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Update V1.1b.(15th July 2020) here:


France Sparks The First Global Arms Race In Outer Space V1.1b

First edited 3 August 2019; Updated 15 July 2020

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Historical Background Updated 15 July 2020
2.1. The Opening Solar Concentrator Updated 15 July 2020
2.2. Chang Chin Liang's Cometary Lensing Updated 15 July 2020
2.3. The Empire of Japan's FUGO Updated 15 July 2020

3. The 1966 Outer Space Treaty

4. Prerequisite for Space to Ground Capabilities

5. The Chain Reaction's Contenders
5.1. The Four Major Space Powers
5.1.1. France
5.1.2. Russia
5.1.3. The U.S.
5.1.3.1. Starlink Updated 11 June 2020
5.1.3.1.1. Star Wars V2.0 Updated 15 July 2020
5.1.4. China
5.1.4.1. China's Orbital Solar-powered Laser/Maser Updated 4 December 2019


Part 2

5.2. The Four Minor Space Powers
5.2.1. India, Israel
5.2.2. North Korea
5.2.3. Iran
5.3. The Outsider
5.3.1. Japan Updated 15 July 2020

6. Conclusion Updated 15 July 2020


1. Introduction

On 25 July 2019, France's Defence Minister has stated that in order to catch up with the great space powers, Paris would invest 700 millions Euros to deploy high power space based lasers by 2023.

With 2 billions Euros annual budget in space military, France still lags behind the U.S. (50 billions), China (10 billions) and Russia (4 billions).

These offensive weapons would include machine guns to destroy solar panels of approaching enemy spacecrafts, a clear reference to Russia's 2017 Louch-Olympe satellite that was caught marauding near the Franco-Italian Athena-Fidus military communications satellite.

But also laser to destroy enemy spacecrafts' solar pannel and optics.

Most important, stressing the use of adapative optics, Paris has reveal its intention to give its space assets a true space to ground capability!

To control all these new space platforms constituting a new Space Defence Force, Macron, speaking on 13 July 2019 ahead of Bastille Day celebrations, said that a new dedicated command would be formed in September.

In a chain reaction, sparked by France's decision, all the members of the Elite Club of Space Superpowers are expected to announce the deployment of their own Space to Ground assets within months to come.

2. Historical Background

2.1. The Opening Solar Concentrator

"
Yang-Sui (阳燧) Solar Ignitor, World’s Oldest Solar Device

During the sixth century BCE, Confucius wrote about the common use of curved mirrors shaped from shiny metal to concentrate the rays of the sun for making fire. These became known as yang-suis – translating to solar ignitors, or burning mirrors.

According to the great philosopher, upon waking up the eldest son would attach a solar ignitor to his belt as he dressed for the day. It was his duty to focus the solar rays onto kindling to start the family’s cooking fire.

According to another early text, the Zhouli, which describes rituals dating far back into Chinese antiquity, “The Directors of the Sun Fire have the duty of transferring with burning mirrors the brilliant flames of the sun to torches for sacrifice.”

Although scholars found over the years many ancient texts discussing solar ignitors, the discovery of an extant yang sui eluded them for centuries. Quite recently came the Eureka moment. Digging up a tomb that dated to about 3,000 years ago, a team of archaeologists found in the hand of a skeleton a bowl-shaped metal object. While the inner side could have passed for a wok, the exterior trough had a handle in its center. That’s what caught the eye of the two archaeologist in charge of the dig, Lu Demming and Zhai Keyong. They immediately brought the relic back to the local museum and ordered its specialists to make a mold from the original and then cast a copy in bronze.

After polishing its curved surface to a high degree of reflectance, the inquisitive archaeologists focused sunlight onto a piece of tinder just as the eldest son would have done so many years past, and in seconds the combustible material burst into flames. “This verified without a doubt that the purpose of the artifact is to make fire,” Lu and Zhai later wrote, assured of having found the oldest solar device in the history of humanity.

Now that the world could see what a real yang-sui looked like, museums retrospectively identified 20 more previously unclassified objects as solar ignitors. Multiple molds for turning out yang suislater found at a Bronze Age foundry in Shanxi province, close to the first find, suggest a mass market once existed for them. In fact, yang suis were probably as ubiquitous in early China as are matches and lighters today. The yang sui “should be regarded as one of the great inventions of ancient Chinese history,” remarked its discoverers, impressed by the ability of their forefathers to figure out the complex optics for such optimal performance so early in time.


▲ 1. Yang-Sui (阳燧) Solar Ignitor


▲ 2. Yang-Sui (阳燧) Solar Ignitor


▲ 3. Yang-Sui (阳燧) Solar Ignitor


▲ 4. Flashforward: Korean-style Gigantic Yang-Sui (阳燧) Solar Ignitor?


Source:
http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=g5Z...0gjx417MbY5GY4Td0zcZXuadDnxbftC2jaaYWfhpkvj-_
http://cleantechnica.com/2014/06/05/worlds-oldest-solar-device/
,,
:flame:

2.2. Chang Chin Liang's Cometary Lensing

Extract from a letter sent to the British Royal Observatory, at Greenwich, from Sze Zuk Chang Chin Liang of the Imperial Polytechnic College, at Shanghai, after observing the Halley comet in 1910 and worrying about the Earth being burned during future visits, appears to be the earliest account recorded and related to some natural space lensing able to destroy the ground surface:

It is obvious the comet has no tail at all and the so-called tail must be the Sun rays which, while passing through the body of the comet, look like a tail. If the body of the comet is transparent and like the Earth has its two poles fairly flat and thus form a convex lens then everything on the Earth will be burnt provided the sunlight passes through the body of the comet and the focus falls on the surface of the Earth.
http://web.archive.org/web/20200715070057/https://h2g2.com/edited_entry/A60281831
http://archive.is/I0SKO


:flame::flame:

2.3. The Empire of Japan's FUGO

The Empire of Japan was the first to develop anti-air high power microwave weapons during the Pacific war.
Nippon Radio Telegraph and Telephone Co., Ltd. has developped in 1939 the world’s first cavity magnetron, with punched positive copper pole, 10cm wave length and 500W power.

