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Giving a blow-by-blow account of the Abbottabad raid by American commandos that killed the world’s most wanted terrorist on May 2, 2011 in his latest book “A Promised Land”, the former U.S. president said that the top secret operation was opposed by the then Defence Secretary Robert Gates and his former Vice President Joe Biden, who is now the President-elect.



“Based on what I’d heard, I decided we had enough information to begin developing options for an attack on the compound. While the CIA team continued to work on identifying the Pacer, I asked Tom Donilon and John Brennan to explore what a raid would look like,” Mr. Obama writes in his memoir.

“The need for secrecy added to the challenge; if even the slightest hint of our lead on bin Laden leaked, we knew our opportunity would be lost. As a result, only a handful of people across the entire federal government were read into the planning phase of the operation,” he said.

“We had one other constraint: Whatever option we chose could not involve the Pakistanis,” he wrote.

“Although Pakistan’s government cooperated with us on a host of counterterrorism operations and provided a vital supply path for our forces in Afghanistan, it was an open secret that certain elements inside the country’s military, and especially its intelligence services, maintained links to the Taliban and perhaps even al-Qaeda, sometimes using them as strategic assets to ensure that the Afghan government remained weak and unable to align itself with Pakistan’s number one rival, India, Obama revealed,” added Mr. Obama

“The fact that the Abbottabad compound was just a few miles from the Pakistan military’s equivalent of West Point only heightened the possibility that anything we told the Pakistanis could end up tipping off our target.”

“Whatever we chose to do in Abbottabad, then, would involve violating the territory of a putative ally in the most egregious way possible, short of war — raising both the diplomatic stakes and the operational complexities,” he wrote.

In the final stages they were discussing two options. The first was to demolish it with an air strike. The second option was to authorise a special ops mission, in which a select team would covertly fly into Pakistan via helicopter, raid the compound, and get out before the Pakistani police or military had time to react.

Despite all the risks involved, Mr. Obama and his national security team opted for the second option, but not before multiple rounds of discussions and intensive planning.

The day before he gave the final approval for the raid, at a Situation Room meeting, Hillary Clinton, the then Secretary of State, said that it was a 51-49 call. Gates recommended against a raid, although he was open to considering the strike option, he said.

Joe (Biden) also weighed in against the raid, arguing that given the enormous consequences of failure, I should defer any decision until the intelligence community was more certain that bin Laden was in the compound.

“As had been true in every major decision I’d made as President, I appreciated Joe’s willingness to buck the prevailing mood and ask tough questions, often in the interest of giving me the space I needed for my own internal deliberations,” Mr. Obama wrote.

After the successful Abbottabad raid, Mr. Obama made a number of calls domestically and internationally, the toughest of which he expected to be that with the then Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari, he wrote.

I expected my most difficult call to be with Pakistan’s beleaguered president, Asif Ali Zardari, who would surely face a backlash at home over our violation of Pakistani sovereignty. When I reached him, however, he expressed congratulations and support. ‘Whatever the fallout,’ he said, ‘it’s very good news. He showed genuine emotion, recalling how his wife, Benazir Bhutto, had been killed by extremists with reported ties to al-Qaeda, Mr. Obama wrote.
 

masterchief_mirza

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Discussion on India in President Barack Obama's memoir titled "A Promised Land" reveals what the former US President thought about India, particularly Indian hostility against Pakistan. Obama also reveals that President-elect Joseph R. Biden opposed the US Navy Seals raid to kill Usama Bin Laden in Abbottabad in 2011. Biden was Obama's Vice President at the time.


Obama's Book Excerpts:

“Expressing hostility toward Pakistan was still the quickest route to national unity (in India)”.

"Violence, both public and private, remained an all-too-pervasive part of Indian life”.

"(Manmohan) Singh had resisted calls to retaliate against Pakistan after the (Mumbai) attacks, but his restraint had cost him politically. He feared that rising anti-Muslim sentiment had strengthened the influence of India’s main opposition party, the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)"

"Across the country (India), millions continued to live in squalor, trapped in sunbaked villages or labyrinthine slums, even as the titans of Indian industry enjoyed lifestyles that the rajas and moguls of old would have envied".

