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Pakistan Air defense

Discussion in 'Pakistan Army' started by The SC, Jun 26, 2014.

  1. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    Spada 2000 air defense system (Medium Range SAM): PAF bought 10 batteries of Spada 2000 system in 2007. Each battery has two firing sections, each section has Missile Launcher housing six ready-to-fire ASPIDE 2000 missiles with a range of 25km. RAC-3D (Spada-2000's radar) has the capacity to track 100 targets simultaneously within a range of 60km.
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    The AN/TPS-77, is a mobile, active phased array,
    long range, L-band, 3D solid-state radar designed to perform airspace surveillance missions.

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    AN/TPS-77 3-D long-range surveillance radar that has accurate target data at ranges up to 250 nautical miles and elevations up to 100,000 feet from a radar that can operate 24 hours a day, even with no on-site personnel.
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    Mistral operators on alert, and Crotale system
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    Mistral missile operators undergoing training at an air defence unit. Mistral is an infrared homing surface-to-air missile.

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    PAF Air defense
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    Crotale Surface-to-air unit going in action.
    Crotale is all-weather short-range anti-air missile with a range of up to 16 km.

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    Last edited: Jun 26, 2014
  2. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    China has provided Paskitan the HQ-2B Surface to Air Missile and the HQ-9 missiles. These are two stage missiles capable of intercepting high altitude targets like strategic bombers and spy planes and are equipped with countermeasures to defend a missile defence. HQ missiles have ‘expanded operational zone’, ‘shortened preparation time’, ‘simplified and mobile launch equipment’ and ‘ability to attack high speed targets’. HQ-9 is a long-range Surface to Air Missile to ‘counter high-performance aircraft, cruise missiles, air-to-surface missiles and tactical ballistic missiles’.
    http://www.claws.in/SW/SW J.99-106.pdf

    HQ-2B
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    HQ-9
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    Pakistan has also acquired the FN-6 Man Portable Air Defence System from China. It is a sophisticated infrared surface to air missile.
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  3. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    CPMIEC HQ-9 / HHQ-9 / FD-2000 / FT-2000

    Self Propelled Air Defence System

    Technical Report APA-TR-2009-1103

    Introduction
    The FD-2000/HQ-9 was developed to provide a long range SAM capability, distinct from the medium range capabilities of the HQ-12/KS-1 series. The FT-2000 is a derivative which is fitted with an anti-radiation seeker and intended for engagements against AEW&C/AWACS and stand-off jamming aircraft.

    The PLA have not been overly generous in disclosing details of this design. There is general agreement in open sources that the HQ-9 uses Russian S-300PMU technology extensively, including the cold launch design for vertical ejection from launcher tubes on TELs, 5V55/48N6 rocket motor technology, and a range of other S-300PMU components, including an 8 x 8 four tube TEL modelled on the 5P85SU/DU series. Some sources claim the weapon uses a two stage arrangement akin to the S-300V, but more recent imagery shows this is not correct. Slant range performance figures also vary across sources, between 50 and 100 nautical miles. What data is available suggests a missile which is similar in capability to early variants of the MIM-104 Patriot and SA-10C/SA-20A 48N6E, including Track via Missile (TVM) guidance.
    The HQ-9 is supported by the HT-233 phased array engagement radar, like the H-200 modelled on the MPQ-53 and 30N6E designs, carried on a Taian TAS5501 series 10 x 10 high mobility vehicle, common to the HQ-9 TEL and similar in design to the S-400's BAZ-6900 series vehicle. Chinese sources claim C-band operation with 300 MHz receiver/antenna bandwidth, detection and tracking range of 150/100 km, and monopulse angle tracking to resist jamming. The design bears considerable similarity to the 30N6E series, especially in the antenna design.

    Recently disclosed imagery shows the use of the self-propelled Type 305A, Type 305B and Type 120 radars as the battery acquisition radar component. The designation FD-2000 is for export configurations of the HQ-9.

    Recent reports claim the missile combines midcourse inertial / datalink and terminal active radar homing guidance [refer below].

