• Monday, December 11, 2017

Pakistan Air Force in 2016 and Beyond

Discussion in 'Pakistan Air Force' started by monitor, Jan 4, 2017.

  1. monitor

    monitor SENIOR MEMBER

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    THE PAKISTAN AIR FORCE IN 2016 (AND BEYOND)
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    The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) has had an eventful year, though not one without major obstacles to its long-term development plans. Pakistan’s structural economic challenges require the PAF to make the most of the funding available. Unfortunately, India’s markedly strong air warfare development of recent years is fully independent of Pakistan’s economic fortunes, forcing the PAF to manage what is arguably the widest gap in terms of relevant technology and numbers (in comparison to the Army and Navy) between the two nuclear-armed neighbours. Nonetheless, important activities are in motion to help the PAF modernize its capabilities and, perhaps just as importantly, enable it to sustain itself in times of difficulty.

    Fighters

    India’s near-USD $9 billion purchase of 36 Dassault Rafales is merely the tip of the proverbial iceberg in terms of the depth of the Indian Air Force (IAF)’s development efforts, but it is a representation of what the PAF has to consider in terms of the present and the future. Considering Pakistan’s economic capacity today and for the foreseeable future, parity in numbers and ‘technology in numbers’ is not possible, but building a sufficient defensive threshold could be possible.

    The desire to build a defensive threshold is the driving force behind the JF-17 Thunder. Envisaged as a modern, low-cost, and capable lightweight multi-role fighter, the JF-17 is on track to forming the backbone of the PAF fighter fleet. As of December, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) delivered 70 JF-17s to the PAF (i.e. 50 Block-I and 20 Block-II). Currently, these have been allocated to three frontline units – No. 2, No. 16, and No. 26 – as well as the Combat Commanders School. Replacing the Chengdu F-7P appears to be the PAF’s primary focus, so No. 14 and No. 18 could be next; the forthcoming two-seat JF-17B could be sought for No. 18, converting that F-7P operational conversion unit (OCU) into the JF-17’s OCU.

    No. 2’s transition to the JF-17 is noteworthy in that it places the Thunder in the PAF’s maritime theatre. The JF-17’s beyond-visual-range (BVR) air-to-air capability and anti-ship warfare (AShW) capability via the SD-10 and C-802, respectively, are substantive improvements over the point-defence profile of the F-7P. This is especially true when taken in the context of the Karakoram Eagle (ZDK03) airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system and Link-17 tactical data-link (TDL) system.

    With the procurement of 16 Aselsan ASELPOD advanced targeting pods from Turkey, the PAF is working to configure its JF-17s for the ground-attack role. Semi-active laser-homing (SALH) air-to-ground bombs, specifically kits integrated onto Mk-8x series general purpose bombs (GPB), should be expected. The PAF could be planning to supplement the F-16s in counterinsurgency (COIN) strike operations.

    At Air Show China 2016, the Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology (NRIET) unveiled its KLJ-7A active electronically-scanned array (AESA) radar. Designed for the export market, the KLJ-7A has been viewed as a prospect for the forthcoming JF-17 Block-III, the Thunder’s first major platform upgrade. During the 2016 International Defence Exhibition and Seminar (IDEAS), which took place in Karachi during November, the Italian defence giant Leonardo showcased its Vixen-1000 AESA radar and Skyward infrared search and track (IRST) system – again, for the JF-17 Block-III. The PAF’s subsystem selections for the JF-17 Block-III are not yet known, though 2017-2018 should be a key year considering the expected lead time of integrating, testing, and clearing the new suite.

    Currently, 150 JF-17s – divided between three blocks – are on the official procurement docket. With its eye on the future, PAF officials also told IHS Jane’s that the PAF is interested in the RD-33MK and WS-13 for the JF-17. PAF officials reportedly informed local media outlets that an additional 100 JF-17s (building a fleet of 250 fighters) are planned. These subsequent units, potentially designated Block-IV and Block-V, could be at the receive a new turbofan engine. With the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC)’s second FC-31 prototype possibly flying with a variant of the WS-13, the PAF has a chance at building commonality between its next-generation fighters, should it decide to procure the FC-31, which is not known.

