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Nuclear Pakistan - credit where it is due

messiach

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Late Munir Khan (L) a legend of a man. Ishfaque sahib (R) aswell & who can forget Ch Nazir Sb. Truely unsung real men of character & ironclad determination. All my former mentors & teachers.
May 28, Youm-i-Takbeer, A day of pride for Pakistan

Two great Pakistani nuclear physicists Dr. Ishfaq and Mr. Munir are credited among the persons who are called as "father of the Pakistan's atomic bomb project.

L to R: Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman PAEC, Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan, then Minister for Finance and Coordination, General K.M. Arif, Vice Chief of Army Staff, and Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad, Member (Technical), PAEC. Circa 1983-84. Site: Kirana Hills during the cold tests.


 

criticalerror

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Hi,

That was no propaganda---. One of the killers---an ASI was from my biradri and hometown---.
I would like to know more on this too.. maybe on another thread.. bhutto has been often accused of this. So i am interested in the truth .
 

VCheng

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Late Munir Khan (L) a legend of a man. Ishfaque sahib (R) aswell & who can forget Ch Nazir Sb. Truely unsung real men of character & ironclad determination. All my former mentors & teachers.
I met three of the four in that photo, even played Scrabble with one of them. :D
 

MastanKhan

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I would like to know more on this too.. maybe on another thread.. bhutto has been often accused of this. So i am interested in the truth .
Hi,


Bhutto says to convey the message to the head of security force to take out Qasuri---. The head of the agency writes a letter that a written order is required to carry out the order---.

Bhutto signs that paper----"eradicate him"---. His order was carried---. The ASI was one of those hanged for their actions---.
 
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criticalerror

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Hi,

Do Bhutto says to convey the message to the head of security force to take out Qasuri---. The head of the agency writes a letter that a written order is required to carry out the order---.

Bhutto signs that paper----"eradicate him"---. His order was carried---. The ASI was one of those hanged for their actions---.
I know the story, but since you mentioned that the said ASI was from your baradari, this is his version of events of that incidents? Meaning the accusations are true if this ASI is a witness to it?
 

MastanKhan

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I know the story, but since you mentioned that the said ASI was from your baradari, this is his version of events of that incidents? Meaning the accusations are true if this ASI is a witness to it?
Hi,

And also from the same town---. There were 4 of them hung if I remember correctly---. They supposedly did the job considering it a legal order---.

Bhutto signed his name on the paper under "eradicate him"---. The target lived---his father got executed---. The story goes that when Kasuri went to have the FIR---the police officer was reluctant to write Bhutto's name on the FIR for fear of termination & loss of job / income---He was offered or given his lifetime salary by Kasuri---only Kasuri can confirm it---.
 
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ghazi52

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American architect Edward Durell Stone (1902 - 1978) shows his design for the new Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology in Islamabad, at his New York studio, 7th June 1961. From left to right, Carter L. Burgess, President of American Machine and Foundry (AMF), Mr Stone, and Dr. Ishrat Hussain Usmani (1917 - 1992), President of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.

 

MastanKhan

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Iranian opposition hiding in Afghanistan had leaked to the US about Iran's nuc program.

A Q Khan's dealing were first brought to the attention of Nawaz Sharif when he was the prime minster---and that was before Musharraf came into power---.

 

ghazi52

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Nuclear Weapons Programs Worldwide: An Historical Overview


We are often asked which countries have nuclear weapons, are seeking them, or may seek them in the future. In trying to answer the question, we have had to consider which countries possessed or tried to obtain nuclear weapons in the past. Our findings about both current and historical nuclear weapons programs are outlined on an interactive world map, and summarized in a companion table.









Key


Nuclear weapons programs that began before 1970 when the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) came into force, succeeded, and are still ongoing

Programs that essentially ended by the time NPT started

Factions within advocated for or sought nuclear weapons, but these ambitions ended by the time NPT started

Programs that ended after 1970

Programs that started after 1970 and:

Succeeded and are ongoing
Are suspected to be actively seeking nuclear weapons
Are now ended

Intentions suspected but no nuclear weapons program identified


Inherited nuclear weapons, but now a non-nuclear weapon state party to the NPT

.....
In total, about 30 countries have sought nuclear weapons, and ten are known to have succeeded. Of these ten, South Africa remains the only one that subsequently dismantled that program. The countries with successful, on-going nuclear weapons programs are Britain, France, China, India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, and the United States.

In addition, Iran is suspected of actively seeking nuclear weapons. Libya, previously suspected of pursuing a nuclear weapons program, acknowledged and began dismantling that program in December 2003. Iraq’s nuclear weapons program is now ended. The security situation facing South Korea and Taiwan continues to raise concerns that they may decide to seek nuclear weapons in the future. Algeria sometimes raises concern because of domestic unrest and the nature of its civil nuclear facilities.

