-foot high red sand stone platform beneath a larger. This was profusely decorated with inlaid precious, semi-precious stones and fresco floral patterns.

The Ali Mardan Khan Tomb stood at the center of a paradisaical garden. A favorite theme as evidenced in the sepulcher of Jahangir. The double-storey gateway can be gauged the extent of Ali Mardan garden in the north. Similar gateways would have marked the centers of the south, west and east edges of the garden square.

Ali Mardan Khan was a Mughal noble, not a saint. The spiritually inclined locals call the tomb Mardan Khan’s shrine. There is a grave in the subterranean chamber which is decorated in the manner of a saint’s shrine.

Gulab Singh used it as military magazine and Gurdit Singh used the gateway as the residence.
 

-blitzkrieg-

SENIOR MEMBER
Mar 1, 2015
3,640
2
4,314
Country
Pakistan
Location
Pakistan
Monument Of Bucephalus The Horse of Alexander The Great



Alexander the great of Macedonia is one of those kings who are equally famous in the East and also in the West. He started his career of conquests from Greece and after conquering the Middle East he invaded central Asia and then turned southward and invaded present day Pakistan. After conquering Punjab he decided to return home. During his long odyssey his favourite horse Becaphalus was accompanying him. But he too ended the journey of his life here in Punjab. Alexander had a great love for this horse, which is prominently displayed in the movie "Alexander" released in 2004.

Alexander buried his horse near the modern day town of Jalalpur Sharif in district Jhelum just before or after his famous battle of Raja Porus on the other side of the river Jhelum in May, 326 BC. He probably built a monument as well. But no traces of that are to be found. However, in 1997 AD due to the interest taken by Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan a new monument was built on the same spot. It is a big building with a blend of Greek architecture. It has several rooms and the roof is used as a big platform on which there are four sided Greek style arches. It is made of marble and its white building attracts from a distance.

Alexander also founded a town a here and name it Bucephala after his horse. Which later on acquired the name of Girjakh and finally named Jalapur by its ruler Malik Darwesh Khan Janjua in honour of Moghul emperor Jalaluddin Akbar, who visited this town.


Picture Taken on 20.03.2005.

View from a hill on 20.03.2005.

View From South side on 18.03.2009.

Foundation plaque.

Another view from the road.


A map showing the travels of Alexander. (18.03.2009.)

Arches on the platform.

View from the south.

View From the south east with a beautiful hill in the background.

View from the dry bed of a ravine, in the south east.

This monument is located in district Jhelum at 32° 39' 53" N, 73° 24' 31" E. It easily accessible, as a good road passes by the monument. Take an exit from the Lilla Interchange on M2 and travel first to Pind Dadan Khan about 25 kilometers away and then continue towards Jhelum for further 35 kilometers and reach Jalalpur Sharif. The monument is less than a kilometer in north from here. As the road is good so it is not difficult to reach here. If you ever plan a tour of this area, you can include a visit to Khewra Salt Mines, which are just 6 kilometers north of Pind Dadan Khan.

I shall appreciate your comments on the above post. Similarly I most welcome your suggestions to improve it or any more information on this subject, which I shall use with all due credit.

Tariq Amir
1620359556981.png
 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
Historical tombs and graves at Chaukundi , National Highway Landhi, Karachi

1620573966451.png



Tombs and graves at Chaukundi, the Chaukhandi tombs. situated 29 km east of Karachi on N-5 National Highway near Landhi Town.

The Chaukhandi tombs are remarkable for the elaborate and exquisite stone carving.
The style of architecture is typical only to the region of Sindh, and unique in that it is found nowhere else in the Islamic world. Generally, the elements are attributed to Jokhio (also spelt Jokhiya) also known as the family graveyard of Jokhio tribe, some people of Baluch tribe also buried were built between the 15th and 18th centuries.


Description


This type of graveyard, in Sindh and Baluchistan, is unique with their orientation from south to north. These graves are constructed in buff sandstone. Their carved decoration presents exquisite craftsmanship. These graves were constructed either as single graves or as groups of up to eight graves raised on a common platform.