“Joe (Biden) weighed in against the (Usama Bin Laden) raid (on compound in Pakistan)”

Biden-Trump Debate:

In his first debate with Democratic Presidential candidate Joseph R. Biden, President Donald Trump questioned India's coronavirus data while responding to Biden's accusation that his opponent has badly mishandled the pandemic. About 21 minutes into the debate, Trump said: "And, by the way, when you talk about numbers, you don’t know how many people died in China. You don’t know how many people died in Russia. You don’t know how many people died in India. They don’t exactly give you a straight count, just so you understand".

Talking about climate change, Trump accused India of being a leading polluter. About an hour into the debate, Trump said: "China sends up real dirt into the air. Russia does. India does. They all do". There are reports suggesting India has surpassed China as the world's top polluter. Images captured by the Dutch space instrument, Tropomi, show high concentrations pollutants like Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone and other pollutants produced by car traffic, industry and power stations in India, according to a Business Insider report.

Ambassador Kishore Mahbubani on India:

"One hard truth that Indians have to contend with is that America has also had difficulty treating India with respect", writes former Singaporean diplomat Kishore Mahbubani in his latest book "Has China Won?". "If America wants to develop a close long-term relationship with India over the long run, it needs to confront the deep roots of its relative lack of respect for India", adds Ambassador Mahbubani. It's not just Mahbubani who suspects the United States leadership does not respect India. Others, including former President Bill Clinton, current US President Donald Trump, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and CNN GPS host Fareed Zakaria have expressed similar sentiments.

Trump and Clinton:

There is some evidence to support Ambassador Mahbubani's assertion about America's lack of respect for India. For example, ex US President Bill Clinton said in 1990s that India has a Rodney Dangerfield problem: It can’t get no respect, according to his deputy secretary of state Strobe Talbott. In a diplomatic cable released by WikiLeaks in 2010, Hillary Clinton referred to India as "a self-appointed frontrunner for a permanent UN security council seat."

More recently, US President Donald Trump mocked Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi about Indian contribution to Afghanistan. Trump said he got along very well with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, but the Indian leader was "constantly telling me he built a library in Afghanistan". "That's like five hours of what we spend... And we are supposed to say, 'oh, thank you for the library'. I don't know who is using it in Afghanistan," Trump said.

Western Media:

Indians were justifiably very proud of their great scientific achievement when the India Space Agency ISRO successfully launched the nation's Mars Mission back in 2013. The New York Times, America's leading newspaper, mocked India with a cartoon depicting the country as a dhoti-wearing farmer with his cow knocking on the door of the Elite Space Club.

New York Times Cartoon


In an article titled "Paper Elephant", the Economist magazine talked about how India has ramped up its military spending and emerged as the world's largest arms importer. "Its military doctrine envisages fighting simultaneous land wars against Pakistan and China while retaining dominance in the Indian Ocean", the article said. It summed up the situation as follows: "India spends a fortune on defense and gets poor value for money".

After the India-Pakistan aerial combat over Kashmir, New York Times published a story from its South Asia correspondent headlined: "After India Loses Dogfight to Pakistan, Questions Arise About Its Military". Here are some excerpts of the report:

"Its (India's) loss of a plane last week to a country (Pakistan) whose military is about half the size and receives a quarter (a sixth according to SIPRI) of the funding is telling. ...India’s armed forces are in alarming shape....It was an inauspicious moment for a military the United States is banking on to help keep an expanding China in check".

Fareed Zakaria:

CNN GPS host Fareed Zakaria is known to be among the loudest cheerleaders for India and a sharp critic of Pakistan. While he still refuses to say anything that could even remotely be considered positive about Pakistan, it seems that he is souring on his native India.

Speaking with Indian journalist Shekhar Gupta on The Print YouTube channel, Fareed Zakaria called the Indian state an “inefficient state”.“Indian government functions very poorly, even in comparison to other developing countries. Coronavirus has highlighted that reality, " he added. He did not clearly speak about the lynchings of Indian Muslims by people affiliated with the ruling BJP and the brutality of Indian military against Kashmiri Muslims, but he did ask: “What I wonder about (Prime Minister Narendra) Modi is, is he really bringing all of India along with him? He noted sadly:”India seems like roadkill for China".

Has New Delhi's abject failure in containing the coronavirus pandemic finally done what Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's extreme brutality and open hatred against Zakaria's fellow Indian Muslims could not do? Has he really had it with Hindu Nationalist government? While he has not used his perch on CNN to do it, it appears that he has started expressing his disapproval of the performance on other platforms.