Research on microwave weapons(く号兵器) started on December 1936 at the Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory (陸軍登戸研究所).

Research on artificial lightning generator weapons(ら号兵器) by irradiating the sky with high intensity ultraviolet beams and ionization of the air, started on April 1938.


https://archive.fo/V3GBA/dbc7cfa97f1e5490153ce6edb84da7aba5a5a1a0.jpg ; https://i.imgur.com/qvRoak6.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20170116...ge/1e/61/9027d3d1f5dadf4dfaf12bdacce7602d.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190810...ruribo0209/e/ae4059113f5cd2242b85e3735eec3db7 ; https://archive.fo/Vyo4N
5. Noborito Lab 9th Institute museum: some of the various directed energy weapons (microwave, UV, IR, Ultra sound, etc) and other automated/remote-controlled platforms research.

Anti-Aircraft EMF weapons rely on air ionization and breakup, that occurs with an EMF frequency of 9.37GHz, the peak power up to 200kW, pulse width from 0.3 to 2.0μs.

Second Naval Technology Factory Ushio Laboratory ruins (第二海軍技術廠牛尾実験所遺跡)

Coordinates:
34°51'23.8"N, 138°07'44.6"E
34.856607°N, 138.129065°E

https://www.google.com/maps/place/3...32m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x0:0x0?hl=en

Note: The site and all the concrete ruins have been removed circa February 28, 2015.


https://archive.fo/0GLgP/d0db040b4cbc3ca6bc0fb4df2f199566ea993c5e.jpg ; https://i.imgur.com/70HuDKy.jpg
6. Second Naval Technology Factory Ushio Laboratory ruins (第二海軍技術廠牛尾実験所遺跡)

Shimada Laboratory was dedicated to research on "death ray" during the war.

After the Battle of Midway, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto advocated the need to develop new revolutionary weaponry. The "death ray" project was launched around June to August 1942. Construction work started around May 1943. With staff member of 1,457 people and 60 researchers.

Original plan was first to increase the ouptut power of the ultra-high frequency from the kW to hundreds of kW.

Nuclear power generator was expected to be used.

The basic design has been completed in 1944 around September, but it did not reach the stage of practical application, with a high-frequency radio wave output of 50kW using a 10 meters diameter parabolic reflector.

The whole project ended unfinished.


http://web.archive.org/web/20170116...or.blogimg.jp/shizuokak/imgs/8/a/8a60fe44.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20160607072856/http://blog.livedoor.jp/shizuokak/archives/4794187.html ; https://archive.is/0rUGw
7. Very rare image of the 10 meters diameter parabolic reflector 50 kW output High-frequency radio wave. 昭和25年1月

8. The first excavation is expected to be conducted on the ruins of the "powerful radio wave weapon" developed by the former Navy. Published on Aug 14, 2013

As for the Imperial Japanese Navy, it began a nuclear propulsion for ships' feasibility study under the direction of Captain Yōji Itō at the Navy Technical Research Institute around January 1942.

Itō assembled a panel of experts, designated the “Committee for Research on the Application of Nuclear Physics (B-Research),”and invited Nishina to serve as chair.

The committee met ten or more times until March 1943, when the panel of experts concluded that Japan could not develop a nuclear weapon in time for the war. Itō disbanded the committee and turned his attention to developing electron weapons, including a “death ray.”

Therefore, to bypass the inherent limitations cause by atmospheric air ionization and breakup that caused a tremendous loss of power and limited the useful range of all electromagnetic frequencies (EMF) DEW to under several hundreds of meters to a few kilometers, the Empire of Japan started from 1943 to investigate DEW produced by particle accelerators (cyclotrons).

Nishina laboratory at RIKEN (Institute for Physical and Chemical Research) was the first to study electron-decaying particles for DEW, called Uchūsen weapons (宇宙線兵器).

On November 1944, the Empire of Japan started the launch of the world's first intercontinental weapons system.

With a wave of 9'300 transpacific fūsen bakudan (風船爆弾) or "windly vessel" sent 10'000 km away toward North America.

The program is known as Fu-Go (ふ号兵器), and the new platforms surf the powerful Kamikaze (神風: Divine Wind) stratospheric current (called afterwards jet streams in the West) that were discovered by Wasaburo Ooishi back in 1924, thus far above enemy interceptors altitude.

Conventional explosives alone were not enough for the Empire of Japan to defeat the U.S. and other Allies.

But DEW intercontinental stratospheric FUGOs would. As announced by the official Nipponese Domei news agency and reported on Monday 4th June 1945, large scale attacks with crewed gigantic stratospheric airships were to be expected soon!

One major hurdle was the imperative need to be able to weaponize an airborne particle accelerator reaching the threshold of >300 MeV to 500 MeV for protons/deuterons beam, needed to produce the first usefull class of electron-decaying particles.
The overall size and mass of the cyclotron, with the electromagnet alone weighting 220 tons, should have imperatively needed to be shrinked.
A more compact design, while able to reach even higher energy level could have been possible with the replacement of the single massive electromagnet at the core of Nishina's cyclotron, with several smaller and more powerfull magnets for bending the particle beams, while acceleration would have been produced by radiofrequency cavities (synchrocyclotron).
:flame::flame::flame:

3. The 1966 Outer Space Treaty

France has ratified the treaty in 1967.

The Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework on international space law, including the following principles:

•the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind;
Obviously space development was military since day one, even before 1966 and to this day.
•outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States;
Obviously, North Korea and Iran, and to a lesser extend China before 2010, are not allowed to benefit from space development by the West.
•States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner;
Obviously, WMDs are orbiting in outer space, the Soviet FOB nukes being only a very small part of them.
•the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes;
Obviously, both the U.S. and Japan have tested kinetic weapons on asteroids.
•States shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects;
Obviously, the U.S. never did, hiding behind a convenient craftily fabricated 'Bermuda Triangle' and 'UFO' hoaxes as smoke screens! Nor did China, Russia and Europe for all the rocket stages falling over Cambodia, Brazil, Myanmar, French Polynesia, etc.
•States shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies.
Obviously, as outer space environment is highly radioactive, nuclear reactors don't really add much radiations!

