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RAF Instructor pilots (& families) during their service in Pakistan - circa 1949.


President Ayub Khan with Wladyslav Turowics


Air Cdre Turowics receiving PM Nazimuddin


Air cdre Turowics second from right and Mrs Turowics third from left


Zofia Turowics the first female pilot of Pakistan
Who is this young chaps beside the lady pilot ?
 

fatman17

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BRIEFING Anti-radiation missiles

ARMing up

While the days of dedicated ‘Wild Weasel’ suppression-of-enemy-air-defences aircraft are largely over, continuing operational experience with anti-radiation missiles suggests the genre still has a place in the air-to-ground munitions armoury. Martin Streetly reports


Since their first deployment during the 1960s, anti-radiation missiles ARMs) have become an intrinsic part of air-to-ground warfare. Using passive seeker technology to hone in on and disable radars associated with surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems, they have gone a long way towards redressing the threat to strike formations posed by first- and second-generation radarguided SAM batteries.

Although perhaps less effective with the passage of time, ARM technology continues to evolve and is currently being produced by four nations: Brazil, China, Russia, and the United States.

From a historical perspective, the first ARM, the US AGM-45 Shrike, entered combat during the late 1960s when the US Air Force (USAF) teamed it with a specialised ‘Wild Weasel’ aircraft that carried a dedicated operator and was both capable of detecting hostile emitters and launching a ‘hard kill’ response against them.

Subsequently, the USAF fielded secondand third-generation ‘Wild Weasels’ before arriving at its current position, with an ARM capability inherent within its F-16CM multirole strike fighter fleet. The service, together with the US Navy (USN) and the US Marine Corps (USMC), has gone on to utilise succeeding generations of ARMs in every conflict it has fought where strike aircraft were confronted with radar-guided SAMs in the prosecution of their duty.

Most of NATO has sheltered under the US ‘Wild Weasel’ umbrella, with only France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom providing distinct national capabilities. France and the UK developed their own ARMs, which have since been withdrawn from service, while Germany and Italy make use of dedicated Tornado ECR ‘Wild Weasel’ aircraft equipped with US AGM-88 High-speed AntiRadiation Missiles (HARMs). The HARM’s ability to function at a number of levels of capability has proliferated its use to a wider ‘shooter’ community, which has included Greece, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates.

Outside the US and NATO, the decision on whether to acquire ARMs seems to hinge on the operational doctrines followed by the specific air force and/or naval air arm. Russian thinking sees such weapons as standard components of the air-to-surface weapons armoury, with the capability applicable to a wide range of aircraft on an as and when required basis. The policy’s aim seems to be much like that of the US military (without the use of dedicated ‘Wild Weasel’ platforms) and is designed to punch holes in an air defence network so that strike formations can attack radar/SAM-defended targets without prohibitive losses.

ARMs of the type being discussed also have a role in naval warfare, where they can be used to blind radar suites aboard surface ships and, in some cases, act as ‘ship killers’ by virtue of either their warhead size or their kinetic effect.

LD-10

Developed by China’s Luoyang Opto-Electro Technology Development Centre (LOEC), the Lei Dian (LD - Thunderbolt) 10 ARM is related to LOEC’s SD-10/PL-12 beyond-visual-range (BVR) air-to-air missile, with the two weapons sharing a common dog tooth rear fin design.

To fit it for the ARM role, the LD-10 differs from its parent by virtue of redesigned mid-body fins and increases in both its fuselage length and weight. The LD-10 is rail-launched and equipped with a solid-fuel rocket motor, fragmentation warhead, and laser proximity and impact fuzes. Target emitter location/cuing/targeting is by means of the host platform’s radar warning receiver (RWR) and the missile is said to both utilise a strap-down inertial navigation system (capable of defeating emitter shutdown) and a passive radar seeker that covers a wide range of frequencies. The LD-10 has a length and body diameter of 4.06 m and 203 mm respectively, a launch weight of 234 kg, and a range of between 10 and 20 km.