    Cited battery composition is one variant of the YLC-2V acquisition radar, one HT-233 engagement radar, 8 x Taian TAS-5380 TELs, with 32 ready rounds, one vehicle for battery positioning, one generator vehicle, one support vehicle and a mobile command post. A HQ-9 brigade level formation comprises six batteries.

    Recently the PLA disclosed the existence of two additional radars associated with the HQ-9 system. These are the Type 305A, modelled on the Thales GM400 AESA, and the Type 120 low altitude acquisition radar, which is similar in configuration to the earlier JY-29, JY-11B and YLC-18, but operating at a lower frequency to the latter. These radars perform analogous functions to the 64N6E Big Bird and 76N6 Clam Shell in the SA-20 battery, respectively. The Type 305B / YLC-2V series radar performs analogous functions to the ST-68U Tin Shield in early SA-20 variants, and 96L6 in the SA-20B and SA-21.

    The HHQ-9 is the navalised variant of the HQ-9, launched from a VLS system, on the Type 052C Luyang II class DDG.
    According the US DoD, the FT-2000 has yet to be deployed, as is the case with the follow-on HQ-9 variants. Open sources describe the FT2000 as an inertially guided SAM with an anti-radiation terminal seeker, programmed before launch for the characteristics of the intended target. Cited frequency coverage is 2-18 GHz. Each battery includes four unspecified ESM vehicles, used to generate targeting data for the missile battery. Intended targets including support jamming aircraft, aircraft equipped with self-protection jammers, and other radiating airborne targets, e.g. AWACS/AEW&C. The type of passive targeting system has not been disclosed, but variants of the CETC YLC-20 presented then as the most likely candidate. The more recent DWL002 is much better suited.

    CETC DWL002 Passive Detection System fully deployed (CETC image).
    To date there has been no evidence displayed of integration between the HQ-9 battery components and the new CETC DWL002 Passive Detection System, which has been engineered from the outset with a heightfinding capability to support SAM battery engagement radar cueing and possibly missile midcourse guidance. The high production expense of duplicating antenna and receiver chains to provide a genuine 3D capability as done in the DWL002 design would not be incurred if its role was confined to simple area surveillance, as is the case with its 2D only Warsaw Pact developed predecessors. Co-deployment of the DWL002 with HQ-9 battery acquisition radars is thus a very likely near future development. The system would be compatible with the TVM (SAGG) guidance of standard HQ-9/FD-2000 rounds as well as the FT-2000 anti-radiation round.

    Given that the FT-2000 is derived from the HQ-9, claims that this weapon has not been deployed should be treated with caution, since the missile and its guidance support package could have been integrated into the baseline HQ-9 system design, and other than by covert intelligence gathering or PLA disclosure, this cannot be easily determined by simple observation. It is entirely conceivable that a HQ-9 battery could be armed with a mix of HQ-9 /FD-2000 and FT-2000 rounds, and this could only be determined in combat once missiles are actually launched and enter their terminal guidance phase.
    Technical Analysis

    The HQ-9 family of missiles are clearly derived from the Russian S-300PMU / SA-10C Grumble and S-300PMU1 / SA-20A Gargoyle family of SAMs, but with numerous unique design changes. Cited kinematic performance typically falls in between the SA-10C and SA-20A, making the HQ-9 systems credible equivalents to various MIM-104 Patriot variants.

    Like its Russian ancestors, the HQ-9 is designed from the outset for “hide, shoot and scoot” operations, with high mobility vehicles employed for all critical battery components.

    In operational planning terms, the HQ-9 should be treated as equivalent to early model SA-20 variants, with the caveat that the different acquisition radar package will impose unique planning requirements, especially in terms of EWSP and SOJ requirements. The possibility of FT-2000 antiradiation rounds being mixed into HQ-9/FD-2000 TEL payloads presents a series of operational risks all of its own.