Their primary sarcophagus has six vertical slabs, with two long slabs standing on each side of the grave covering the length of the body and the remaining two vertical slabs covering the head and foot side. These six slabs are covered by a second sarcophagus consisting of six more vertical slabs similar but in size giving the grave a pyramid shape. This upper (second sarcophagus) is further covered with four or five horizontal slabs and the topmost (third) sarcophagus is set vertically with its northern end carved into a knob known as a crown or a turban. These tombs are embellished, besides with geometrical designs and motifs, with figural representations such as mounted horsemen, hunting scenes, arms, jewellery etc..

19th century

The earliest passing reference about Chaukhandi tombs (a.k.a. Jokundee) in the Western world is available in a letter which J. Macleod had addressed to H. B. E. Frere in 1851[citation needed]. The tombs, however, were given serious attention by H. D. Baskerville, Assistant Collector of Thatta in Karachi district in 1917. The tombs near Landhi were brought with the pale of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904 in the year 1922[clarification needed].

Dr. Salome Zajadacz-Hastenrath summarizes earlier research as follows:

Early 20th century


A cemetery of this type was discovered at the turn of the 20th century in Hinidan by Major M. A. Tighe, Political Agent in southern Baluchistan. J. P. Vogel[2] was the first to investigate this and other cemeteries – including Karpasan (a plateau south of Hinidan), Gundar (a village near Dinga, south of Hinidan), and Manghopir(…) – and he drew attention to another cemetery discovered by Captain Showers, Political Agent in Kalat, lying between the Hub River and Sonmiani (…). Vogel recognized that the tombs were Islamic, as indicated by the use of the Arabic script and the alignment of the monuments. According to Islamic custom, the dead are laid to rest in such a way that they are aligned towards Mecca over their right shoulder. Mecca lies approximately to the west of Sindh; the longitudinal axis of the tombs accordingly lies more or less in a north-south direction, with the head always lying in the north. (…)

Jokhio, Jokhia or Jokhiya (Urdu:جوکھيو) are said to be the descendant of the Samma (tribe). Chaukhandi cemetery, consisting of names or Quranic Verse. Some of the Jams who were named were said to belong to the Jokhio tribe still resident in the area.and the 1st raitar Mr, Ali Muhammad Jokhio of Jokhio History.
In (…) 1910, Sir Thomas Holdich described a similar cemetery near Malir and also referred to several other cemeteries (…). He stated that local tradition ascribed these to the ‘Kalmati‘ Baluchis, and he linked this name to the town of Kalmat on the Makran Coast.

In 1917, H. D. Baskerville discovered a similar cemetery in the vicinity of the village of Chaukhandi, near Karachi. (…) Baskerville’s published report (…) raised the question of above-ground burial – but he dismissed this possibility, describing a careful investigation of one of the stone chambers in the cemetery, which had not contained any remains. A number of tomb inscriptions were found at the Chaukhandi cemetery, consisting of names and/or sayings from the Quran. Some of the Jams who are named were said to belong to the Jokhiya tribe still resident in the vicinity. Only one of the tombs was dated – by the date of death inscribed on it with the numbers in reverse order – as AH 1169 (AD 1756).

In 1925, Henry Cousens devoted a chapter of his book on the antiquities of Sindh to ‘Baluch tombs’.[3] He studied tombs in Jarak (now spelt Jerruck), Sonda and Kharkharo, which were also of the same type. Referring to the studies by G. E. L. Carter, he noted that more than twenty such cemeteries had in the meantime been identified, and he rejected the theory regarding above-ground burial, due to the frequent occurrence of arcade-like perforations in the lower casket. (…) Cousens was the first to draw comparisons with other architectural monuments in Sindh, and he refers to similarities between the decoration of a tomb in Sonda and the tombs of Mian Ghuam Shah Kalhoro (Shah Wardi Khan) (d. 1772) in Hyderabad and The tomb of the Samma king, Jam Nizamuddin II (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. Similar to this is the mausoleum Isa Khan Tarkhan the Younger (d. 1644) in the necropolis on Makli Hill. With regard to the covering of the tombs with chattris, he points to similar tombs in the same necropolis and to the tomb of Mir Masum in Sukkur. He considers the tombs to be of approximately the same date as the tombs of Ghulam Shah Kalhora – the second half of the 18th century. He states that depictions of riders, as seen on some of the tombs, are found on sati stones in Kathiawar and Kutch as well. (…)