The LD-10 ARM is understood to have undergone captive carry trials in about 2010 and has been test-launched from J-8, J-10, and Q-5 fast jets. As of 2012, LOEC reported that the Lei Dian weapon was in production for an unnamed export customer, since identified as Pakistan, for use with JF-17 Thunder fighters.

MAR-1

Developed jointly by the Força Aérea Brasileira (FAB - Brazilian Air Force) and national contractor Mectron Engenharia Industria e Comércio Ltda (most recently a part of the Odebrecht Defense and Technology group), the MAR-1 takes the form of a blunt-nosed missile equipped with cruciform arrangements of fixed strakes, cropped delta flight surfaces, and actuated tail fins at its nose, mid-section, and tail.

Other system features include: a homing section (incorporating a wideband radar seeker and a high-speed digital signal processor); a two-stage, solid-fuel, boost/sustain rocket motor (low smoke and utilising composite propellants); a strap-down, GPSaided, mid-course inertial navigation system; a 90 kg blast/fragmentation warhead; an Opto Eletrõnica laser proximity fuze; an electro-mechanical control section; pre-programmed, missile-as-sensor, and self-defence operating modes; and an optional standalone fire-control display unit (FCDU) for nondatabus-equipped aircraft.

The MAR-1 pre-programmed mode is used for attacks on emitters of known types and/ or in known locations, while the missile-assensor function uses the missile’s seeker to detect targets of opportunity, identify them, and to display the acquired data to the host platform’s crew.

In self-defence mode the weapon is cued by the host’s RWR or electronic support system, while the MAR-1’s FCDU displays the missile’s operating mode; seeker frequency range/bandwidth; detected emissions (emitter parameters, classification, and direction-of-arrival); target data (parametrics, classification, range, and bearing); and weapon status.

Functionally, the launch platform’s pilot selects power-on, operating mode and target, confirms lock-on or rejection, and fires the weapon. Again, the MAR-1 is reported to be programmable for climb/altitude and manoeuvring profiles, with brackets of missiles being programmable to approach a selected target from different azimuths, thereby facilitating multiple simultaneous strikes. The weapon’s use of carbon-fibre composites in its construction provides it with a degree of stealth and MAR-1 specification data includes a length and body diameter of 3.88 m and 230 mm respectively, a launch weight of 266 kg, and a range of 25 to 50 km.

Development of the MAR-1 began during 1998, with the weapon’s development cycle nearing completion by the end of 2004. Following its public debut, on 2 December 2008 Brazil’s Camara de Comercio Exterior (Chamber of Foreign Trade) approved a then USD120 million sale of 100 MAR-1 rounds to Pakistan, where the weapon is understood to have been integrated with that country’s Mirage III/V and JF-17 fast jets.

In FAB service the MAR-1 has been identified as a weapon option for the A-1M (AMX) strike aircraft, receiving a software update to facilitate this in late 2012

JDW
 

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Air Marshal Sohail Gul Khan likely to be appointed new air chief





Muhammad Saleh Zaafir
Thursday, January 29, 2015





ISLAMABAD: Pakistan Air Force (PAF) will have its new chief next month as the incumbent Chief of the Air Staff (CAS), Air Chief Marshal Tahir Rafique Butt, will be completing his tenure in the third week of March.



Highly-placed sources told The News that the current Vice Chief of Air Staff (VCAS) Air Marshal Sohail Gul Khan will be elevated to the rank of Air Chief Marshal and was likely to be designated as the new Chief of the Air Staff.



The approval of the new appointment will be accorded by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif who will consign it to President Mamnoon Hussain for formal appointment. The names for the new CAS are before the prime minister and they include Air Marshal Muhammad Jamshaid Khan, Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Support (DCAS-S), Air Marshal Sohail Aman, Deputy Chief of Air Staff (DCAS-Operation) and Air Marshal Sohail Gul Khan.



The sources said that Sohail Gul Khan belongs to Peshawar and is a thorough soldier. He has piloted the F-16 fighter aircraft. He throughout had been outstanding in his career and held command of various bases.