    The high mobility of the HQ-9 family of weapons will present similar SEAD/DEAD challenges as seen with late model SA-10, SA-20 and SA-21 variants, especially if a disciplined “hide, shoot and scoot” doctrine is followed by HQ-9 operators.

    Chinese sources claim that the HQ-9 family of systems employ much newer computing technology than imported Russian S-300PMU/PMU1/PMU2 systems. This suggests a equal or superior computing capability for signal processing, data processing and guidance support.

    The HQ-9 family of systems should not be underestimated - they will be credible equivalents to the SA-20 family of systems.

    HQ-9/HHQ-9/FD-2000 and FT-2000 Missile Design
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    HHQ-9 launch at motor ignition (via Chinese Internet).

    The basic airframe configuration and internal layout of the HQ-9/HHQ-9/FD-2000 round appear identical to the Russian Almaz-Antey/Fakel 5V55/48N6 family of SAMs. The only notable difference is the redesign of the TVC vanes, which are situated aft of the nozzle in the Chinese missile.

    The FT-2000 airframe appears to be a direct derivative of the HQ-9/HHQ-9/FD-2000 design, but with additional cruciform strakes, likely intended to improve endgame turning performance, and possibly improve post-burnout glide range. Chinese marketing material indicates the airframe is one metre shorter than the Russian 5V55/48N6.

    No details have been disclosed on the seeker employed. Given the design heritage of the missile, the baseline seeker is likely to be a direct derivative of earlier variants of the 48N6E/E1 seeker, employing TVM (SAGG) guidance, and midcourse datalink corrected inertial guidance.

    Claims have also emerged of an active radar seeker, but these should be treated with caution as Chinese industry has little experience with such, licencing the Russian Agat 9B-1103M design for the PL-12 AAM. However, in the long term it is likely that an active seeker will find its way into the missile, as this is a strong trend in contemporary long range SAM design.

    There are also claims of an alternate HQ-9B configuration, employing a dual mode semi-active radar homing and scanning infrared seeker, claimed by Janes to be an imaging IR seeker1. The latter would not present unusual difficulties as China has designed a range of scanning IR seekers for air to air missiles.

    The seeker for the FT-2000 variant is described as a wideband design, covering 2 - 18 GHz. To date only one very poor quality image has emerged, suggesting an unusual planar array design antenna. The low visibility of the FT-2000 as a unique product in recent marketing literature could indicate that the seeker was integrated into a standard FD-2000 airframe, merging the two designs. A single airframe with alternate HQ-9/9A TVM (SAGG), HQ-9B dual-mode and FT-2000 anti-radiation seekers would be operationally more flexible and cheaper than unique designs, and would permit mixed type salvo launches to complicate defensive options. The addition of a fourth active radar seeker type would increase the potency of the mix. The Russians have employed this strategy in several air-air missile designs. Until disclosures are made the PLA or manufacturer, the strategy in seeker deployment is unlikely to be fully understood.

    The promixity fuse and warhead design have not been disclosed. They are likely to be based upon the 5V55/48N6 series.

    Cited kinematic performance suggests the solid propellant motor is based on early 48N6 technology.
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    The FD-2000/HQ-9 round resembles the Soviet 5V55 series, with the exception of prominent external TVC vanes (via Chinese Internet).
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    Cutaway of the FT-2000 round from brochure material. Note the additional cruciform strake absent in the 5V55/48N6 family of missile airframes, and the baseline HQ-9 (via R.D. Fisher).

    Production and Exports

    The HQ-9 has been in production for PLA-AF and PLA-N deployment for a number of years. The US DoD puts current deployments at 64 launchers, making for 8 to 16 batteries.

    Since late 2008 the HQ-9 has been offered for export under the designation FD-2000. The anti-radiation FT-2000 was offered for export a decade ago.

    To date there have been claims that Pakistan is procuring a number of systems, but details remain to be confirmed. Iran is also a possible future client, following the difficulties they have experienced in procuring the S-300PMU1 / SA-20 Gargoyle from Russia - there have been numerous speculative claims of an acquisition but no evidence to support them.