Here are a few of the key points Fareed Zakaria made while speaking with Shekhar Gupta:

1. There’s no doubt in my mind that the Indian government, and by that I mean the Delhi government, has handled this crisis (COVID19) very poorly.

2. Indian government functions very poorly, even in comparison to other developing countries. Coronavirus has highlighted that reality.

3. In a way, India seems like roadkill for China’s obsession with absolute control over their borders. I do think there is an opportunity here for diplomacy. I don’t think India needs to be confrontational about it (the LAC issue), but of course it should push back.

4. It is now a bipolar world. US and China are way ahead of the rest of the world. For the long term, India needs to decide it’s position with China.

4. Turkey under Erdogan has become more confident and independent. It is culturally proud. It is telling Americans to buzz off.

5. Popularity of political leaders around the world is linked to their performance on the coronavirus pandemic. In India, however, the issues of religion and caste are still dominating.

6. What I wonder about (Prime Minister Narendra) Modi is, is he really bringing all of India along with him? How many Muslims in Indian government? Or South Indians in BJP? It is much less diverse than Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet.

7. I have been very sad to see how Indian democracy has developed over the last few years. It has become an illiberal democracy.

8. The India media is slavishly pro-government. Self-censorship is widespread in India.

9. The Indian courts fold in cases where government takes serious interest.

Summary:

“Expressing hostility toward Pakistan was still the quickest route to national unity (in India)”, writes former US President Barack Obama in his memoir titled "A Promised Land. Obama goes on to add: "Violence, both public and private, remained an all-too-pervasive part of Indian life”. Singaporean diplomat, analyst and writer Kishore Mahbubani has argued in his latest book "Has China Won?" that America does not really respect India. Others, including ex US President Bill Clinton, current President Donald Trump, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and CNN GPS host Fareed Zakaria, have expressed similar sentiments. It has become increasingly clear that India's loudest cheerleaders like Fareed Zakaria are now starting to see the stark reality of Modi's India as a big failure on multiple fronts. Indian state has failed to contain the deadly COVID19 pandemic. India's economy is in serious trouble. The country's democracy is in decline. India seems like a roadkill for China. This turn of events has created serious problems for Pakistani "liberals" who have long seen and often cited India as a successful example of "secular democracy" at work in South Asia.

Here's a video clip from CNN GPS Show:






Related Links:

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South Asia Investor Review

Is India a Paper Elephant?

COVID19 in Pakistan: Test Positivity Rate and Deaths Declining

Fareed Zakaria Never Misses Any Opportunity to Bash Pakistan

Retired Justice Markanday Katju on Modi's India

Lynchistan: India is the Lynching Capital of the World

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Pakistan's Pharma Industry Among World's Fastest Growing

Is Pakistan's Response to COVID19 Flawed?

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Coronavirus Antibodies Testing in Pakistan

Can Pakistan Effectively Respond to Coronavirus Outbreak?

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Democracy vs Dictatorship in Pakistan

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Panama Leaks in Pakistan

Conspiracy Theories About Pakistan Elections"

PTI Triumphs Over Corrupt Dynastic Political Parties

Strikingly Similar Narratives of Donald Trump and Nawaz Sharif

Nawaz Sharif's Report Card

Riaz Haq's Youtube Channel

PakAlumni Social Network


Worth repeating this excerpt:
"recently, US President Donald Trump mocked Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi about Indian contribution to Afghanistan. Trump said he got along very well with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, but the Indian leader was "constantly telling me he built a library in Afghanistan". "That's like five hours of what we spend... And we are supposed to say, 'oh, thank you for the library'. I don't know who is using it in Afghanistan," Trump said."

However, Mr Haq, there are other excerpts from Obama's memoirs that require analysis by pdf Indians:
""Would the baton be successfully passed to Rahul, fulfilling the destiny laid out by his mother and preserving the Congress Party's dominance over the divisive nationalism touted by the BJP?" he wonders.
"Somehow, I was doubtful. It wasn't Singh's fault. He had done his part, following the playbook of liberal democracies across the post-Cold War world: upholding the constitutional order; attending to the quotidian, often technical work of boosting the GDP; and expanding the social safety net.
"Like me, he had come to believe that this was all any of us could expect from democracy, especially in big, multiethnic, multi-religious societies like India and the United States."
But Mr Obama also found himself "asking whether those impulses - of violence, greed, corruption, nationalism, racism, and religious intolerance, the all-too human desire to beat back our own uncertainty and mortality and sense of insignificance by subordinating others - were too strong for any democracy to permanently contain.
"For they seemed to lie in wait everywhere, ready to resurface whenever growth rates stalled or demographics changed or a charismatic leader chose to ride the wave of people's fears and resentments."
Mr Obama's question was answered in 2014, when Narendra Modi led the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to a sweeping victory."