Air Marshal Sohail Gul Khan is the senior-most commander in the PAF after the present CAS. His appointment will be made for a period of three years and the major task before him, after assuming the command, will be to provide support to the army in its historic military Operation Zarb-e-Azb currently underway in the tribal areas to flush out the terrorists and eliminate their hideouts.
 

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PAF furies: Iron butterflies

Meet the flying furies of the Pakistan Air Force.

By Maha Mussadaq

Published: March 24, 2013


Meet the flying furies of the Pakistan Air Force .

“We lock onto each other’s planes in the air and fake a battle, until one of us proclaims ‘I’m dead,’” says the 24-year-old Flying Officer, Ayesha Omar Farooq.

She is one of the many female pilots who now bolster the ranks of the Pakistan Air Force. When she takes off from the tarmac, the responsibility of flying a multi-million dollar fighter is hers and hers alone. Gone are the days when women in the military were only restricted to the fields of medicine and engineering. With the passage of time, women in the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) have branched into different units and today, they are even inducted as frontline Fighter Pilots. Dressed in crisp uniforms with embellished stars on their shoulders and smiles on their faces, a group of female officers gather at the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) to talk about their experiences. They are the conquerors of the skies, and the pride they take in their positions and achievements is visible in their demeanour. Their faces, radiant with courage and confidence break into smiles and laughter effortlessly. It is easy to forget that, in order to get to this much sought-after position, each and every one of them has had to put in countless hours of hard work and have had to make many sacrifices.

For these pilots, the sky is not the limit. When it comes to flying fighter jets, the higher you soar, the greater are the heights that you discover. It is only when you push both yourself and your aircraft to its limits that you discover what you are capable of. 23-year-old Flying Officer Anam Faiq, was the first in her family to join the military. As a little girl, she would attend the annual parades with her father on the 23rd of March in Islamabad. “I was so fascinated to see those planes soaring high. I always thought to myself that one day I will also fly a plane.” Back then, her image of pilots was that of tall, dashing and muscular men. “But of course that’s not the case anymore,” she says with a laugh. Anam has now spent six years in the air force and is now in charge of her own F-7 fighter plane.

Even after years of being a pilot, she says that there are times when her parents cannot believe that she actually flies a fighter jet. “Every time I am about to take off, I speak to my mother. She says whenever I’m up in the air, her heart sinks. But I do see the pride in her eyes,” she says. Her training has been demanding, but Anam is proud to have made it this far at a young age. “I am proud to say that I am a fighter pilot today. I feel amazing when I am in the air, at the top of the world. There is no feeling that matches the adrenaline rush of when we take off. Hearing my heart beat in my head, the excitement is unmatchable,” she says.

But it is still a fact that, all over the world, the armed forces are largely a boy’s club. So how do these young girls blend in this macho environment? Anam says that they have never felt discriminated against or threatened by their male counterparts. “If anything, they have been extremely supportive” she says. Missions in the Air Force are not allocated on gender basis and everyone gets an equally tough assignment. The simulated war patterns in the basic fighter maneuvers are what excite her the most. “We risk our lives, early mornings or late at night, but it is all worth it!” she says. Adding to that, Ayesha Omar Farooq says that she enjoys her training in bombing the most. “The jolt felt in the aircraft once the bomb lands on the ground is just exciting. My mother is a really strong woman and I look up to her. After losing my father at an early age, I now feel like I am the man of my family and I feel that the Air Force has made me stronger than ever,” she says. Both Anam and Ayesha fly their own fighter planes today and are amongst the few handpicked fighter pilots in the PAF. “The scope for women to enter this profession is high; it is demanding but rewarding” says Ayesha.

Squadron leader Sania Iqbal, a member of the Administration Branch, says that women are now present in almost every unit of the PAF. A Masters graduate in English literature, Sania never wanted to be a typical housewife. Owing to her family background in the military service, she always aspired to be a part of the PAF and jumped at the opportunity as soon as she heard of it. “There was no turning back after that point” she says. With eleven years of experience in the administration of different units at the PAF, she believes that women are the best managers, and she’s certainly glad for the support that having other women around gives her: “We have seen tough times together and we support each other. You don’t feel alone, and you know someone will stand up for you in difficult times. The pride, the comfort, the perks aside, serving in the Pakistan Air force is a serious challenge that we battle everyday”, she says.