In a nutshell, The Outer Space Treaty was and is a total farce from A to Z.

4. Prerequisite for Space to Ground Capabilities

Only the top four major space powers of the most elite club of Space to Ground Capable Nations could deploy such assets, that requires the most challenging scientific skills to overcome the numerous technological hurdles.

•Directed Energy Weapons (D.E.W.) such as Lasers must be of no less than several hundreds of kW and up to several MW in output.

•With intensities of several hundreds of kW output, the power generation is key, be it chemical, nuclear or even solar.

•Adaptive Optics (A.O.) are necessary to counter distortions from the atmospheric turbulence.

•To brute-force with several MW power outputs and above will only result in backscattering, ionization and breakdown of the atmospheric molecules. Thus the additional technological solutions needed to circumvent this major hurdle: pulsed laser, etc.

•Large optical aperture are necessary to achieve the resolution required for acquisition and identification of ground targets, and conduct the tracking and the engagement: decametric size.

•The total mass is limited by the payload capacity of the space launchers: above several 20 tons.

•The total volume is also limited by space launchers, therefore space docking capability might be necessary: spacelab size.

•An orbital fleet is necessary to increase the total coverage, especially if 24/7 worldwide coverage is needed: more than 30.

5. The Chain Reaction's Contenders

5.1. The Four Major Space Powers

5.1.1. France

France has conducted research on Adaptive Optics for military applications since the 1986s, and ASAT Lasers for years.

Launched in 14th May 2009, ESA’s Herschel telescope was the largest mirror flown in space. This 3.5 m-diameter reflector was built by the French silicon carbide manufacturer Boostec.

France has a current payload capability of less than 20 tons into LEO with its Arian 5 launchers. Arian 6 will slightly increase it payload to 21 tons by 2021.

France has mastered space docking technologies, and could assemble several modules to form large DEW complex with a total mass under 100 tons.

France has mastered miniaturized nuclear powerplant, such as those used in its submarine fleet.

France has demonstrated its ability to deploy complex array of military satellites, in the Galileo global navigation satellite system (GNSS) program. In 2021, it will launch the CERES triplets.

700 millions Euros have been allocated for developing space weapons by 2023.

To operate these Space DEW France plans to set up its own space force, the “Air and Space Army,” as part of the French Air Force. The new organization will be based in Toulouse, but it’s not clear if the Air and Space Army will remain part of the French Air Force or become its own service branch.



http://web.archive.org/web/20190803...send-into-space-combat-lasers-why-735x400.jpg ; https://archive.is/pOi8I/f908a34a9aafc8e75fe03bc476c76f32780b43bd.jpg ; https://tech-news.websawa.com/france-plans-to-send-into-space-combat-lasers-why/
9. France's Space to Ground Laser by 2023, artistic illustration. July 2019.


5.1.2. Russia

As the target of Paris's announcement, Russia is expected to be the first to react, and before the year's end (2019).

More over, Russia inherits from the Soviet-era first DEW platform launched on 15 May 1987, during the maiden flight of the heavy lift launcher Energia.

"Skif-DM" 17F19DM ("Скиф-ДМ" 17Ф19ДМ), disguised under the official name "Polyus", or Mir-2 (Peace-2) Soviet Space Station.

Polyus was the Soviet response to the project "Star Wars" launched by the American president Reagan. It was to be in fact a space combat laser station.

Due to a series of failures of Energia during the launch, Polyus would not enter orbit but crash in the Pacific Ocean.

In the middle of the year 1985 it did not seem difficult to make a spacecraft of 100 tons.

Then it was ordered to be transformed to a spacecraft with a length of almost 37 m and a diameter of 4.1 m weighting nearly 80 t and including 2 principal sections: the small service block, and the larger targeting module.
Fitted with a megawatt-class carbon-dioxide laser, Polyus was covered by an optically black shroud and it was suspected that this may have been radar absorptive as well.

After the failed launch, studies for another space station of 100 tons were then started.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190808172426/http://www.buran-energia.net/img/polious-animation.gif ; https://archive.fo/nAMpN/8821cbd4e7d75264f08a388646aa80538e36c047.gif ; http://www.buran.ru/htm/cargo.htm
10. Launched on 15 May 1987, from Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 250, Polyus would have been the core module of the new MIR-2 (Peace-2) Soviet space station. The Polyus military testbed was the first disclosed orbital directed energy platform, fitted with a megawatt-class carbon-dioxide laser.
Polyus was covered by an optically black shroud and it was suspected that this may have been radar absorptive as well.



http://web.archive.org/web/20190808175040if_/http://www.buran.ru/images/jpg/skif-16.jpg ; https://archive.fo/GhocZ/a1076e2406430844ff7c29a4373431d3ac029b25.jpg ; http://www.buran.ru/htm/cargo.htm
11. Crew docking with Mir-2 (Peace-2) space combat laser station.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190808175231if_/http://www.buran.ru/images/jpg/skif-11.jpg ; https://archive.fo/zpXZ7/081a1b22a836de2e5e3b391e96f09c3c479c2cd7.jpg ; http://www.buran.ru/htm/cargo.htm
12. Mir-2 (Peace-2) space combat laser station engaging an orbital target.

The Soviet Topaz-II power system is a 5-6 kWe space nuclear system that is based on thermionic power conversion.

Its development was curtailed after 1989. As an alternative to chemical lasers, an electric powered laser of the 100s kW or MW class would necessitate to upscale the nuclear plant, or to couple powerful battery banks.