India's destiny is laid bare. Obama and his ally Biden agree on BJP being "divisive". Phraseology such as "violence, greed, corruption, nationalism, racism, and religious intolerance", "charismatic leaders riding waves of resentment over demographic change".

One has to conclude that Obama was prophetic on this. India is well aware that Biden is an Obama-ite, nothing less. Modi's best chance is to suck up submissively and play the Kamala card early. Otherwise Biden will brow beat them silly.
 

N.Siddiqui

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Hostility towards Pakistan quickest route to national unity in India, says Obama
Anwar IqbalUpdated 19 Nov 2020
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The quickest route to national unity in India is “expressing hostility toward Pakistan,” says Barack Obama, America’s first coloured president in his new book, “A Promised Land.” — AFP/File



The quickest route to national unity in India is “expressing hostility toward Pakistan,” says Barack Obama, America’s first coloured president in his new book, “A Promised Land.” — AFP/File
WASHINGTON: The quickest route to national unity in India is “expressing hostility toward Pakistan,” says Barack Obama, America’s first coloured president in his new book, “A Promised Land.”
The book, released worldwide on Nov 17, also includes a pen portrait of former Indian prime minister, Manmohan Singh, whom he first met at the 2009 G20 summit in Pittsburgh.

When Obama met Singh again during his visit to India in November 2010, Singh told him that he feared “rising anti-Muslim sentiment had strengthened the influence of Hindu nationalist BJP”, the main opposition party at the time.
Obama described Singh as “a gentle, soft-spoken economist” who engineered the modernisation of his nation’s economy.
Obama quoted Singh as saying that the “call of religious and ethnic solidarity can be intoxicating” for politicians, particularly in a country like India, which was still racked by poverty, wealth inequality, violence and ultra-nationalism.

Obama noted that “many Indians (took) great pride in the knowledge that their country had developed a nuclear weapons programme to match Pakistan’s, untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation.”

“Violence, both public and private, remained an all-too-pervasive part of Indian life. Expressing hostility towards Pakistan was still the quickest route to national unity,” Obama wrote.
“Most of all, India’s politics still revolved around religion, clan, and caste.”
But Obama also acknowledged that “in many respects, modern-day India counted as a success story, having survived repeated changeovers in government, bitter feuds within political parties, various armed separatist movements, and all manner of corruption scandals”.

But “despite its genuine economic progress, … India remained a chaotic and impoverished place: largely divided by religion and caste, captive to the whims of corrupt local officials and power brokers, hamstrung by a parochial bureaucracy that was resistant to change,” he added.
“A Promised Land” ends with the US raid on the Bin Laden compound in 2011 and, therefore, does not include the current Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi.

Read: Breaking news of Osama raid to Pakistan was easier than thought, says Obama

Commenting on the prevalence of violence in India, Obama wondered if “violence, greed, corruption, nationalism, racism, and religious intolerance” were “too strong for any democracy to permanently contain”.
The former US leader noted that those who believed in violence “seemed to lie in wait everywhere, ready to resurface whenever growth rates stalled or demographics changed or a charismatic leader chose to ride the wave of people’s fears and resentments”.

Obama also praised Singh’s ascent to prime minister’s office, noting that he was from an “often persecuted Sikh religious minority.”
He claimed that “more than one political observer” told him that Sonia Gandhi had “chosen Singh precisely because as an elderly Sikh with no national political base, he posed no threat to her 40-year-old son, Rahul, whom she was grooming to take over the Congress Party.”

“Somehow, I was doubtful” if Rahul Gandhi was capable of “preserving the Congress Party’s dominance over the divisive nationalism touted by the BJP,” he wrote.

Obama described Rahul Gandhi as “smart and earnest,” with good looks” but noted that “there was a nervous, unformed quality about him, as if he were a student who’d done the coursework and was eager to impress the teacher but deep down lacked either the aptitude or the passion to master the subject.”
Obama wrote that India had “always held a special place in my imagination.” Analysing this fascination, he said: “Maybe it was its sheer size, with one-sixth of the world’s population, an estimated two thousand distinct ethnic groups, and more than seven hundred languages spoken.”
But “more than anything, though, my fascination with India had to do with Mahatma Gandhi. Along with Lincoln, King, and Mandela, Gandhi had profoundly influenced my thinking,” he added.
Obama mentioned that his Indian and Pakistani college friends, who “taught me to cook dahl and keema and turned me on to Bollywood movies” also stirred his interest in India.