    Given China's active marketing effort in Latin America, South Asia and most recently, Africa, it is likely that HQ-9 derivatives will be widely exported, as more affordable analogues to the Russian S-300PMU2 / SA-20B and S-400 / SA-21.

    HQ-9/FD-2000/FT-2000 Technical Data
    FD-2000 / HQ-9 SAM Characteristics2
    Operational Range (Aircraft Target) 7 - 125 km
    Operational Altitude (Aircraft Target) 25 m - 27 km
    Operational Range (Cruise Missile Target) 7 - 15 km
    Operational Altitude (Cruise Missile Target) >25 m
    Operational Range (Ballistic Missile Target) 7 - 25 km
    Operational Altitude (Ballistic Missile Target) 2 - 15 km
    Operational Range (Supersonic Missile Target) 7 - 50 km
    Operational Altitude (Supersonic Missile Target) 1 - 18 km
    FT-2000 Anti-Radiation SAM Characteristics (CNPMIEC)
    Operational Range 12 - 100 km
    Operational Altitude 3 - 20 km
    Missile Weight 1,300 kg
    Missile Length 6.8 m
    Missile Diameter 0.446 m
    Seeker Band Coverage 2 to 18 GHz
    HQ-9/FD-2000 Battery Components
    HQ-9/FD-2000 Battery Components
    System Function/Composition Vehicle
    TWS-312 Self Propelled Command Post -
    - Site Survey Vehicle EQ-2050 HMMWV
    HT-233 Self Propelled Engagement Radar TAS-5380
    Type 305B/YLC-2V Self Propelled Acquisition Radar ND1260
    - Self Propelled Transporter Erector Launcher TAS-5380
    - Transporter / Transloader / Crane Four Launch Tubes TAS-5380
    - Mobile Diesel Power Generator 200 kW -
    - Mobile Mains Grid Power Converter -
    HQ-9/FD-2000 Battery Component Options
    Type 305A Mobile Acquisition Radar ND1260
    Type 120 Semi-Mobile Low Altitude Acquisition Radar ND1260
    HQ-9/FD-2000 TAS5380 Self Propelled Transporter Erector Launcher
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    HQ-9 TEL using the Taian TAS-5380 chassis. Additional image [1] (via Chinese Internet).


    HQ-9 TELs on parade in 2009 (via Chinese Internet).



    HQ-9/FD-2000 TAS5380 Self Propelled TEL Details



    FT-2000 TAS5380 Self Propelled Transporter Erector Launcher
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    FT-2000 TEL on a variant of the 8 x 8 Taian TAS-5380 chassis. Note the telescoping datalink antenna, absent on the HQ-9 TEL design. The hydraulic elevating launcher structural frame appears identical to the HQ-9 TEL design (CPMIEC brochure image).
    TWS-312 Battery Command Post
    HT-233 Engagement Radar

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    Production HT-233 PESA engagement radar on the 10 x 10 Taian TAS5501 series chassis (© 2009, Bradley Huang).
    Type 305A Acquisition Radar
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    Type 305A acquisition radar deployed, in the background to the right for comparison the Type 305B, based on the YLC-2V. The van parked behind the Type 305A radar head vehicle contains the operator stations. All are carried by North-Benz ND-1260 series trucks, a licenced Mercedes-Benz NG80 (© 2009, Bradley Huang).
    Type 305B/YLC-2V Acquisition Radar


    Type 305B acquisition radars with antenna deployed (via Chinese Internet).
    Type 120 Low Altitude Acquisition Radar
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    Aft view of Type 120 fully deployed (via Chinese Internet).
    Dong Feng EQ-2050 HMMWV HQ-9 Battery Scout Vehicle


    The Dong Feng EQ-2050 HMMWV is employed frequently as the battery scout vehicle.