The Araks satellite was the closest, the Soviet space industry came to matching the optical systems of the U.S. military KH-11 Space Telescope and its Hubble civilian equivalent. Launched on June 6th 1997, with a Cassegrain telescope main mirror's diameter of 1.5 meters.


Russia has demonstrated its ability to deploy complex array of military satellites, such as the GLONASS global navigation satellite system (GNSS) program.

Russia no longer operates the Energia launcher. Currently the Proton-M allows to place a 22 tons payload into LEO, and 24.5 tons with the Angara A5.

Several launches would be needed for assembling a DEW complex with a total mass of 100 tons.

To operate these space DEW, the Russian Space Forces have been reestablished following the 1st August 2015 merger between the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. The Russian Space Forces were originally formed on 10th August 1992.


5.1.3. The U.S.

The U.S. will mechanically react to the Russian move. Currently the only power to have deployed DEW in earth orbits, the only hurdle will be economic, with more than 22 trillion dollars of debt, making it a virtual beggar, dependent of the Chinese and Japanese financial godsends.

Moreover, the U.S. will continue its beggar bowl's world tour, as long as it needs to import Rare Earth Elements (R.E.E.) from China and the other R.E.E. exporters of the B.R.I.V.S. (Brazil, Russia, India, Vietnam, South Africa), only to stay afloat in the space arms race.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190808...img7/fs/Trumbeggarbowlworltour.1565277584.jpg ; https://defence.pk/pdf/attachments/...6/?temp_hash=d774ae55fb03e91fb700ad165d3930f5
13. With more than 22 trillion dollars of debt, the U.S. will continue its beggar bowl's world tour, and as long as it needs to import Rare Earth Elements (R.E.E.) from China.

The concept of Adaptive Optics (A.O.) was first proposed in a 1953 paper by astronomer Horace Babcock.

In the late 1960's and early 1970's, the U.S. military and aerospace communities built the first significant adaptive optics systems to target laser on orbiting satellites from the ground.

In the 1973s, the USAF Airborne Laser Laboratory (ALL), a modified NKC-135A aircraft, was the first test platform for airborne High Energy Laser (HEL) research.
Its carbon dioxide gas dynamic laser power output was 480 kW at 10,6 μm, able to direct a heat flux density of 100 W/cm² on a 1 km target, such as AIM-9 missiles and drones.

Lacking an Adaptive Optics system, the ALL was limited by atmospheric turbulence.

In 1984, the Space Based Laser (SBL) program was cancelled due to technological and political difficulties.

With a range of 4'000 km (up to 12'000 km), a spot size of 0.3 to 1.0 meter at focus, this orbital combat system would have weighted 35 tons and orbited at 800-1'300 km altitude. With an orbit inclination of 40°, giving a coverage per satellite of about a tenth of the earth's surface, thus requiring a 20 satellites configuration for global world coverage.

The 8 meter mirror is segmented so that it can be folded inside a launch vehicle and unfurled in orbit like flower petals.

Its deuterium-fluoride laser at 2.7 mm would have produced an 5-10 MW output.
Ground 100 kW weapons also exist, such as the High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL TVD) program managed by the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command’s (USASMDC/ARSTRAT).

The HEL TVD is designed to counter drones, rockets, artillery, and mortars (C-RAM/UAS).

The high energy laser system represents very low operating costs, as it requires only fuel to complete its mission, with an average cost per kill of approximately $30. There is no ordnance logistics burden, as with conventional weapons.


https://archive.vn/AjR65/d8dba78f4acb8f449724fc2278da1b53ea7b693e.jpg ; https://archive.vn/AjR65/74c567ed69cb05a8445c97e5657118ed44c91cd1/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190722...m/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/hel-tvd_1021.jpg ; https://archive.fo/AjR65/d8dba78f4acb8f449724fc2278da1b53ea7b693e.jpg ; https://defense-update.com/20190515_hel-tvd-2.html
14. Team Dynetics 100kW-class high energy laser contract for U.S. Army. May 2019

Of course, these tactical ranges will need to be extended to several hundred of km to several thousand of km, in order to be useful from LEO. The aperture of the optics will also needed to be increased to decametric size. Aperture of 2.4 m optics and above have been orbited such as the Program 1010.

Thus the need of and uprated powerplant. Nuclear energy is the best option for this electric driven laser, keeping in mind that there is no oxygen for fuel generated electricity in earth orbit.

The U.S. fission space reactor SP-100, although cancelled, could provide 100 kW electric power, with as little as 140 kg of Uranium 235, and a reactor mass of 5.42 tons.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190803145518if_/http://ipic.su/img/img7/fs/U.1564844096.jpg ; https://archive.fo/czvrr/ea1c7e73d369a58c4fd9ea4022d375b43d2e88d4.jpg
15. The U.S. SP-100 fission space reactor can generate 100 kW electric power.

In comparison, the four sets of arrays of the International Space Station (I.S.S.) are capable of generating 84 to 120 kilowatts of electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays is 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. A solar array's wingspan of 240 feet (73 meters).

The Falcon-Heavy can deliver payloads of 63 tons into LEO. Payload fairing can house a payload of 12 m long 4.6 m diameter cylinder with 5 more meters on top but with decreased conical diameter thus totalling 17 m.

Enough for any large truck-sized DEW module.

The U.S. has demonstrated its ability to deploy complex array of military satellites, such as the NOSS triplets and the GPS global navigation satellite system (GNSS) program.

To operate these space DEW, under the proposal approved by President Trump in May 2019, the U.S. Space Force would be organized under the Department of the Air Force.

5.1.3.1. Starlink

Starlink is obviously totally misunderstood therefore overlooked by the world's leaders and masses, as this Trojan Horse is working 100% according to the U.S.' plan to fool the feeble-minded.

As of July 2020, 100% of the world headlines are dedicated to the COVID-19 smokescreen, unleashed on purpose by the U.S. to distract the world masses from the current Starlink weapon system build-up.