While these women endure strenuous work hours and tough training regimes in the air, those on ground-duty don’t have it easy either. Many of these women are also mothers and wives on double duty. Standing tall and confident among the officers is Flight Lieutenant Munazzah Akbar Khan, who works at the Air Headquarters in Islamabad at the Directorate of Safety. As a mother of two, she has more than one responsibility on her shoulders. With eleven years of work experience, she calls her present posting “the most stressful job in the world.” “We have to leave our worries and personal matters outside the tower. I am a mother but at the same time I am an officer, so once I enter the tower I cannot think about anything else. I feel like a super woman at times,” she adds. Along with the Air Force, she is also in-charge of military and civil traffic. “But that’s not all,” she says, “one must also take care of flight safety, in air and on-ground emergencies, and rescue and fire services. We cannot afford a single flaw. Lives are at stake and it is a huge responsibility especially when we deal with VIP and VVIP movements.” Like her colleagues, Munazzah says there is no discrimination when it comes to work and women have to work just as hard as the men. “Quick decisions, high attention level, stressful night duties are all very challenging but a great learning experience,” she says.

Though it may be a struggle to remain at par with the men, it is just as challenging, and sometimes amusing, to keep up with the women outside the Air Base. Squadron leader Shakeela Naaz, a training officer at the Faisal Base Engineering Wing, comments on the difference between themselves and the women of other professions. “We are dressed in uniform the whole day and don’t even know how it feels to wear heels anymore” she laughs. “We have to pick up magazines to learn the latest trends.”

But if training in the Air Force keeps them away from the changing fashion vistas of Pakistan, it certainly inculcates in them iron-clad confidence. Shakeela, who has been working in the Air Force for the last 12 years, says that her job, taxing as it may be, has given her the confidence to embrace any challenge that comes her way. “Everyone is always on rotation,” she says, “from learning to manage the electronics of aircrafts to manning the Air Defence setup. Everything needs to be maintained without any error, and quality checks are very important.” Sharing similar views, Squadron Leader at the AHQ Islamabad, Ayesha Waheed says that the Air Force experience has transformed her as a person. After eleven years of experience in the training of teachers and the staff, she is now working with the Air Force’s Flight Safety Magazine. “If I had lived the normal life of a housewife, my life would feel empty,” she says. She recalls being a shy girl who had no confidence to speak to anyone. “I think my experience has added so much to my knowledge that today I work on various issues for the Magazine. It helps me grow as a person each day. I talk to people with confidence now and confront them whenever I feel the need to,” she says, and adds with a smile: “It is good being in uniform.”

As years go by, more and more women are entering the PAF in front-line positions. Squadron Leader Amber Raza, who is currently working as an Assistant Director of Civil Contract Management, says that all assignments given to her as a lady officer were challenging at first. But in the past few years there has been a sudden boost in the number of women entering the profession. “Twelve years ago there were 46 Lady Officers in our course and they have now crossed over 200 officers working in different units. There is not a single unit that does not have a lady officer,” says Amber.

These frontline female fighter pilots may be in an unconventional profession in Pakistan, but they believe that the social taboos they encounter as women are no different from those in other professional fields. Opting for a profession in the PAF may take a lot of their time and energy, perhaps even at the expense of their families, but it rewards them with pride and honour. There is a lot that goes behind their smiles and their calm exterior. Salute to these brave women who are serving the country so dedicatedly, those who tell us confidently as we doze off: “Sleep tight! The Pakistan Air Force is awake!”

Published in The Express Tribune, Sunday Magazine, March 24th, 2013.
 

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RAF Instructor pilots (& families) during their service in Pakistan - circa 1949.