    To scale its existing F-16C/D Block-52+ infrastructure, the PAF also sought eight new-built F-16C/Ds from the U.S. While the sale was approved, the U.S. Congress did not approve of a Foreign Military Financing (FMF) component, which was to subsidize a portion (38-50%) of the proposed sale. Consequently, the PAF stepped away from the sale. Had matters gone as planned, the PAF would have likely sought to build its F-16 Block-52+ fleet to the originally sought 36 units, if not more. In lieu of these fighters, the PAF sought used and surplus fighters from third-party users, such as Jordan.

    In terms of its older F-16s, the CEO of Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI), Muharram Dörtkaşlı, told Defense News that the PAF had started discussing upgrade options with TAI. Dörtkaşlı said that the PAF has “additional modernization requirements, especially from the structural upgrade perspective.” He did not offer additional details, though the question of extending the F-16’s airframe life and new subsystems, such as an AESA radar, could be on the discussion docket (in light of emerging air warfare trends).

    The inability to accessibly secure the F-16 has not changed the reality that the PAF could need a capable fighter platform to help manage the crucial years involving India’s forthcoming Rafale induction. While the F-16 Block-52+ is not the ideal platform for such an issue either, the prospect of potentially upgrading it to the AESA-equipped F-16V form might have offered breathing space. But with that not in the picture, reports had surfaced of the PAF seeking Chinese and Russian alternatives. In terms of the latter, the talk surrounding the Sukhoi Su-35 is well-known, though the PAF has yet to officially confirm the matter itself, and Russia is not officially entertaining the notion. That said, the Su-35 has been viewed as a potentially sound asset if procurable, especially for imbuing the PAF with long-range and long-endurance combat capabilities. This could be valuable for strike, air interdiction, and maritime missions.

    The Chengdu J-10 – especially the J-10B/C – could be something of interest to the PAF, especially considering the prospect of fielding it as an AESA-equipped platform. The PAF has not voiced interest in the matter, but Italy and Spain did place their Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 1 units on the market, drawing interest from several small air forces, such as Bulgaria. Considering the relatively cordial defence ties in place between Italy and Pakistan at this time, one wonders if this issue had been raised at one of the several top-level meetings between Italian and Pakistani officials. There are risks, not least from the supply channel of the Typhoon, which divides manufacturing work between four partners, each stationed in a different country. The Tranche 1 is also an antiquated model, and the PAF would be liable to spend on a bespoke upgrade (unique to the PAF) to bring it up to par. Thus, this is an unlikely option.

    The aging F-16s, specifically the older Block-15 lot procured in the 1980s (though upgraded under the Mid-Life-Update program), are also a concern for the PAF. In this respect, Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman had announced that the PAF is in the process of determining its next-generation fighter requirements. Besides supplanting the PAF’s aging F-16s, the next-generation fighter is to also help the PAF deepen its domestic supply channels – i.e. indigenization. To support the program, the PAF is establishing an aviation research, development, and industry site in the form of Kamra Aviation City. The purpose of Kamra Aviation City is to help build relevant human capital and competencies in the field. With the second SAC FC-31 prototype flying, the PAF may have a nearing platform available to it to help bring its requirements to fruition.

    Training and Development

    The PAF had a busy summer in terms of exercises. First, it conducted an air warfare exercise at home – designated Tempest II – wit the aim of executing “newly conceptualized warfighting concepts.” In June, the F-16A/B Block-15 Mid-Life Update (MLU)-equipped No. 11 squadron visited Turkey to participate in Anatolian Eagle, the Turkish Air Force’s largest international air exercise. In August, six No. 5 F-16C/D Block-52 flew to Nevada to take part in Red Flag, the U.S. Air Force’s marquee air combat exercise.

