• Sunday, December 15, 2019

Pakistan Army - AIR DEFENCE CORPS - Formation, Structure, Weapons

Discussion in 'Pakistan Army' started by Signalian, Dec 1, 2019.

  1. Signalian

    Signalian PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

    Messages:
    5,544
    Joined:
    Aug 18, 2015
    Ratings:
    +175 / 12,108 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Australia
    I have been asked repeatedly to create a thread on Army AIR DEFENCE and every time I had to paste a post that i wrote earlier in a thread so now i am creating a new topic.


    rb2.jpg

    Army AD formations hold confidential information in terms of TOE, deployment, weaponry and Radar systems. I will give a basic idea though.

    PA has excellent low altitude AD assets, this is because threat has been envisioned from UAV's, UCAV's, Gunships and Ground attack aircraft's which can fly at low altitudes to release payload. In peace time also, PA is constantly threatened by UAV's hovering above LOC. Medium altitude SAM umbrella is provided by LY-80, which could be used for area defense.

    rb3.jpg

    Regiment Types

    PA has a few types of AD Regiments.
    1. SAM or Missile Regiments
    2. Mixed Regiments (AAA and SAM). The AAA Guns are Radar controlled. (AAA = anti aircraft artillery)
    3. Surveillance and Reporting Regiments.

    Apart from Regiments, there are Air Defense Brigades and Air Defense Divisions in Pakistan Army. The notable are Air Defense Brigades attached to Armored Divisions, which have SP assets and modern radar systems. The Air Defense Divisions were formed to give AD coverage to Corps sized formations or provide AD cover of miles and miles to an area of strategic interest. This division can further be distributed and deployed with various formations when needed. The foremost role being to provide AD coverage using different assets like AAA and different types of SAM's having multiple range and altitude capability with layering type system as well as integrated with Radars.

    The Force structure for AD varies a lot as it handles different types of equipment and roles. Its role can be defending a strategic area like bridge, strategic installation, troops, depots, peaks etc to moving along with armored formations as well as serving un-mounted role of infantry.

    anza.jpg

    Regimental Structure

    The troops strength in a regiment is 300 to 400 troops. The AD Regiments usually have three batteries, with 6 AAA guns or 4- 6 launchers. These can vary depending upon deployment, launcher per battery can vary from 4 to 8 launchers. Batteries are usually, not always:
    P-Papa Battery
    Q-Quebec Battery
    R-Romeo Battery

    Plus there could a Radar section or battery managing Radar systems if not with in allotted batteries of an AD Regiment, otherwise Radar management troops can be at Brigade level. Battery commander is usually a Major, although due to shortage of officers, can be a captain also. There is also reported to be a section of RPV (remote piloted vehicle) controllers. The RPV's are used as target practice in exercises.

    Being a support arm, AD Regiment is usually distributed with various infantry or armor or artillery formations. So the CO (Commanding Officer) is briefed already about his AOR (area of responsibility) and allocation of batteries to support fighting (infantry/Armor) Brigades. The Regiment surveys these areas in technical manner for threat types/levels, altitudes, weather, placement of guns/launchers and maps are drawn. This is done to effectively place guns/launchers during combat. Maps are even drawn for enemy zones, since the brigade or division is supposed to advance and capture enemy territory. Liaison with PAF assets is conducted for services inter-operation capability.

    Mixed formations of AAA and SAM's are used for complimenting each other and handling different threats. The Sky Guard Radar can control 2 AAA Guns and 2 SAM's, which makes weapon inter operatability easier. AAA guns are used for the same purpose of usage of CIWS in naval ships for interception, basically close range defense with maximum fire power. The inadequacy of AAA guns in range and altitude is compensated with SAM's. Since AAA guns are radar controlled, therefore accuracy is not an issue. The radar locks onto the target and the barrels of the guns vector towards target calculating its altitude and speed.

    All anti aircraft guns whether radar operated / guided or manually operated get the early warnings directly or indirectly from a radar. Unless if its dark or heavy overcast the gunners make use of the very powerful telescopes on the either sides of the gun barrels while sitting in their seats and moving the horizontal and vertical lines (in their scopes) to achieve a cross hair and commence firing. During night or heavy clouds the advance observation posts and command centre with the help of radars (plus air force ones if available/ needed) serve as the eyes and the ears and direct the fire in the well rehearsed pattern that either destroys the target or harasses it away from intruding it into their area of defence. AAA Guns are area denial weapons with in the sky. A basic requirement of Army AD. These guns provide an excellent choice for the ground based suppression fire and taking out lightly armoured enemy vehicles and defending heavy artillery pieces from sneak attack such as their ground support role on LOC.

    Orli-e.jpg


    Anti Aircraft Guns

    The different types of AAA guns are :

    1. 12.7 mm
    Basic AA gun, deployed on MBT, APC's, SP Arty (M-109) and tripods.

    2. 14.5 mm
    AA Gun deployed on tripods and some Vehicles.