President Ayub Khan with Wladyslav Turowics


Air Cdre Turowics receiving PM Nazimuddin


Air cdre Turowics second from right and Mrs Turowics third from left


Zofia Turowics the first female pilot of Pakistan

He wasnt from RAF... He was Polish ... and stayed with the PAF after independence.... his sons i believe are also working with SUPARCO.

air_cdre_wladyslaw_3.jpg

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Zofia and Władysław Turowicz – Pakistanis By Choice


Zofia.jpg



I, the author of this memorial, am a 31 years old urban female who lives in a big developed capital city of the 18thwealthiest economy in the world and every single day I am fed with stories of blasts and bombings and picture of hostile Muslim world, especially Pakistan.

However I am an orientalist focused on East Asia and a traveller. So my mind embraces the core of the matter and not just the media image. Yet I humbly admit that I was always reluctant and afraid to go to Karachi or Islamabad having impression that I will be either abducted or killed in an ambush as a foreigner.

My surprise however was big when today on the radio I heard about the death and burial of Zofia Turowicz. Both she and her husband left Poland in 1939 to join the battlefield of the Second World War. The political changes on the map of Europe never allowed them to go back because Stalinist regime hunted down intellectuals and officers of pre-war independent Poland. Mrs Turowicz or Turowiczowa how her last name is gendered in old-style Polish, was one of the first ever Pakistani gliding teachers who created gliding training programme, the basis for later military pilots, as early as in 1950. She stopped military career in 1957 and later worked at the American School and the University of Karachi where she taught applied mathematics and other core subjects.

Her husband Władysław Turowicz died in 1980 after long term career in Pakistani military aviation industry and forces. He came to Pakistan in 1948 and his wife joined soon after for the three-year contract with Pakistan Air Force which aimed to transform Pakistan Air Force into permanent and effective Air Force of the region. Turowicz set up technical institutes in Karachi. He taught and revitalized Pakistan Air Force Academy as its chief scientist. He initially led the technical training in the airbase and a part of the Polish specialists in the technical section in Karachi. However, they were transferred and accommodated in Peshawar.

In 1952, Turowicz, along with several Polish fighters, were promoted to the rank of Wing Commander. He was also promoted to the rank Lieutenant Commander when he became an Air Force Commander of Pakistan Air Force’s Chaklala Airbase. Promoted several times again along with other Polish Air Force general, became an Air Commodore and a Deputy Chief of Air Staff, in charge of Pakistan Air Force Training Department.

Turowicz was involved in building the face of what is called modern Pakistan. His service added to the pride of the new nation and likely added Polish sense of being statesman to the military and scientific personnel he trained over the years.

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Turowicz along with other Polish pilots rose to prominence and fame as they helped in successfully defending Lahore and Pakistan. Turowicz, Squadron Leader Anotnii Zbigniew Jedryszek, and other Polish pilots were awarded the Sitara-e-Pakistan. Honorary Pakistani citizenship was also bestowed upon Turowicz, as well as, some other Polish pilots by the President of Pakistan, Ayub Khan.

Turowicz was actively and heavily involved in Pakistan’s space program. According to his close sources, Turowicz was passionate and fascinated with the Russian and American space program. In 1966, the Government of Pakistan transferred him to SUPARCO, Pakistan’s national space agency, where he worked as a chief scientist and an aeronautical engineer. Together with noted Pakistani theoretical physicist, Dr. Abdus Salam, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 convinced president Khan to launch space program for peaceful purposes. He was sure that Pakistan will develop rocket technology and launch its first satelite due course of time. He insisted on sufficient funds for research and development of this sector. His prediction came true, when 10 years after the death of Air. Mar. Gen. Władysław Turowicz, Pakistan launched its first indigenously developed experimental digital communication satellite from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, People’s Republic of China aboard a Long March 2E. His vision did come true but unfortunately, he wasn’t there to see it.

He successfully convinced the United States Government to invest and train Pakistan’s scientists in the field of rocket technology. He is widely credited with setting up the rocket fuel factories and rocket technology laboratories and research institutes in Pakistan. He was one of the chief designers of Sonmiani Satellite Launch Centre.

He did not stop with Space Programme though. Turowicz initiated himself Nuclear weapons programme in 1970 and laid foundation of research and production that led to Pakistani independent source of Nuclear military potential.