This is obviously a replay of the Cold War era classic, known as Project Azorian that used the purpose-built ship Hughes Glomar Explorer to retrieve secret codebooks and a R-21 nuclear missile on a sunken Soviet submarine from the Pacific Ocean floor in 1974 and under the cover of mining manganese nodules from the sea floor.

Today, the Project Azorian is replaced by the Starlink Program, the mining of manganese nodule by the 5G internet service, the ship Hughes Glomar Explorer by the Falcon-9 rocket, the billionaire businessman Howard Hughes by billionaire businessman Elon Musk.

And as a goal, the Soviet secret codebooks and a R-21 nuclear missile are replaced by the introduction of one of the the most advanced secret warfare of the U.S. since 1950s.

This weapon system is so versatile that few have really realized its full scope:

•First its overt active application, as advertised, apparently just an innocent civilian simple internet service with worldwide coverage.

•Then its real covert passive application, as a tool to eavesdrop on every nation worldwide, by collecting passively all cellular communication signals, and those from any electronic devices such as CCTV, digital camera, etc.

•Another covert active application, is the use when combined in synthetic aperture mode, to obtain high resolution microwave imagery made possible by a synthetic orbital array extending over several hundreds of kilometers baseline (500 km to 1000 km), that can scan all interior buildings, including humans. The Starlink platforms are indeed fitted with inter-satellite laser links, making possible the accurate ranging and timing needed in the positioning of this array.

•For offensive covert active operation, it is even possible to jam electronics of a target.

•For offensive covert active operation, the lower intensity microwave beams can be directed against biological targets, causing cancerous tissues that could later metastases, and ending with a death looking natural. But this mode requires a long 'treatment' period.

•For offensive covert active operation, the microwave beams can kill instantly with the high intensity output. Similar to a sniper strike.

•For offensive overt active operation, during a full scale war, where secrecy is no longer required, massive attacks are possible, with large use of the beam steering and beam forming mode, entire infantry divisions could be wiped out in a matter of minutes.

•In addition, it has even more powerful military applications, as the materialization of the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons.

5.1.3.1.1. Star Wars V2.0

The Starlink dual-use civilian-military all solar-powered Megawatt-level space-based orbital microwaves (12 GHz-75 GHz) DEW platform project was officially launched in 2018, and its total mass of 3'120 tons requires the use of multiple powerful Falcon-9 launches.

To finally circumvent all the previous challenges of power output (at least 10 MW per target strike), range (no more than 550 km from target), mass (totaling 700 tons made of 20 platform of 35 tons), heat flux density (100 W/cm²), spot size at focus (0.3-1.0 m), the Starlink program has simply multiplied the number of platforms to 12'000 units for the first phase of its planned deployment.

Each satellites with a mass of 260 kg, and powered by solar panels, are fitted with four powerful phased array antenna thus enabling to track targets with beam steering and beam forming.

The total orbited mass exceeds 7 times that of the previous 1984 SBL concept.

To allow the weapon system to engage more ground targets, the phase two and three will add 15'000 more platforms each, up to a total of 42'000 within years.

It is by combining the beams of each platforms, that the critical threshold of 100 W/cm² heat flux density at focus point can be achieved. This staggering 42'000 number of platform is not an overkill but is really needed to compensate for all the losses due to external atmospheric conditions, line of sight, etc.

By looking at a very crude estimation of the number of platforms that will have a line of sight of 550 km range at any point of the earth (excluding the polar regions), at any time 24/7/365, the number reaches 170.

This estimate was made by loading all the official orbital elements or Two Line Element Set (TLE) available online and published by the the U.S. North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD).

But this Master Catalogue only comprises 25'000 tracked orbital objects.

We counted manually 340 satellites over the horizon at an elevation above 50 degreee, thas is within the 550 km range.

Of course the Starlink satellites are only orbiting in LEO not in GEO nor in HEO.


http://archive.is/4Z9C5/d9ee0415426f4b81317e94684e7eee9e83e9f6b3.jpg ; https://archive.is/4Z9C5/a1043a8b0d8234833ae4bd4cf877815ec3f97ef4/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200611081949/https://i.imgur.com/1WWVKjr.jpg
16. Number of platforms that have a line of sight of 550 km range at any point of the earth (excluding the polar regions), at any time: for a 25'000 array, no less than 340 satellites over the horizon at an elevation above 50 degree.

The total number of platforms of a completed Starlink array of 42'000 satellites within striking range of any point on earth reaches therefore 1190.

This means that each of the 1190 satellites within striking range would have to beam 8'400 W output for a total combined 10 MW to the ground target, largely enough to reach a heat flux density of above 100 W/cm² threshold, thus ensuring an instant kill of any soft target.

While these ground targets are subjected to weather conditions, the interception of ballistic missiles, including intercontinental ones (ICBM) are even made all-weather since the missiles would reach the higher altitudes above the layers of clouds and even rise into space.

The use of composite material such as carbon fibers in modern rocket casings renders ballistic missiles specially vulnerable to the Starlink strikes.

In a sense, Trump is about to finally complete the 1980's SDI initiative of President Reagan known as Star Wars, breaking the Mutual Destruction Doctrine (MAD) imposed by the Russians and that had prevailed since the Cold War era, making the deterrence of the Russian nuclear arsenal totally irrelevant in the 21th century, as well as the still in the making of the Iranians.

5.1.4. China

Under the U.S. unveiled threats, in response, China would have no other option but to place its own fleet of DEW into space.

Wang Ganchang is the founder of Chinese laser fusion technology. In 1964 the Shanghai Optical Machinery Institute (上海光机所) developed a high-power 10 MW output laser. As an advocate of nuclear energy, he made with four nuclear experts in October 1978 the proposition to develop China's nuclear power.

In March 3rd, 1986, Wang Ganchang, Wang Dayan, Yang Jiachi and Chen Fangyun first proposed in a letter (《关于跟踪世界战略性高科技发展的建议》) to the Chinese government to launch researches covering lasers, microwaves, and electromagnetic pulse weapons. The plan would be adopted in November of that year under the code name Project 863 (“863计划”).