    HQ-9 TAS5380 Missile Transloader

    At least two vehicle types exist for the transportation of HQ-9 reloads. Above is an 8 x 8 TAS5380 series high mobility transloader/transporter, clearly derived from the HQ-9 TEL (via Chinese Internet).
    HQ-9 Missile Transporter

    A 6 x 6 HQ-9 transporter vehicle, the vehicle is likely to be a North-Benz ND1260 series (via Chinese Interne
    HHQ-9 Missile - Type 052B/C DDG


    HHQ-9 launch at motor ignition. The missile airframe closely resembles the 5V55/48N6 series (via Chinese Internet).
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    HHQ-9 launch, the weapon employs much the same cold launch technology as the Russian S-300P series it was modelled upon (via Chinese Internet).
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    HHQ-9 rounds on parade. The prominent external TVC vanes are very visible on these examples (via Chinese Internet).

    CPMIEC HQ-9 / HHQ-9 / FD-2000 / FT-2000 Self Propelled AirDefence System
     
  4. The SC

    The SC ELITE MEMBER

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    FD-2000 / HQ-9 SAM - China's Strategic ‘Game Changer’

    Air Power Australia - Australia's Independent Defence Think Tank




    [​IMG]

    HQ-9 TELs with HT-233 phased array engagement radar (© 2009, Bradley Huang)
    Modern Surface to Air Missile (SAM) systems are formidable area-denial weapons. They are the agile Kings on the checkerboard landscape. While one SAM battery searches and tracks, another shoots and guides. Others move to new locations, denying an enemy an effective attack. These systems are networked, and may use diverse frequencies to penetrate ‘stealth’ designs. They feature redundant elements, so if the enemy is lucky and destroys one element, others seamlessly take its place. The missiles are fast, high flying and deadly, with advanced guidance systems and high resistance to electronic jamming. To further confuse and deny an enemy a shot, realistic dummies and electronic decoys draw fire away from the real equipment.

    China has joined the select club of countries that indigenously manufacture effective SAMs. Initially drawing on decades of Russian research, they have re-engineered the highly effective Russian S-300PMU or SA-20 system into the HQ-9.With many obsolete SAMs to replace, China has built a high-capacity production line, and is progressively replacing obsolete SAMs with new SAM systems.

    The Chinese SAM replacement strategy will generate a ‘China Price’ for the HQ-9.Once the production facility cost is ‘written down’ to zero, and with the research and development costs greatly reduced by drawing from Russian intellectual property, new generation HQ-9 batteries will be sold relatively cheaply – perhaps half the cost of a Russian S-300PMU / SA-20 series SAM battery and a small fraction of the cost of a US built Patriot Battery.

    China has an obvious vested interest in selling the HQ-9 abroad. In many places, it will build influence and dependence, and China may choose to provide area defence as part of a foreign aid package. In other places, China’s emerging search for raw material may require protection from air attack; area denial weapons are part of the required military capabilities. Sudan is a case-in-point1. Then there is the simple reality that good money can be made from selling advanced HQ-9s into a globalised market.

    Thus, the Western democracies can expect a rapid proliferation of the HQ-9 to places where they would rather not have to counter such modern SAM systems.

    The ongoing “Rise of China” shows every sign of being a zero-sum-game, as Western military capabilities progressively erode, China's progressively expand, with the trend in superior air defence capability moving to China.

    The latest APA technical report by Dr Carlo Kopp and John Wise, which explores recently revealed Chinese military radars, shows that there is more that we do not know about China’s indigenous air defence weapons development program than we do know, but what we do know shows a rapid advance towards mastery of state-of-the-art SAM system technology. This study follows Dr Kopp’s recent technical report on the HQ-9 design2.

    The Chinese 60th Anniversary military parade, held on the 1st October, 2009, is now producing fallout as Western analysts dissect the multitude of new systems publicly displayed for the first time. Surprise revelations included the launcher vehicles for the YJ-62 and CJ-10/DH-10 Ground Launched Cruise Missiles (GLCM), new ballistic missile hardware, and importantly, three new acquisition / search radars for China's indigenously manufactured HQ-9 and HQ-12 SAM systems.