    The PAF considers these exercises, especially multi-national ones overseas, as very valuable capacity-building avenues. The PAF concluded the year with High Mark, its full-service exercise, which is conducted once every five years. 2017 could see the PAF hosting its own multi-national exercises, such as Shaheen (which is traditionally conducted with the People’s Liberation Army Air Force) and Indus Viper (which has been done with Turkey).

    To impart expertise and training and COIN-related air warfare, such as close air support (CAS) and time-sensitive strikes, the PAF established a new institution – the Airpower Centre of Excellence (ACE). The ground-breaking ceremony was conducted in February. When complete and operational, ACE will be open to domestic and overseas partners.

    Air Defence

    The Pakistan Ministry of Defence Production (MoDP) disclosed that the PAF ordered six LY-80 (i.e. HQ-16) medium-range surface-to-air missiles (SAM) in 2014-2015. The HQ-16 SAM has a maximum range of 40 km. This appears to have been a follow-on order to the three HQ-16 SAM systems and eight IBIS-150 radars bought in 2013-2014. Deliveries and integration may have commenced in 2016 and may potentially continue into 2017. In September, China unveiled an upgraded version of the HQ-16 with a range of 70 km. This could be something of interest to the PAF considering it would utilize the existing infrastructure investment put into the HQ-16 SAM program.

    In May, Pakistan’s Prime Minister reportedly said that an air defence deal with China Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CPMIEC) would be finalized once CPMIEC submits its proposal. The exact nature of this procurement is not known, but it does not appear to be related to the HQ-16 and FM-90 programs, which had been finalized in earlier years (as noted in the MoDP’s yearbooks). This has led some, including Quwa, to speculate that Pakistan could be seeking the HQ-9 long-range SAM, which is capable (in its export form, the FD-2000) of engaging targets at up to 125 km. Pakistan had sought the HQ-9 in earlier years, so renewed interest in the system would not be surprising.

    Miscellaneous

    In October, the Chairman of the Pakistani Senate’s Standing Committee on Defence, Lt. Gen (retired) Abdul Qayyum told the Associated Press of Pakistan that PAC led the effort to repair two damaged Saab 2000-based Erieye AEW&C aircraft. Three of Pakistan’s Erieye AEW&C came under attack from non-state assailants in August 2012. One was written-off as non-recoverable, but the remaining two were listed as damaged. One of the repaired units was flown at last year’s 23 March parade.

    The PAF will consider it imperative to construct a modernization roadmap that provides it an adequate defensive threshold to discourage uninvited entries. Structural economic uncertainty will remain an issue; a crisis or slide in the next several years would have adverse impacts on the PAF’s modernization efforts.

    Credit :Quwa, @Bilal Khan (Quwa)
    THE PAKISTAN AIR FORCE IN 2016 (AND BEYOND)
     
    Last edited: Jan 5, 2017
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  2. The Eagle

    The Eagle MODERATOR

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  3. Hassan Guy

    Hassan Guy SENIOR MEMBER

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    Everyone here reads Quwa articles.

    In most cases people only open them here for discussion because the comment system on that site is terrible.
     
  4. pakistanipower

    pakistanipower SENIOR MEMBER

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    So why you are here? and why comment on this site just leave this site if you think this site is stupid:blah:
     
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  5. monitor

    monitor SENIOR MEMBER

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    Everyone open the article because lot of people read here compare to quwa.
     
  6. aliyusuf

    aliyusuf FULL MEMBER

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    I don't think he was suggesting that this site was stupid, on contrary he was trying to say that the comment system on the Quwa site was terrible and that is why people like to open it here because it is a proper discussion forum. See the emboldened portion of his post.

     
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  7. Alphacharlie

    Alphacharlie FULL MEMBER

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    Like it or Not --- Your 2 SQNs of F16 Block 15 need to be replaced ASAP.
    Mid Life Upgrade doesnt make corrections in Structural Defects gathered over time.