Information about a single tomb of the type described, in the vicinity of the village of Baghwana, south-west of Las Bela (princely state), was published in 1931 by Sir Aurel Stein.[4] According to local tradition, the tomb was that of Mai Masura, a saintly beggar women; according to the legend, the stone slabs had miraculously flown through the air from Kandahar. The tomb was thought to have been in place when the local Rind tribe entered the area fourteen generations previously. Stein considered it to date from the end of the 15th century.
In 1934, in a publication concerning monuments recently recorded in Sindh, Nani Gopala Majumdar described a funerary enclosure on Tharro Hill near Gujjo.[5] He believed that the cemetery enclosure dated from the 14th century, and was, therefore, older than the monuments on Makli Hill; he also found some additional tombs of lesser First decade of the 21st century
In 2003 (i.e. after the author’s decease in 1998), an English translation of the book was published in Pakistan.

Later, the Italian Professor Gian Giuseppe Filippi visited Sindh and examined some prominent sites of Chaukhandi graveyards. He traced the Rajput influences in Chaukhandi graveyards.[15] In this article he mentioned that it is well known that many Munda warrior groups have family ties with the so-called Rajput tribes of Rajasthan and Gujarat. Even in this case, their warlike behavior and the confusing definition of the Rajput caste keeps open the ‘structure’ of Hinduism. Some among the Rajput tribes, namely the Jokhio, the Numeri, the Burfat and the Lashari emigrated from Kutch (Gujarat) and Rajputana towards the Sindh and Makran regions during the Samma Dynasty. All these tribes mentioned had close relations among each other including matrimonial ties, both within their own group as well as with the Baluch tribe of the Kalmatis. His hypothesis envisions a tribal Rajput origin in the utilization of not only the monolithic slabs and pedestals in the step-and-house-shaped Chaukhandi graves, but also in the naive decoration of some tombs which rather resemble a house facade like a human face as if drawn by a child. The decoration of the tombs (mostly with geometric motifs) is derived from wood sculpture. With few exceptions human figures are avoided in accordance with Islamic beliefs.

Some articles on the structural development of stone-carved graves were contributed by Dr. Kaleem Lashari.[16][17][18] Later, Lashari highlighted the Bhawani Serai and the Tutai Chaukhandi graveyards[citation needed], and called for an urgent act of conservation[citation needed].significance in the vicinity of the nearby mausoleum of Sheikh Turabi.


1620574194135.png




1620574240395.png
 

ghazi52

PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST
Mar 21, 2007
60,907
64
96,248
Country
Pakistan
Location
United States
In 1906, a hall was built on Bandar Road (now MA Jinnah Road) for social and cultural events in Karachi at a cost of about Rs. 33,000, of which Rs. 18,000 was donated by Ghulam Hussain Khaliq Dina, a philanthropist from Sindh. There was a donation from the family while the remaining Rs. 15,000 was spent by the Karachi Municipality.

Later, the hall was renamed as Khaliq Dina Hall in the name of Mr. Ghulam Hussain Khaliq Dina at the request of the family of the late Ghulam Hussain Khaliq Dina. On August 26, 1984, a part of the rear roof of this historic and monumental building suddenly collapsed and was repaired after being renovated by the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation from Messrs. SY Construction (Pvt) Ltd. for Rs. 13655137 / =.

In this hall, the British government on December 26, 1921, Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar and his brothers Maulana Shaukat Ali, Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madani, Dr. Saifuddin Kachlo, Maulana Nisar Ahmad Kanpuri, Pir Ghulam Mujaddid Sirhindi and Swami Shankar. Acharya was tried for sedition and sentenced to two years in prison.


1621474262213.png
 

Users Who Are Viewing This Thread (Total: 1, Members: 0, Guests: 1)


Top Bottom