But this, he wrote, could not hide the huge issues India faced as the world’s second most populated country.
“Across the country, millions continued to live in squalor, trapped in sunbaked villages or labyrinthine slums, even as the titans of Indian industry enjoyed lifestyles that the rajas and moguls of old would have envied,” he writes in his new memoir.
“Violence, both public and private, remained an all-too-pervasive part of Indian life.”

Published in Dawn, November 19th, 2020

DAWN comments are interesting...
 

Baibars_1260

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It's not just hostility towards Pakistan that promotes national unity in India but hostility towards Indian Muslims.
According to the views of the majority of the Indian Hindu population the cause of all of India's problems are Indian Muslims and by inference Pakistan. Indians see Pakistan not as a sovereign independent country next door but just another despicable Indian Muslim ghetto that needs to be handled by a larger communal pogrom that will further reduce it into a giant slum.
The Indian Pakistani wars ( or cricket matches) are viewed as larger versions of India's communal riots when Muslim ghettos are overrun by India's communally surcharged police.
 

Taimoor Khan

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“many Indians (took) great pride in the knowledge that their country had developed a nuclear weapons programme to match Pakistan’s, untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation.”


Interesting observation by ex-POTUS.
 

313ghazi

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The biggest symbol of Indian obsession is the sheer number of them on Pakistani forums, news sites and even social media content about Pakistan. It is understandable that people might be curious, but those with outright hatred towards us are obsessed by us.

Look at this forum, of the Indian membership how many positively engage and how many are trolls? How many Pakistani's do you find on their forums? Next to none.

Look at the news sites. Dawn's comments section is inundated with Indians, yet how many Pakistani's comment on ToI?

Their national identity is fabricated, which in itself is no bad thing. Most nations are a mix of cultures, ethnicities, religions and political identities. However the HUGE discrimination and inequality in their nation makes it very difficult for people to bind to a national identity. Thus we have the hatred of Pakistan - the glue that binds. The "other" who is behind all the problems.
 

Invicta

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“many Indians (took) great pride in the knowledge that their country had developed a nuclear weapons programme to match Pakistan’s, untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation.”


Interesting observation by ex-POTUS.
I picked on that too, does this mean covertly Pakistan was ahead in the game.
 

N.Siddiqui

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“many Indians (took) great pride in the knowledge that their country had developed a nuclear weapons programme to match Pakistan’s, untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation.”


Interesting observation by ex-POTUS.

Points to the fact that many incidents that led to the hostility towards Pakistan was false flag operations and done by the Indian deep state...that led to the national unity and hatred towards Pakistan.

This could be many like Parliament attacks, Pathankot, Uri, Pulwama, Mumbai and many more...

The dividing radicalized forces that led to the rise of RSS extremism only got stronger after each attacks, pointing fingers towards Pakistan.
 
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Baibars_1260

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“many Indians (took) great pride in the knowledge that their country had developed a nuclear weapons programme to match Pakistan’s, untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation.”


Interesting observation by ex-POTUS.
"untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation "

There is another side to this. Indians never believed that Pakistan had the technology, resources or will to develop nuclear weapons. Dr. Raja Ramanna a distinguished Indian nuclear scientist said: "Pakistan does not have the brains"

.When India made 5 nuclear detonations in 1998 Indians were overjoyed as this was an assertion of Hindu might over Muslim Pakistan. There was no nationalist sentiment over these tests unlike the previous single test in 1974.

The test in 1974 was aimed specifically at the West and NATO to deter an intervention, regime change, and Balkanization of India. India was firmly aligned with the Soviet Union. A secular non-aligned government headed by Indira Gandhi was in power. It was not a secure government however, and was subject to sabotage and undermining by foreign powers that were resentful of India's anti- Western stance as a Soviet ally. With the Cold War in full swing, and crippling economic sanctions, India was firmly in the cross hairs of the West for a regime change.