    3. 35 mm
    Mated with Sky Guard radar, it can intercept missiles (GDF-007 version). Radar can control two guns and two SAMs simultaneously.
    Radar range 20,000 m
    Radar altitude 3000-4000 m for guidance of cannon
    Radar altitude 3000-4000 m for guidance of SAM

    4. 37 mm / 40 mm

    Single or twin barreled. Ranges/altitude similar to Oerlikon 35mm. Reported to have been mated with a radar just like GDF-007.

    5. 57 mm (not sure if in current use)
    Altitude a bit higher than other AAA guns.


    SAM's

    1. Anza Mk I,II,III
    Low altitude Shoulder Fired, IR Guided.
    Range 5000 m
    Altitude 4000 m

    2. FIM-92 Stinger
    Low altitude Shoulder Fired, IR Guided.
    Range 7-8000 m
    Altitude 3500 m

    3. RBS-70
    Low altitude Shoulder Fired, Laser Guided. Also Giraffe Radar can be connected to 9 launchers. So it can be radar guided also.
    Range 8000 m
    Altitude 5000 m

    4. FN-6
    Low altitude Shoulder Fired, IR Guided.
    Range 6000 m
    Altitude 3800 m

    5. FM-90
    Low altitude SP AD, Radar Guided
    Range 15000 m
    Altitude 6000 m

    6. LY-80/HQ16
    Medium altitude SP AD, Radar Guided
    Range 40,000 (70,000 m upgraded)
    Altitude 15000 m

    Supporting AD Units

    1. Janbaz/Mujahid Force
    National Guard unit tasked with Air Defence of urban areas. Has been reported to use 12.7 mm and 14.5 mm AD guns. Janbaz/Mujahid force had been deployed in Indo-Pak wars under National Guard command for AD role. They are also deployed in Surveillance and Reporting roles. They are an integral part of the air defence command. Janbaz force is raised from the locals and they form one of the many layers of Pakistan's air defence system. They man PA's most basic or in a way older guns. A cluster of such batteries in an area augments the more sophisticated weapons.

    2. Pakistan Marines
    One AD battalion has been formed, 21st AD Battalion. tasked for coastal Air Defence using Mistral SAM. Mistral is an IR guided,Mach 2.6 speed missile with Range of 6000 m and altitude of 3000 m.


    PA Armored warfare and IAF CBU-105 Threat

    The major concern for members here is that PA has mostly low altitude SAM systems which provide no credible deterrence against CBU-105 equipped IAF aircrafts like Jaguar or SU30 MKI. PA armored formations use RBS-70 based SAM system with Giraffe Radars. These are low altitude SAM's to engage UAV's and Helicopter Gunships.

    If PA armored forces conduct an offensive operation inside Indian territory then the threat of IAF aircrafts equipped with CBU-105 is expected. The release altitude of CBU-105 is 12000 m, which means the aircraft has to fly at this altitude to release the weapon. Interestingly, LY-80 envelops this altitude and can engage the IAF aircraft. However, its doubtful if LY-80 will accompany PA armored forces inside Indian territory. The mention of PAF is debatable for providing AD cover to PA inside India against IAF. Thus PA will require a more agile AD SP system to to counter the CBU threat with engaging altitude above 12000 m. The Russian Pantsir series of AD systems could be a viable option. PA can look at other options available to procure also.

    To escape detection from enemy sensors as well as avoid getting targeted, Armored and Mechanized forces use different methods.

    1. Camouflaging methods to avoid detection by FLIR and other sensor through air. Camouflage nets are used for this purpose. Armored track prints formed in sand and desert are covered. In exercises, PA uses camo nets on armored vehicles to avoid detection by air. This was performed by a MIB (Mechanized infantry Battalion) back in 2011/12 against PAF aircraft in the desert. The aircraft's sensors could not locate an entire Battalion camouflaged in the sand. The number of crew (3) of Modern PA MBT's became debatable when the issue of continuously covering tracks came up which can cause fatigue to crews. Make-shift methods were employed to cover tracks during exercises as the Tanks rolled in the desert .

    2. It is desired to make contact with enemy as soon as possible and preferable over run enemy position. This denies enemy air strike on that position due to presence of enemy troops who are wounded or POW's.

    3. Tanks are mobile and are expected to be in transit most of the time. They can be ordered to stay between populated places (like villages) after crossing border, so the enemy Air Force cannot strike them.

    4. Another technique used by armored Formations is to move over a large front, covering a large area but finally converging at one or two points for final phase of attack. This thins them out initially but brings them around the target from different angles, which not only has more chances of a successful attack but also confuses enemy to judge the intended area of attack and if attacked from air requires higher number for aircraft to break off the attack.

    PA requires an effective AD SP system with in its Armored formations to pose a credible threat to IAF aircraft and Gunships.

    The HQ-9

    HQ-9, if acquired, should be used as Anti-ballistic Missile system primarily which Pakistan lacks at the moment. There have been rumors about it's acquisition however nothing concrete has surfaced as yet. It can be a suitable answer to India's S-400. A Naval version should also be considered.