China has produced several examples of road-mobile laser weapons.
The Silent Hunter 30-100kW vehicle-based laser weapon system has a maximum range of 4km. Its laser beam can cut through a 5mm steel sheet from 1km away, or five layers of 2mm steel sheets from 800m away, according to its developer China Poly Technologies. It was first unveiled at the South African Air Show in 2016.

For Space to Ground missions, the ranges and powers will need to be uprated several fold.

The Gaofen-3 SAR satellite's solar pannels, made of triple-junction Gallium-Arsenide cells delivers a peak power of 15 kW. That is far below the several 100 kW required. The use of a nuclear powerplant might though not be necessary if powerful battery banks are used.
Chinese companies such as Shenzhen's BYD are already world leaders in producing batteries with higher discharge rates needed for accelerations in electric bus and with one charge lasting almost 300kms or a full day’s operation.

China has also stated that it will develop and launch the Xuntian (巡天) Space Telescope with a two-meter-diameter main mirror, co-orbiting with the country's first space station, and dock with it for refueling as well as maintenance and exchange, around 2020.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190808.../2018-06/04/xuntian-cmsa-weibo-lin-xiaoyi.jpg ; https://archive.fo/iZfi4/239daa0174a26c89007e4b8660fc6ce696a38f0a.jpg
17. China's Xuntian (巡天) Space Telescope with a two-meter-diameter primary mirror.

China has produced the world largest aspheric mirror for primarily space military applications: "such a [space platform] can be used to observe low earth orbit satellites of other countries and to [identify, track and target their] missile launches."
The 4.03-meter diameter mirror with a mass of 1.6 tonnes is made of silicon carbide (SiC) by the Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190808...tive/city/20180821/W020180821598981263327.png ; https://archive.is/bx8qA/7e47a16d76ebbd865cb25370d3dbe349d5711449.png ; http://news.cnr.cn/native/city/20180821/W020180821598981263327.png ; http://news.cnr.cn/native/city/20180821/t20180821_524338099.shtml ; https://lt.cjdby.net/thread-2494272-1-1.html ; http://www.globaltimes.cn/Portals/0...8-23/578fd340-828c-499a-b24a-79b72daee939.jpg
18. The high-precision silicon carbide aspheric mirror with a diameter of 4.03 meters developed by the Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the largest single-crystal silicon carbide mirror in the world. 2018-08-21

According to some source, China's Gaofen-11 surveillance satellite's telescope has a 1.8 meter diameter aperture primary mirror. The same technology for coating the telescope primary mirror with protected aluminium layer could be used for 2.4 meter diameter aperture mirrors.

The research and development on Adaptive Optics (AO) in China began in 1979. In 1980, the first laboratory on AO in China was established in the Institute of Optics and Electronics (IOE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

In May 2016, the Institute of Optronics Technology of the Chinese Academy of Science has tested an Adaptive Optics key technology for a 1.8 meter diameter aperture telescope. In closed-loop, the resolution has reached 1.7 times the diffraction limit.

Therefore, this major breakthrough has been awarded the first prize of the National Invention Prize For National Defence 2017. This Adaptive Optics has then been tested onboard the Chang'e 5-T1 lunar probe, allowing to achieve a lunar ground resolution of 0.97 meter.


By 2020, China's CZ-504 space launcher will have a payload capability of 25 tons in LEO.

China has already mastered rendez-vous and space docking with its Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2 program.

Several launches would be needed for assembling a DEW complex with a total mass of under 100 tons.

By 2030, the CZ-9 SLV would allow payload of 140 tons in LEO.

China has demonstrated its ability to deploy complex array of military satellites, such as the YAOGAN triplets, and the BEIDOU global navigation satellite system (GNSS).

China has no dedicated Space Force, contradicting Japanese RUMINT. But this will be the case once a fleet of space DEWs starts to be launched into orbit.

Thus the pole position for China in initiating the space breakaway.


5.1.4.1. China's Orbital Solar-powered Laser/Maser

The first dual-use civilian-military solar-powered Megawatt-level space-based orbital laser/maser platform project is officially launched, and its mass of 200 tons will require the use of the most powerful CZ-9 launcher:

China to build space-based solar power station by 2035

December 02, 2019

XIAMEN, Dec. 2 -- China plans to accomplish a 200-tonne megawatt-level space-based solar power station by 2035, according to the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).

The space-based solar power station would capture the sun's energy that never makes it to the planet, said Wang Li, a CAST research fellow with the program, when attending the sixth China-Russia Engineering Forum held last week in Xiamen, southeast China's Fujian Province.

The energy is converted to microwaves or lasers and then beamed wirelessly back to the Earth's surface for human consumption, Wang said.

"We hope to strengthen international cooperation and make scientific and technological breakthroughs so that humankind can achieve the dream of limitless clean energy at an early date," Wang said.

Compared with traditional fossil energy, which has been increasingly exhausted and is responsible for severe environmental issues, space-based solar power is more efficient and sustainable, providing a reliable power supply solution for satellites and disaster-hit areas or isolated areas on the Earth, Wang said.

The concept of collecting solar power in space was popularized by science fiction author Isaac Asimov in 1941. In 1968, Peter Glaser, an American aerospace engineer, wrote a formal proposal for a solar-based system in space.

China has proposed various sunlight collecting solutions and made a number of major breakthroughs in wireless energy transmission since the country listed space-based solar power as a key research program in 2008.

However, ambition has long been a challenge for current technology because it involves the launch and installation of numerous solar panel modules and the efficient wireless transmission of mega energy.

With an investment of 200 million yuan (28.4 million U.S. dollars), China is building a testing base in Bishan, southwest China's Chongqing Municipality, for the research of high-power wireless energy transmission and its impact on the environment.