India's economy was in dire shape with famine, unemployment and poverty at record levels. By 1974 there was widespread Western backed public unrest with an anti-government " Total Revolution" movement headed by Jaya Prakash Narayan.
There were a large number of deaths of protesters shot by the police and paramilitary units. This was followed by mutinies in several important paramilitary units ( PAC, CISF, CRPF) which had to be suppressed by the Indian Army.
In exasperation India detonated a "peaceful " nuclear device as a signal that it was a force to reckon with. The West was not impressed and Henry Kissinger made his famous phone call to Indira Gandhi with the statement: ,
"Madam, you will soon be facing a general in Pakistan who will say ' I have four nuclear bombs. Ome each for Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. After Friday let's meet in Paradise "
.
The nuclear explosion failed to quell the unrest. The Indian government imposed an Emergency shortly afterwards ; arresting and imprisoning the political opposition. The West imposed sanctions on India but in a Cold War environment the then mighty Soviet Union could assist to defeat most sanctions particularly arms embargoes.

By 1998 the secular environment in India had changed permanently in favor of Hindutva. Indira Gandhi and her son had been assassinated. The Soviet Union had long vanished. India was a firm ally of the West and Israel in a new "clash of civilizations" with Islam. There was a Hindu Nationalist government in power with the avowed intention of destroying and occupying Pakistan. The nuclear explosions were encouraged by the West in the hope that Pakistan would fold up and surrender to India, thus resulting in a sole regional Western aligned power to protect Israel from Iran and fix rogue states like Iraq. Immediately after the nuclear tests L.K. Advani the Indian Deputy Prime Minister marched to the Indian border shaking his fist in the direction of Pakistan declaring that " Pakistan must accept the new realities ".
The six tests that Pakistan conducted two weeks later came as a nasty shock to India. Kissinger's prophecy had come true.
But India was not the Soviet Union who having sustained four years of nuclear blackmail from 1945-1949 was willing to up the ante once it acquired nuclear weapons of its own. The Soviet Union was willing to get vaporized rather than allow itself to be occupied by a conventional military force and survive.
Pakistan's nuclear doctrine is exactly like the Soviet Union's in the early days. Nuclear weapons will be used and Hindutva ruled India is welcome to call Pakistan's " bluff".
If there is anything Indians are afraid of it is getting vaporized. India's hostility to Pakistan is not due to Kashmir or any territorial dispute but a functional religious bigotry and a desire for vengeance for a historical humiliation. Pakistan is merely an extension of India's communal divide. While this vengeance is being extracted in full measure in a planned Holocaust on Indian Muslims it is much harder to execute on Pakistan.
Indians don't want to die.
 
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Cliftonite

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"untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation "

There is another side to this. Indians never believed that Pakistan had the technology, resources or will to develop nuclear weapons. Dr. Raja Ramanna a distinguished Indian nuclear scientist said: "Pakistan does not have the brains"

.When India made 5 nuclear detonations in 1998 Indians were overjoyed as this was an assertion of Hindu might over Muslim Pakistan. There was no nationalist sentiment over these tests unlike the previous single test in 1974.

The test in 1974 was aimed specifically at the West and NATO to deter an intervention, regime change, and Balkanization of India. India was firmly aligned with the Soviet Union. A secular non-aligned government headed by Indira Gandhi was in power. It was not a secure government however, and was subject to sabotage and undermining by foreign powers that were resentful of India's anti- Western stance as a Soviet ally. With the Cold War in full swing, and crippling economic sanctions, India was firmly in the cross hairs of the West for a regime change.

India's economy was in dire shape with famine, unemployment and poverty at record levels. By 1974 there was widespread Western backed public unrest with an anti-government " Total Revolution" movement headed by Jaya Prakash Narayan.
There were a large number of deaths of protesters shot by the police and paramilitary units. This was followed by mutinies in several important paramilitary units ( PAC, CISF, CRPF) which had to be suppressed by the Indian Army.
In exasperation India detonated a "peaceful " nuclear device as a signal that it was a force to reckon with. The West was not impressed and Henry Kissinger made his famous phone call to Indira Gandhi with the statement: ,
"Madam, you will soon be facing a general in Pakistan who will say ' I have four nuclear bombs. Ome each for Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. After Friday let's meet in Paradise "
.
The nuclear explosion failed to quell the unrest. The Indian government imposed an Emergency shortly afterwards ; arresting and imprisoning the political opposition. The West imposed sanctions on India but in a Cold War environment the then mighty Soviet Union could assist to defeat most sanctions particularly arms embargoes.