    You need 36 Jets of F16 Block 30 Level IMMEDIATELY !!
     
  8. Shabi1

    Shabi1 FULL MEMBER

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    The F-16 A/B versions with PAF right now are re-designated as F-16 AM/BM and are at same level as Block-52 but with 7 hard points and no CFT capability.

    Besides the recent MLUs, PAF F-16s have also gone through the Falcon UP/STAR enhancements, these are structural and engine augmentation/modifications for achieving 8000 service hours. From PAF higher brass interviews I think the plan is to start phasing out older F-16s 2020-2024 as soon as the alternative platform becomes available. As per other PAF procurements will likely wont get any official confirmation or timeline till the last moment when aircraft actually get replaced.

    With increasing number of improved JF-17 inductions they will be used as workhorses and will be logging more flight hours while older F-16s are used more sparingly to conserve flight hours till replacement.
     
    Last edited: Jan 5, 2017
  9. Manidabest

    Manidabest FULL MEMBER

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    PAF should start working with Turkish air force to build 5th generation fighter TAI. simple
     
  10. Hassan Guy

    Hassan Guy SENIOR MEMBER

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  11. Shabi1

    Shabi1 FULL MEMBER

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    Do a google search. Was requested in 2006 and then deal was completed with involvement of TUSAS (Turkey). Initial aircraft received modifications in US remaining sent to Turkey. Recent pictures and videos show MLUed F-16 AM/BMs even now have JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System).

    Detailed breakup of work only available in US request article hence posting that below. Item-1 was 18 F-16 Block-52s, all approved and completed. Upgrade subsystem are same on use with F-16 Block-52s for fleet commonality.

    Item 3: F-16A/B Mid-Life Update Modification Kits - $1.3 billion

    The Government of Pakistan has requested a possible sale of 60 F-16A/B Mid-Life Update (MLU) modification and Falcon Star Structural Service Life Enhancement kits consisting of:

    • APG-68(V)9 with Synthetic Aperture Radar or the APG-66(V)2 radar;
    • Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (JHMCS);
    • AN/APX-113 Advanced Identification Friend or Foe Systems;
    • AN/ALE-47 Advanced Countermeasures Dispenser Systems;
    • Have Quick I/II Radios;
    • Link-16 Multifunctional Information Distribution System-Low Volume Terminals (MIDS-LVT);
    • SNIPER (formerly known as AN/AAQ-33 PANTERA) targeting pod capability;
    • Reconnaissance pod capability;
    • Advanced Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation Units (for training);

    MDE included in the MLU modification and structural upgrade kits;
    • 21 ALQ-131 Block II Electronic Countermeasures Pods without the Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM); or ALQ-184 Electronic Countermeasures Pods without DRFM;
    • 60 ALQ-213 Electronic Warfare Management Systems;
    • 1 Unit Level Trainer;
    • 10 APG-68(V)9 spare radar sets.

    Also included are radars, modems, receivers, installation, avionics, spare and repair parts, support equipment, CONUS-personnel training and training equipment, technical assistance, publications and technical documentation, system drawings, U.S. Government and contractor engineering, and other related logistics elements necessary for full program support.

    The estimated cost is $1.3 billion.

    According to the DSCA, Pakistan intends to purchase the MLU Program equipment "to enhance survivability, communications connectivity, and extend the useful life of its F-16A/B fighter aircraft. The modifications and upgrades in this proposed sale will permit Pakistan's F-16A/B squadron to operate safely and enhance Pakistan's conventional deterrent capability. Pakistan's air fleet can readily use these updates to enhance and extend the life of its aircraft."