Researches in this field will spur the country's space science and innovation in emerging industries like commercial space transportations, Wang said.

http://web.archive.org/web/20191204002159/http://en.people.cn/n3/2019/1202/c90000-9637200.html
http://archive.is/jgXk6
This project will allow China to achieve to some extend a deterrence against the U.S. Starlink threat.






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France Sparks The First Global Arms Race In Outer Space Part 2 V1.1b


5.2. The Four Minor Space Powers

Behind the lead peloton, the gruppetto is a group of minor players who have to cooperate and assist one another in order to stay in the global arms space race and avoid the elimination.

Currently, none of these nations have mastered all the prerequisite key technologies needed to deploy space to ground DEWs.

5.2.1. India, Israel

As India is always hell-bent in trying to catch up with some giant northern neighbour, be it with the ASAT weapon, the manned program, the lunar lander, and the space laboratory, it is highly expected that Bharat will also try very hard to deploy its own directed energy space to ground platforms.

As Israel is already at the forefront among the nations that have developed anti-ballistic missile weapons, space to ground DEW would naturally be of great strategic importance as the next layer in countering hostile incoming ballistic missiles.

Israel's space launch vehicle Shavit can not place payload above a few hundreds of kg into LEO. Therefore, it outsources all its space launches abroad, especially in India.

India lacks advanced technological capabilities and Israel is one of its providers. In turn, what Israel lacks in developing capabilities, it simply siphons them overseas, be it in the E.U., Russia and mostly at the source, in the U.S.

The recent Indian ASAT test exemplifies this Israeli outsourcing. Originated in the U.S. and tested in India.

The Kinetic Kill Vehicle's onboard advanced terminal guidance system, featured a strap-down (non-gimballed) imaging infrared (IIR) seeker and an inertial navigation system that used ring-laser gyroscopes (RLGs).

A seeker presenting similarities with the Israeli's Arrow-3 kill vehicle one (gimballed).


http://web.archive.org/web/20190806...su/img/img7/fs/D3e9HEAWwAAgV0B.1565104030.jpg ; https://archive.fo/gRpVd/2b0ad162f63174aeafbb23f9b8eeb2221d1abaa1.jpg ;
http://web.archive.org/web/20190810...t-rakshak.com/viewtopic.php?t=7705&start=600; https://youtu.be/KRs79t6z7fc?t=81

19. Indian ASAT KKV's Infrared Imaging Radar (IIR) seeker.


https://archive.vn/gecjp/6211d20a5fce7c5088a1470933d8ab05edbd1f66.jpg ; https://archive.vn/gecjp/45b3ba99b1dab58b70be7138d68bbf3a7e90c79e/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190806151713if_/http://ipic.su/img/img7/fs/ISRAELARROW-3.1565104618.jpg ; https://archive.fo/gecjp/6211d20a5fce7c5088a1470933d8ab05edbd1f66.jpg
20. Israeli's Arrow-3 kill vehicle IIR seeker. Exhibition mockup.

India's LASTEC has also developed a 10kW Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) and is working on developing a 30-100 kW vehicle-mounted COIL system. It is also developing a “gas dynamic high power laser-based DEW” called ‘Aditya’ project.

Two DRDO laboratories — Centre for High Energy Systems and Sciences (CHESS) and Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC) — are currently working on developing the source for generating a fiber laser.

At present, the source of the fiber laser, which is the “heart of the system”, is imported from Germany.

High power microwave (HPM) device from DRDO have delivered output power of 4 MW at a frequency of 3.26GHz.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190806154039if_/http://ipic.su/img/img7/fs/Untitled13.1565106022.jpg ; https://archive.fo/oVoRE/049deaa484418b4fd0db64b55dade22d96fd2b90.jpg ; https://www.******************/foru...d-the-anti-satellite-asat-missile.2890/page-6
21. HPM device from DRDO have delivered output power of 4 MW.


India's GSLV Mk III space launcher can place 8 tons payload into 600 km LEO, 4 tons into GTO. The payload fairing is 5 meters in diameter.

The lack of payload capability can only be circumvented by developing rendez-vous and docking technologies. Several launches would be needed for assembling a DEW complex with a total mass of under 100 tons.

The planned Indian Space Station is envisaged to weigh 20 tonnes and serve as a facility where astronauts can stay for 15-20 days, and it would be placed in an orbit 400 km above earth. The time frame for launch is 5-7 years after Gaganyaan (AUG 2022).

It would be similar to the Salyut Space Laboratory with two modules.

To support the Indian Space Station program, docking technologies will be develop with an orbital platform (PS4-OP), made of the last stage of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.


https://archive.fo/goM7Z/fe8ee905d3127047356e91d76c052a601f2370e2.png ; https://i.imgur.com/6Boz6It.png
22. The 20 tons Indian Space Station, made of two modules.

India has only demonstrated its ability to deploy regional array of 8 military satellites, with the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), but might expand it to a global constellation of 24 satellites (GINS), with the help of Israel.


5.2.2. North Korea

North Korea has hinted that it was involved in DEW researches.

This included a possible North Korean-Iranian Neutrino-Antineutrino annihilation at the Z0 Pole counter nuclear weapon, along more conventional laser.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190319....com/content/photo/2016/20160304-kp-01-10.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/save/http://www.dprktoday.com/index.php?type=42&no=1964 ; http://www.xici.net/d228225918.htm
23. First hint at the Iranian-DPRK Directed Energy Counter Nuclear Weapon Program. 주체105(2016)년 3월 4일


http://web.archive.org/web/20190319...lickr.com/5/4885/31487803767_7c98fddf26_b.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190810170025/https://www.flickr.com/photos/arirangmeari/31487803767/
24. DPRK's Directed Energy Program. Uploaded on December 23, 2018.

But what makes North Korea very special is its top position among rare earth minerals producers.

No need to add that such laser research can not be conducted without a sufficient reserve of rare earth minerals, the sine qua non prerequisite in high energy physics.