    The HQ-9, exported as the FD-2000, and the HQ-12, exported as the KS-1A, are both wholly manufactured in China, and largely designed by Chinese engineers, who as noted heavily exploited access to Russian technology during the 1990s.

    The HQ-9 would qualify, in Pentagon-speak, as a ‘long range double digit SAM’, in fact much of the basic technology in this system was licensed from the Russians. The missile, the launchers, the vehicles, and the phased-array fire-control radar are all derived from Russian S-300PMU/PMU1, i.e. late model SA-10 and early model SA-20 technology. The effective range of this system is around 80 percent of the range of the first SA-20 variant, and is better than earlier US MIM-104 Patriot variants.

    The radar makes use of all of the anti-jam design features the Russians cleverly built into the SA-10 and SA-20. One Asian source is claiming a basic Low Probability of Intercept capability for the radar, which would make it extremely difficult to detect and track by its microwave emissions. And the 8 x 8 and 10 x 10 vehicles used make it just as mobile as the latest Russian SAM designs, for highly survivable ‘hide, shoot and scoot’ operations.

    The HQ-12 is a much shorter ranging system, intended to provide an inner layer defence, inside the footprint of the HQ-9. It is also mobile, and the radar looks to be based on much the same technology as the HQ-9, making it hard to detect, hard to track and hard to jam.

    For all intents and purposes, the HQ-9 and HQ-12 are modern technology SAM systems, designed for contemporary high intensity conflicts.

    Continued ...

    “Hide, Shoot and Scoot” - Mobility by Design
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    HQ-9 TEL, stowed. This high mobility design closely resembles the Russian S-300PMU TEL (via Chinese Internet).
    [​IMG]
    HQ-12 TELs and a H-200 engagement radar (© 2009, Bradley Huang).

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    Type 305A AESA acquisition radar (foreground) and Type 305B planar array (background), both on licenced 6 x 6 Mercedes-Benz NG 80 chassis (© 2009, Bradley Huang).
    [​IMG]
    Type 120 low altitude planar array fully deployed on licenced 6 x 6 Mercedes-Benz NG 80 chassis (© 2009, Bradley Huang).

    The three new HQ-9 acquisition radars are the Type 120, Type 305A, and Type 305B, all self-propelled high mobility designs carried on licence built Mercedes-Benz NG 80 ‘North Benz’ heavy trucks – a wise decision that provides reliable transport with a low implementation and operating cost. Like the latest generation Russian designs, these radars are built to automatically stabilise on hydraulically deployed legs, and automatically unfold and elevate their antennas using hydraulic rams. The Chinese have yet to comment on deployment and stow times, but five minutes would be a reasonable estimate. In short, these are true ‘hide, shoot and scoot’ designs built for modern war-fighting.

    The Type 305B is a variant of the established and relatively new YLC-2V battery acquisition radar, and appears to be the standard for the HQ-9 and HQ-12. This is a modern mechanically steered planar array with electronic beam-steering for height-finding. It is similar to a good number of US and EU radars in this category, but is built for greater mobility in the field, making it harder to engage and destroy.

    The Type 120 appears to be entirely new, but substantially based on the recent JY-11B series. Like the Belarus Vostok D/E series, it uses a hydraulically elevated mast to increase low altitude coverage. Interestingly, this design appears to operate in the L-band, unlike the earlier JY-11B, which it otherwise resembles. This change is clearly intended to improve detection range against stealth aircraft and cruise missiles, most of which are difficult to detect at operationally useful ranges in the S-band.

    The most interesting of the trio is the Type 305A, which Kopp and Wise assess to be most likely an S-band AESA based the same technology used in the KJ-2000 AWACS and KJ-200 AEW&C AESA radars. This technology makes the radar equivalent in antenna technology to the new Thales-Raytheon Ground Master 400 series - reliable, difficult to jam, and difficult to locate, with agile beam-steering of the kind seen in US systems like the Aegis SPY-1. As we have seen with latest generation Chinese smart bombs, their most advanced products are very close to the US and EU built benchmark-designs.