    The principal contractors will be:
    • BAE Advanced Systems in Greenlawn, NY;
    • Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company in Fort Worth, TX;
    • Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control in Dallas, TX;
    • Northrop-Grumman Electro-Optical Systems in Garland, TX; and,
    • Northrop-Grumman Electronic Systems in Baltimore, MD.


    and FYI

    Item 2: Weapons for F-16C/D Block 50/52 Aircraft - $650 Million (Also delivery completed)

    The Government of Pakistan has requested a possible sale of:
    • 500 AIM-120C5 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM);
    • 12 AMRAAM training missiles
    • these have seeker warheads, but lack engines;
    • 200 AIM-9M-8/9 Sidewinder Short-Range Air-Air Missiles; they are the version before the fifth-generation AIM-9X;
    • 240 LAU-129/A Launchers
    • these support AMRAAM or Sidewinder missiles;
    • 500 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) Guidance Kits: GBU-31/38 Guided Bomb Unit (GBU) kits;
    • 1600 Enhanced-GBU-12/24 GBUs;
    • 800 MK-82 500 pound General Purpose (GP) and MK-84 2,000 pound GP bombs;
    • 700 BLU-109 2000 pound bunker-buster bombs with the FMU-143 Fuse; and,
    • Associated support equipment, software development/integration, modification kits, capability to employ a wide variety of munitions, spares, and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications, and technical documentation, CONUS-personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related requirements to ensure full program supportability will also be provided.
    http://www.f-16.net/f-16-news-article3578.html

    Remaining Ex Jordanian F-16s to be sent to Turkey for upgrades
    http://quwa.org/2016/05/16/turkey-will-upgrade-pakistans-f-16s/
     
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  12. Starlord

    Starlord SENIOR MEMBER

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    PAF will try to acquire more F-16's newly build block 52's ... Once trump take power i am hopping the start of new negotiations .. American will make sure Pakistan will stay in their league, they won't let go of Pakistan in Sino-Russian Alliance for 18 F-16's .. and American knows that with Rafale introduced in Sub-Continent the Power Balance will shake a lot which will force Pakistan to put more effort/Money in Nukes .
     
  13. khanasifm

    khanasifm SENIOR MEMBER

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    NRIET/CEIEC/CETC YLC-2/YLC-2A/YLC-2V High Guard 3D Long Range Surveillance Radar


    The massive L-band YLC-2 bears much similarity to the Thales TRS-2230, the ITT-Gilfillan 320 and NNIIRT Protivnik GE.

    This radar is carried in the 2004 CRIA listing of Chinese indigenous products. There is also a new version designated YLC-2A (next page), and a self-propelled version; YLC-2V. (See Section 5.7), but note that they both function in E/F-band.

    Little is known about this radar except that five YLC-2 radars were handed over to the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) at Faisal Airbase on 15th June 2003, and probably two more in 2006, to be used in support of the PAF air defence network1, where it was reported to be a high-powered, solid-state, long-range 3D air surveillance radar, similarly reported by its manufacturer Nanjing Research Institute of Electronic Technology (NRIET), without reference to having a phased array in either case.

    Although China reporters2 have often claimed that frequency-scanning radars are phased arrays, recently provided data suggests that the YLC-2 is actually an active phased array.3

    The antenna array has 54 horizontal elements, each fed by a 2.0 kW (peak, at 8% duty cycle) T/R module that is reported to have improved upon the earlier design of the AN/TPS-59 and GE-592 radars of which it appears to be a copy. The main antenna is topped by an IFF/MSSR array.

    The system is said to have a detection range of 330km, which would suggest a peak PRF of around 455pps and operational PRF of about 300pps. It is reported to have a variety of electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCMs), to enable survival in a hostile electro-magnetic environment.

    There are two other versions, the YLC-2A and YLC-2V (see) but both employ smaller, more compact antenna arrays and have been declared to function in E/F-band.
     
    Last edited: Nov 5, 2017
  14. khanasifm

    khanasifm SENIOR MEMBER

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    Another Chinese radar in paf for low to med level like German mpdr
    This radar was initially reported at the Chinese International Conference on Radar, held in Beijing in 1996, where a paper described it as a highly mobile, solid-state, three-coordinate, medium-range surveillance radar, developed by NRIET. Since then it has been consistently reported as a 2D radar.