    Army Aviation

    PA is now buying modern Gunships (T-129 and AH-1Z), which have the capability to fire Air to Air missiles (Mistral/Aim-9 etc). These will be used for self defense purpose, but can also target enemy slow flying aerial assets.

    @Inception-06 @Gryphon .... corrections ?
     
    Last edited: Dec 2, 2019
    • Thanks Thanks x 31
    • Positive Rating Positive Rating x 3
  2. skyshadow

    skyshadow SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    3,048
    Joined:
    Sep 12, 2017
    Ratings:
    +1 / 7,808 / -0
    Country:
    Iran, Islamic Republic Of
    Location:
    Iran, Islamic Republic Of
    Pakistan Air defense needs a big big boost and modernasation i have been saying that for years now
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 11
  3. Syed Hammad Ahmed

    Syed Hammad Ahmed SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    2,150
    Joined:
    Jul 4, 2011
    Ratings:
    +0 / 1,205 / -3
    S 500 is basically a true Anti Ballistic Missile system similar to THAAD

    Are these enough to counter Indian Army's Apache AH64 E in battle?
    @Inception-06 @Signalian @Gryphon
     
    Last edited: Dec 1, 2019
  4. khanasifm

    khanasifm SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    5,156
    Joined:
    Apr 16, 2008
    Ratings:
    +6 / 3,168 / -1
    IMG_4699.JPG

    IMG_4707.JPG

    IMG_4708.JPG

    IMG_4706.JPG
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 2
  5. Syed Hammad Ahmed

    Syed Hammad Ahmed SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    2,150
    Joined:
    Jul 4, 2011
    Ratings:
    +0 / 1,205 / -3
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  6. skyshadow

    skyshadow SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    3,048
    Joined:
    Sep 12, 2017
    Ratings:
    +1 / 7,808 / -0
    Country:
    Iran, Islamic Republic Of
    Location:
    Iran, Islamic Republic Of
    indeed but on paper S500 is much much more advanced and powerful playing the roll of Patriot PAC 2,3 and THAAD
     
  7. Psychic

    Psychic SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    2,633
    Joined:
    Mar 30, 2015
    Ratings:
    +29 / 4,125 / -1
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    How is the heat signature reduced? Are these specialized nets made of heat reflecting materials and can they be used when the tank is on the move?

    When stationary, running turret on APU and shutting down engine also eliminates IR signature.
    Interesting.
     
    Last edited: Dec 1, 2019
  8. Gryphon

    Gryphon SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    2,460
    Joined:
    Jan 21, 2013
    Ratings:
    +33 / 6,558 / -0
    Army Air Defence has come a long way since the days observers used to point out serious deficiencies in the coverage available to armoured / mechanized formations.

    FM-90 ESHORADS, LY-80 LOMADS and way to go.. :pakistan:
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  9. Path-Finder

    Path-Finder ELITE MEMBER

    Messages:
    15,866
    Joined:
    Feb 7, 2013
    Ratings:
    +5 / 21,649 / -7
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    United Kingdom
    :D:D you know I have to obligatory mention that tracked system.
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  10. Mig hunter

    Mig hunter FULL MEMBER

    Messages:
    138
    Joined:
    Feb 26, 2019
    Ratings:
    +0 / 278 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    R u people mad or what... Is it something to be discussed on such open forum... Please do not share any information if u have
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  11. ziaulislam

    ziaulislam ELITE MEMBER

    Messages:
    11,063
    Joined:
    Apr 22, 2010
    Ratings:
    +11 / 8,905 / -2
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    United States
    We have seem china buysing small batches for testing..this is what they bought the su35 as well..
    They than tend to copy it to the frustration of the russians
     
  12. Inception-06

    Inception-06 SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    3,107
    Joined:
    Aug 17, 2007
    Ratings:
    +14 / 3,874 / -1
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    57mm AA and 25mm AA are still in service! Crotale I don't know but Spada for sure!
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  13. Starlord

    Starlord ELITE MEMBER

    Messages:
    14,121
    Joined:
    Sep 25, 2016
    Ratings:
    +10 / 18,541 / -1
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    What happened to Pantsir S2 ? @Tps43 bhai apki Biryani abhi tak due hai ..

    I thought Crotale was due for some Up-gradation ?
    Spada is stationary , other than FM-90 do we have any other mobile SHORAD's ?
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  14. Aamir Hussain

    Aamir Hussain PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

    Messages:
    1,720
    Joined:
    Jan 28, 2007
    Ratings:
    +17 / 2,624 / -0
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    All of this is available on the net my dear. Nothing hush hush about it. Signalian just put together all bits and pieces of info available on the net about PA Air Defense in one place for the forum members to gain knowledge from.

    In fact most of the stuff mentioned has been shown in the 23rd March Parades too!!!!
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 8
  15. Inception-06

    Inception-06 SENIOR MEMBER

    Messages:
    3,107
    Joined:
    Aug 17, 2007
    Ratings:
    +14 / 3,874 / -1
    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    23mm aa.PNG
    10750008_385233951632176_4738780947274407688_o.jpg
    10710934_377833235705581_6298861431868347665_n.jpg
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 3