Suspcions also exist that Syria had intentions to produce nuclear weapons, but no nuclear weapons program had been identified. In September 6, 2007 Israeli jets bombed an installation in Al Kibar, Syria. The site was quickly covered by new construction but analysis suggested that the destroyed building may have been a Yongbyon style nuclear reactor.

The information presented here about past and current nuclear weapons programs is organized by historical era, where the entry into force of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1970 is a watershed. Before this date, many European and developed countries considered acquiring nuclear weapons. Some took concrete steps to acquire the wherewithal to build them. After 1970, few did so. In addition, of the nine states that successfully built nuclear weapons, all but Pakistan started before 1970.

The exact number of countries that sought nuclear weapons is difficult to determine. Traditionally, much secrecy has surrounded nuclear weapons programs, particularly in their early stages. This secrecy often continues long after a particular program has ended.

For countries that have nuclear weapons, we have provided estimated inventories of military and excess stocks of separated plutonium and highly enriched uranium. These estimates are derived from ISIS’s data. For the former and current de facto nuclear weapon states (Israel, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and South Africa) we have provided an estimate for the number of nuclear weapons in each country’s stockpile, based on their inventories of fissile material. For more information on these inventories, see Global Fissile Material Inventories, June 2004.

The information we present here is highly summarized. There are many authoritative studies of specific nuclear weapons programs, a few of which we have cited, and which we encourage the reader to consult. However, this reference list is by no means exhaustive, and we plan to add additional references as this effort is periodically revised and updated.

We welcome feedback and comments on this effort.

* ISIS acknowledges the work of Travis Nels, who interned at ISIS in the summer of 2000 and designed the web site presentation of the material on the following pages. This information was updated in October 2004 by Kimberly Kramer and Paul Brannan.


Please note:

  • No evidence exists of an Argentine nuclear weapons program, but suspicions remain that one existed.
    • Spain, which had a military dictatorship, developed unsafeguarded nuclear facilities during the 1960s and 1970s. U.S. officials said in the late 1980s that they suspected that Spain had nuclear weapons ambitions or a program.
    • Nigeria and Indonesia are occasionally named as countries that had nuclear weapons intentions, but these claims have not been substantiated and thus are not included here.

https://isis-online.org/nuclear-weapons-programs


 

S.Y.A

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Iranian opposition hiding in Afghanistan had leaked to the US about Iran's nuc program.

A Q Khan's dealing were first brought to the attention of Nawaz Sharif when he was the prime minster---and that was before Musharraf came into power---.

i really doubt that he could have done without the knowledge and approval of military establishment.
 

Zarvan

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Such close-quarters spying efforts are expected but nothing significant in comparison to what Syria, Iraq and Iran experienced in terms of sabotaging efforts.

For example, Iran have a long history of busting many spies over the course of years. Consider this development in 2011: https://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/cia-spies-caught-fear-execution-middle-east/story?id=14994428

- wasn't enough to stop NSA-CIA-MOSSAD nexus from ruining the centrifuges of heavily guarded and isolated Natanz facility in 2014: https://www.wired.com/2014/11/countdown-to-zero-day-stuxnet/

We should be humble in our judgement and thank Allah Almighty for making this possible - he creates 'wasilley'.

Based on records becoming public, CIA, MI-6 and GISS knew a great deal about nuclear-related developments in Pakistan, and one of the European colleagues of Dr. Qadeer Khan also spilled the beans some years back when Dr. Khan's nuclear proliferation efforts received spotlight. In fact, Ronald Reagan openly supported Pakistan's nuclear program, his hatred for India notwithstanding. Then in the 1980s, US and Pakistan became very close to thwart Soviet efforts to subjugate Afghanistan (i.e. Operation Cyclone), and it was during this period that Pakistan had developed the bomb but tests were carried out in 1998 in response to Indian.

China also deserve credit for helping Pakistan achieve its nuclear ambitions - lot of it.

The most impressive march towards becoming a nuclear power is that of DPRK. How it pulled it off in spite of being heavy sanctions and lack of access to European nuclear markets of the 1960s - 1970s - just wow.
Israel almost came close to attacking our nuclear sights in 1984. Israeli founder statement is well known about Pakistan.
 

ghazi52

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DG ISPR
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On 28 May 1998 Pak successfully established credible min nuclear deterrence & restored balance of power in the region. AFs salute all those involved from conceptualisation to actualisation especially scientists & engineers who made this possible. Long Live Pakistan. #YoumeTakbeer
8:38 AM · May 28, 2020·
 

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