    The YLC-6 is a demountable radar that incorporates a range of modern technologies including an advanced MTD processor to enhance its tactical performance for both military and civil applications .

    The YLC-6 has been deployed in considerable numbers along the Chinese coastline, as a second line of air surveillance facing Taiwan.

    In tests this system is said to have detected and tracked an American AH-64 APACHE attack helicopter out to 30 km. The system’s maximum-instrumented range against a high-flying aircraft is given as 180km although detection range is only given out to 150km, which would suggest a maximum instrumented PRF of 1,000pps and an operational stagger of average about 700pps.

    Imprecise details of the antenna, its feed and its overall size initially suggested it functioned in E/F-band, which was confirmed by CETC in 2007 and regardless of the 3D claims made in 1996, CETC continues to promote the YLC-6 as a 2D radar.
    Specifications:
    Operating frequency: E/F-band
    Coverage: (RCS=2m2, Pd=80%, Pfa=10-6,)

    Range:
    Elevation: 3 ~ 150 km
    0º ~ 40º
    Height: 10,000 m
    Resolution:
    Range:
    Azimuth: 150 m
    1.5º
    Peak power: 180 kW
    Mobility:
    Set up time:
    Withdrawal time: 8 mins
    6 mins
    Standard interface to C3I system.

    The specific features claimed by NRIET are:

    High mobility, rapid deployment, Good low altitude detection performance, Excellent ECCM capability, Fully coherent solid-state transmitter, Low side-lobe antenna, Dual channel receiver redundancy, Digital signal processor, Excellent clutter rejection, Automatic hydraulic levelling, Automatic north finding with GPS.

    The model (refer book) demonstrates the non-demountable 6-wheel variant designated YLC-6M (M = mobile -assumed) that was shown in Beijing in 2004.

    Either the YLC-6 or -6M has been exported to Pakistan, which is understood to have required up to 10 units. Meanwhile, the YLC-6M is listed by the CRIA in 2004 as an indigenous product of NRIET that is available for export. There is a static version of this radar used at some airports and known as YLC-6 ATC.

    This system continues to be promoted by CETC in 2008.

    http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-PLA-IADS-Radars.html
     
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  15. ziaulislam

    ziaulislam SENIOR MEMBER

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    lol
    F-16 was designed for 8000 hours (after MLU and tested safety for 12000 hours
    so nope none of our air frame have hit even 6000 hours, so we are good till 2030-35

    till 2006 we only had 32 f 16 and those were not flying alot/sanctions and there after were thoroughly updated to MLU standard

    typhoons is interesting option
    i believe a mix of old and new fighter is an option, as f-16 is not available, and any other western platform is not avaible or not worth it(e.g f-35 and gripen)
    the tranch 1 can be easily updated to level 5 which is a multi role fighter, uK upgraded 80 of its tranch one that cost around 5 million pound a piece(per one source 70~ upgraded at 1.2 billion euros), though not as capable in A2G role as the rafalae they will have basic A2G ammunition(including guided) and superb A2A capability
    numerous countries have their typhoon on sale given the need to keep production lines running and need for cutting airforces number, UK, spain, austria and italy all have used on offer

    the question is how good are they for strike role? and how cost effective are they..
    but italy was able to match the upgraded price of typhoons to f-16 MLU in Romania deal which was very cheap(~20M) so its worth negotiations

    in end PAF might bale to get mix of used and new

    http://ukarmedforcescommentary.blogspot.com/2012/08/typhoons-present-and-future.html
    Oct 17/14: P1E. BAE Systems announces that deliveries of Eurofighter Typhoon Phase 1 Enhancement upgrades have created 17 P1Eb standard aircraft in service with the RAF. A further 18 are to be delivered by April 1/15, under a EUR 1.2 billion program that will eventually convert all 67 Tranche 2 Typhoons in RAF service; BAE offers a useful summary of key features.
    https://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/uks-eurofighters-fly-to-availability-based-contracting-04337/
     
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