    Export variants of the HQ-9, HQ-12 and nearly all PLA surveillance and acquisition radars have been actively marketed across the world. Latin America has been buying Chinese surveillance radars in significant numbers. In Asia, PRC clients like Pakistan and Myanmar have been sold these technologies, and Pakistan is claimed to be procuring the HQ-9 system.

    What the future will bring is clear - increasing global proliferation of modern high technology Chinese built air defence weapons. These will be comparable to the latest Russian designs, but cheaper in raw dollar terms, and without political strings attached. Russia's treatment of Iran over the S-300PMU1 / SA-20A Gargoyle order is likely to drive Iran directly into buying HQ-9 systems, arguably just as effective, and motivate other developing nations in turn to do the same3.

    Western bureaucrats continue to show absolute disdain for Chinese built air defence weapons. While in the short term, ignorance might be bliss, the pain will be felt acutely if several dozen US combat aircraft are shot down by modern HQ-9s in some remote corner of the world, by a country the US considers to be incapable of such a defence.
    Notes

    1 Please refer China delivers more advanced weapons to Sudan - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan.

    2 Please refer Technical Reports APA-TR-2009-1103 CPMIEC HQ-9 / HHQ-9 / FD-2000 / FT-2000 Self Propelled Air Defence System and APA-TR-2009-1103 HQ-9 and HQ-12 SAM System Battery Radars on this website.

    3 Richard D Fisher, Jr and Carlo Kopp, ‘Game Changers; Chinese SAMs and Russian VHF Radar May Alter Air Tactics’, Defense Technology International, December, 2009; also Andrei Chang, China exports new surface-to-air missile, United Press International, 18th March, 2009, URL: China exports new surface-to-air missile - UPI.com; Andrei Chang, China's strategic ties with Indonesia, United Press International, 15th April, 2009, URL: Asia News - South Asia News - Latest headlines – News, Photos, Videos - UPIAsia.com; News Report, Iran to procure Chinese defense system, The Jerusalem Post, 11th May, 2009, URL: http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1241773221488&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull; News Report, Russia 'losing to China on Iran S-300 quest' , Payvand Iran News/Press TV, 10th May, 2009, URL: http://www.payvand.com/news/09/may/1109.html.
    [​IMG]
    (US DoD Chart)

    FD-2000 / HQ-9 SAM - China's Strategic ‘Game Changer’
     
  5. tarrar

    tarrar SENIOR MEMBER

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    [​IMG]

    Syrian's used Tor M1 against Turkish F 16's & they were very effective. PLA is operating them & PA should go for Tor M1, as they will serve really well in PA.
     
  6. rockstar08

    rockstar08 BANNED

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    last time check , we dont have Hq-9 ... o_O:undecided:
     
  7. Sulman Badshah

    Sulman Badshah STAFF

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    I doubt that we have any HQ9 system
     
  8. AZADPAKISTAN2009

    AZADPAKISTAN2009 ELITE MEMBER

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    We need indegneous capacity , we will not have safe skies with out our own equipment
     
  9. nomi007

    nomi007 SENIOR MEMBER

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    [​IMG] [​IMG]
     
  10. Super Falcon

    Super Falcon ELITE MEMBER

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    At current our air defence is very week onlu spada and rbs u0 we inducted FM 90 is copy of crotale with few modification still its old we need sophisti ared airdence system 2 high altitude 4 medium altitude systems
     
  11. SSGcommandoPAK

    SSGcommandoPAK SENIOR MEMBER

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    Can the HQ-9 be compared to s-300 or s-400 systems ??
     
  12. AZADPAKISTAN2009

    AZADPAKISTAN2009 ELITE MEMBER

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    China
    Well done Pakistan Military

    • LY-80
    • HQ-7B
    • S-300
    • Pantsir-S1
    • Igala

      --------------------------------------------
      Ababeel
      Darb Coastal Defence Program
      Submarine Lunch Nukes

    Icing on cake MI35M Choppers for Hot persuit

    BAMMMMMMM
    :enjoy:

    What a difference 3 years make