By 1998 the secular environment in India had changed permanently in favor of Hindutva. Indira Gandhi and her son had been assassinated. The Soviet Union had long vanished. India was a firm ally of the West and Israel in a new "clash of civilizations" with Islam. There was a Hindu Nationalist government in power with the avowed intention of destroying and occupying Pakistan. The nuclear explosions were encouraged by the West in the hope that Pakistan would fold up and surrender to India, thus resulting in a sole regional Western aligned power to protect Israel from Iran and fix rogue states like Iraq. Immediately after the nuclear tests L.K. Advani the Indian Deputy Prime Minister marched to the Indian border shaking his fist in the direction of Pakistan declaring that " Pakistan must accept the new realities ".
The six tests that Pakistan conducted two weeks later came as a nasty shock to India. Kissinger's prophecy had come true.
But India was not the Soviet Union who having sustained four years of nuclear blackmail from 1945-1949 was willing to up the ante once it acquired nuclear weapons of its own. The Soviet Union was willing to get vaporized rather than allow itself to be occupied by a conventional military force and survive.
Pakistan's nuclear doctrine is exactly like the Soviet Union's in the early days. Nuclear weapons will be used and Hindutva ruled India is welcome to call Pakistan's " bluff".
If there is anything Indians are afraid of it is getting vaporized. India's hostility to Pakistan is not due to Kashmir or any territorial dispute but a functional religious bigotry and a desire for vengeance for a historical humiliation. Pakistan is merely an extension of India's communal divide. While this vengeance is being extracted in full measure in a planned Holocaust on Indian Muslims it is much harder to execute on Pakistan.
Indians don't want to die.
And their lunacy has only progressed since 1998. They're increasingly acting like Hitler's Germany day by day. Sadly they don't have the balls to try a Poland. China is breathing down their neck and Pakistan thankfully has nuclear weapons. They might try something on Bangladesh.

Just wait and watch. They're going to do something really stupid and end up being splintered up like the Nazis. The way they're going they can't sustain themselves for too long.
 

Neurath

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WASHINGTON: The quickest route to national unity in India is “expressing hostility toward Pakistan,” says Barack Obama, America’s first coloured president in his new book, “A Promised Land.”

The book, released worldwide on Nov 17, also includes a pen portrait of former Indian prime minister, Manmohan Singh, whom he first met at the 2009 G20 summit in Pittsburgh.

When Obama met Singh again during his visit to India in November 2010, Singh told him that he feared “rising anti-Muslim sentiment had strengthened the influence of Hindu nationalist BJP”, the main opposition party at the time.

Obama described Singh as “a gentle, soft-spoken economist” who engineered the modernisation of his nation’s economy.

Obama quoted Singh as saying that the “call of religious and ethnic solidarity can be intoxicating” for politicians, particularly in a country like India, which was still racked by poverty, wealth inequality, violence and ultra-nationalism.

Obama noted that “many Indians (took) great pride in the knowledge that their country had developed a nuclear weapons programme to match Pakistan’s, untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation.”

“Violence, both public and private, remained an all-too-pervasive part of Indian life. Expressing hostility towards Pakistan was still the quickest route to national unity,” Obama wrote.

“Most of all, India’s politics still revolved around religion, clan, and caste.”

But Obama also acknowledged that “in many respects, modern-day India counted as a success story, having survived repeated changeovers in government, bitter feuds within political parties, various armed separatist movements, and all manner of corruption scandals”.

But “despite its genuine economic progress, … India remained a chaotic and impoverished place: largely divided by religion and caste, captive to the whims of corrupt local officials and power brokers, hamstrung by a parochial bureaucracy that was resistant to change,” he added.

“A Promised Land” ends with the US raid on the Bin Laden compound in 2011 and, therefore, does not include the current Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi.

Source: DAWN
 

Areesh

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And their lunacy has only progressed since 1998. They're increasingly acting like Hitler's Germany day by day. Sadly they don't have the balls to try a Poland. China is breathing down their neck and Pakistan thankfully has nuclear weapons. They might try something on Bangladesh.