His entire family lived in Pakistan ever since they have entered the country in 1948. His three daughters live in Pakistan and two of them married Pakistanis.

Zofia and Władysław Turowicz were partners both on the ground and in the air where she often joined him as a navigator during his flights. They both had independent military aviation careers before arrival to Pakistan and had been multiawarded and internationally recognised gliders and para shooters.

They are both buried at the catholic cemetery in Karachi in Pakistan and both had been awarded Pakistani citizenship.

Their story reminded me to watch the world with my own eyes and be even more curious and even more brave and less cuffed in the ready stereotypes I am being fed everyday by media and society.



...........................

The Rocket-Missile Man of Pakistan: Air Commodore Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz


Ever since Pakistan got independence she saw hundreds of faces that served the country to their best, played more than just a vital role in its development and made the country proud by all means. One of such names is Air Commodore Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz. Air Commodore Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz was a prominent and distinguished Polish Pakistani military scientist and aeronautical engineer who is looked up to as one of the chief architects of Pakistan’s Space Program.
Born in 1908 in Serbia, Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz has a unique kind of fascination for aviation technology, rocket science and aircraft designs. At the age when other children collect marbles and play with cars Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz had a hobby of collecting different kinds of aircraft models only. Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz graduated from Serbia’s most prestigious institute of that time- Warsaw University of Technology in 1920 with a master’s degree in aeronautical engineering and later earned his PhD degree from the same institute.



During his time at Warsaw University of Technology he along with his friends, university fellows, teachers and other eminent scholars of the field laid foundation of Aeroklub Polski where he did extensive research in the field and got the golden chance of working in close collaboration with Polish aeronautical engineers of that time.
Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz after earning his PhD degree joined Polish Air Force in the capacity of an aeronautical engineer and fighter pilot. He later migrated to GreatBritain where he was immediately accepted to serve in Royal Air Force as Reservist Polish Pilot. He served Royal Air Force in critical times of World War II and as the situation got worse many members of Royal Air Force were sent to different countries. Pakistan was fortunate that Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz along with 29 more Polish pilots, engineers and scientists migrated to Pakistan.
In Pakistan he was deployed at Karachi airbase where his primary responsibilities include train our fighter pilots and play a role in setting up technical institutes. During the first three years of his tenure, he served Academy of PAF as chief scientist too. After building capacity of members of PAF he was transferred to Peshawar airbase where his job responsibilities were even more critical.
Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz was a fighter, a brave warrior who not only fought courageously during World War II, but defended Lahore during Indo-Pak war of 1965. The nation’s asset also held the key position of PAF’s Air Marshal.
The mission of Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz’s life was to establish grounds for space engineering and he worked day and night for that in Pakistan. Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz worked closely with Dr. Abdus Salam, the only Noble prize winner of the country and was among those few people who convinced President Ayub Khan that how important it is for Pakistan to have space and nuclear program. As a true patriot Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz had all of his faith in Pakistan’spotential to grow as the strongest nation of the region. He believed that that day is not far away when Pakistan will haveits own nuclear and space program which will help the country maintaining peace and sovereignty. His dream came true, but he wasn’t able to see its realization. Pakistan launched its firstdigital communication satellite in 1990 that was exactly 10 years after the demise of the prodigious scientist and engineer. He was also involved in the launch of Rehbar-1, Pakistan’s first rocket. Rather, he is believed to be the chief designer and developer of the program. Towards the end of his career he was serving Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) of Pakistan as administrator.









Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz met an unfortunate deadly accident on January 8, 1980 leaving a legacy of intellectualism and technological advancement behind. He was buried in Christian Cementary in Karachi with full military honor. His name is engraved on a memorial there along with other Polish scientists that served the country, at Monument of General Władysław Turowicz in PAF Museum Karachi and as General Władysław Turowicz at Space Complex (SUPARCO), Lahore Center. As an individual he has received many honors like Sitara-e-Pakistan, Tamgha-e-Pakistan, Sitara-e-Khidmat, Sitara-e-Quaid-e-Azam, Sitara-e-Imtiaz, Abdus Salam Award in Aeronautical Engineering and ICTP Award in Space Physics.
 

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