Just wait and watch. They're going to do something really stupid and end up being splintered up like the Nazis. The way they're going they can't sustain themselves for too long.
It is wrong to compare these clowns with Nazis. Nazis were actually good and innovative unlike these clowns
 

HAIDER

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Hostility towards Pakistan quickest route to national unity in India, says Obama
Anwar IqbalUpdated 19 Nov 2020
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The quickest route to national unity in India is “expressing hostility toward Pakistan,” says Barack Obama, America’s first coloured president in his new book, “A Promised Land.” — AFP/File

The quickest route to national unity in India is “expressing hostility toward Pakistan,” says Barack Obama, America’s first coloured president in his new book, “A Promised Land.” — AFP/File
WASHINGTON: The quickest route to national unity in India is “expressing hostility toward Pakistan,” says Barack Obama, America’s first coloured president in his new book, “A Promised Land.”
The book, released worldwide on Nov 17, also includes a pen portrait of former Indian prime minister, Manmohan Singh, whom he first met at the 2009 G20 summit in Pittsburgh.
When Obama met Singh again during his visit to India in November 2010, Singh told him that he feared “rising anti-Muslim sentiment had strengthened the influence of Hindu nationalist BJP”, the main opposition party at the time.
Obama described Singh as “a gentle, soft-spoken economist” who engineered the modernisation of his nation’s economy.
Obama quoted Singh as saying that the “call of religious and ethnic solidarity can be intoxicating” for politicians, particularly in a country like India, which was still racked by poverty, wealth inequality, violence and ultra-nationalism.
Obama noted that “many Indians (took) great pride in the knowledge that their country had developed a nuclear weapons programme to match Pakistan’s, untroubled by the fact that a single miscalculation by either side could risk regional annihilation.”
“Violence, both public and private, remained an all-too-pervasive part of Indian life. Expressing hostility towards Pakistan was still the quickest route to national unity,” Obama wrote.
“Most of all, India’s politics still revolved around religion, clan, and caste.”
But Obama also acknowledged that “in many respects, modern-day India counted as a success story, having survived repeated changeovers in government, bitter feuds within political parties, various armed separatist movements, and all manner of corruption scandals”.
But “despite its genuine economic progress, … India remained a chaotic and impoverished place: largely divided by religion and caste, captive to the whims of corrupt local officials and power brokers, hamstrung by a parochial bureaucracy that was resistant to change,” he added.
“A Promised Land” ends with the US raid on the Bin Laden compound in 2011 and, therefore, does not include the current Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi.
Read: Breaking news of Osama raid to Pakistan was easier than thought, says Obama
Commenting on the prevalence of violence in India, Obama wondered if “violence, greed, corruption, nationalism, racism, and religious intolerance” were “too strong for any democracy to permanently contain”.
The former US leader noted that those who believed in violence “seemed to lie in wait everywhere, ready to resurface whenever growth rates stalled or demographics changed or a charismatic leader chose to ride the wave of people’s fears and resentments”.
Obama also praised Singh’s ascent to prime minister’s office, noting that he was from an “often persecuted Sikh religious minority.”
He claimed that “more than one political observer” told him that Sonia Gandhi had “chosen Singh precisely because as an elderly Sikh with no national political base, he posed no threat to her 40-year-old son, Rahul, whom she was grooming to take over the Congress Party.”
“Somehow, I was doubtful” if Rahul Gandhi was capable of “preserving the Congress Party’s dominance over the divisive nationalism touted by the BJP,” he wrote.
Obama described Rahul Gandhi as “smart and earnest,” with good looks” but noted that “there was a nervous, unformed quality about him, as if he were a student who’d done the coursework and was eager to impress the teacher but deep down lacked either the aptitude or the passion to master the subject.”
Obama wrote that India had “always held a special place in my imagination.” Analysing this fascination, he said: “Maybe it was its sheer size, with one-sixth of the world’s population, an estimated two thousand distinct ethnic groups, and more than seven hundred languages spoken.”
But “more than anything, though, my fascination with India had to do with Mahatma Gandhi. Along with Lincoln, King, and Mandela, Gandhi had profoundly influenced my thinking,” he added.
Obama mentioned that his Indian and Pakistani college friends, who “taught me to cook dahl and keema and turned me on to Bollywood movies” also stirred his interest in India.
But this, he wrote, could not hide the huge issues India faced as the world’s second most populated country.
“Across the country, millions continued to live in squalor, trapped in sunbaked villages or labyrinthine slums, even as the titans of Indian industry enjoyed lifestyles that the rajas and moguls of old would have envied,” he writes in his new memoir.
“Violence, both public and private, remained an all-too-pervasive part of Indian life.”
Published in Dawn, November 19th, 2020
 

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