Indeed, North Korea's 216 million tonne Jongju deposit, theoretically worth trillions of dollars, would more than double the current global known resource of REE oxides which according to the US Geological Survey is pegged at 110 million tonnes.

This amounts to five times that of China's, the current world's first rare earth minerals exporter. Making Kim Jong Un's Korea the military powerhouse the most likely to first succeed in developing and fielding such a new class of DEWs.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190808143653if_/http://ipic.su/img/img7/fs/DPRKREE2017.1565274981.jpg ; https://archive.fo/MBc1n/28d86faf1fb8d02780b261f10fc76447dc82cb0c.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190404...7/?temp_hash=2bc8a8e641ac0d14fc258c0fd24bc06c ; https://defence.pk/pdf/attachments/...7/?temp_hash=2bc8a8e641ac0d14fc258c0fd24bc06c
25. First world's reserve of Rare Earth Elements in the DPRK.

To power the electric driven lasers, miniaturized nuclear reactors might be envisaged. North Korea is known to have started the development of several type of miniaturized nuclear reactors. One of them should provide the electric power for its 10,000-ton-class strategic submarines (SSBN) program disclosed in 2014.

Of course, naval nuclear reactors, though powerful, are too massive to be launched into space.

Another one should be airborne.

Very little is known about the existence of the North Korean space telescope project.

There is only a small possible hint in the media of this space telescope, an equivalent of the Iranian Space Research Center's one.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190805...s/DPRKSpaceTelescope30APR20191.1565018018.jpg ; https://archive.fo/d0cjD/5c1b5219163fe532134d1d4df4656af875583456.jpg ;
[특집] 래일을 보다 "Look at the rails" (Chosun Central TV), Published on Apr 29, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XM-BPdkWxug, https://vk.com/wall469579262_7495?z=video469579262_456243491%2F11d09bede16c0d1cee%2Fpl_post_469579262_7495

26. At T=11mn38s: Illustration of a Space Telescope. 29 April 2019 KCTV Video

So far, North Korea has tested the second stage of its future Unha-9 space launcher. Under the official name of Hwasong-15 ICBM, on November 2017.
The payload capability should be 1 tons in GEO and 3 tons in GEO for its heavy version. That is similar to the Indian GSLV Mk III space launcher that can place 8 tons payload into LEO (see below the Safir-3).

But North Korea has plan for a more powerful launcher, able to place 20 tons into LEO: the Unha-20.

An image dated from 15th April 2017 has disclosed three generations of North Korean space launchers: the KWANGMYONGSONG SLV aka Unha-4, an Unha-9 and the mysterious Unha-20.


http://web.archive.org/web/20170717...lickr.com/3/2864/33667839040_0d52f66cc6_b.jpg ; https://archive.is/B1b6w/4a5e44874af30c2218f377fe13b8f4b9957388e4.jpg ; https://defence.pk/pdf/attachments/...1/?temp_hash=d93afcf6c9127c9cfefd609a077d6185 ; https://www.flickr.com/photos/uriminzok/33667839040/
27. One image, three generations of North Korean space launchers. Center: notice the KWANGMYONGSONG SLV aka Unha-4 represented left of a huge (meaning at least twice the size) Unha-9 SLV. Unha-20 are pillar-sized! April 15, 2017 picture.


http://archive.is/KNGwF/14b4aebdf050cdf44c7e1ebb782fe9a31a802dd7.jpg ; https://archive.is/KNGwF/26d89a6604195bbad45ccd54935ae2158361e77a/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200121192814/https://i.imgur.com/2e4tiR7.jpg
28. Artistic representation of the North Korean space launchers, as of January 2020. Obsolete as of July 2020.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190322...a/10153/upfile/201508/2015081018133853753.jpg ; https://archive.fo/dFIP1/2096407b4d304bd99c1a5d2f1edb6a13f83079d2.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190807...rd/bbs/view.html?b_bbs_id=10158&pn=1&num=4648
29. North Korean sea-launched Unha-20: the only way to launch commercial satellites. 2015-08-10 18:19:10

Very little is known about the existence of the North Korean space laboratory project. Since the DPRK has disclosed its manned space program, such a space laboratory is the only viable option to justify a long term human presence in space. The size should be similar to the Indian's space laboratory, itself similar to the Soviet-era Salyut.

Pictures of a future North Korean launcher have been revealed for more than two decades now, similar to the Soviet-era Energia heavy-lift partially recoverable launch system designed for a variety of payloads including the Buran spacecraft.

But only a few have noticed the meaning above the space launcher of a small space laboratory!


http://web.archive.org/web/20190807...f73cd55d704a5004ae2cadeae5f886.1565187217.jpg ; https://archive.fo/MkKk4/befb910e5bf73cd55d704a5004ae2cadeae5f886.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190807...20&fit=max&s=5fabfe40cb132853b16ac06a67966e0f ; https://archive.fo/9rxQ3/befb910e5bf73cd55d704a5004ae2cadeae5f886 ; https://charliecrane.com/portfolio/welcome-to-pyongyang ; https://defence.pk/pdf/attachments/...3/?temp_hash=c4697492aaa386b6172c2c1cf3a0ecfa
30. North Korean Space shuttle model in the Mangyongdae Schoolchildren’s Palace that was opened in 1989. Notice the space laboratory.

Three decades later, a crude model was again displayed, on the occasion of the National Youth Science Fiction Literature and Model Exhibition 2018, in June.
The orbital manned spacecraft seems powered by two pair of solar panels, linked to a cylindrical module that shows 3 portholes.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190807...lickr.com/2/1755/42507168321_2890520ea0_b.jpg ; https://archive.fo/tWv4n/f14da7d8064b1671c0c0ce5317f49d8ad97d068a.jpg ; https://www.flickr.com/photos/dprktoday/42507168321/ ; https://defence.pk/pdf/attachments/...4/?temp_hash=e4a69666c2d20d594c3587b699925220 ; 전국소년과학환상문예작품 및 모형전시회-2018》 개막_3 ; Uploaded on June 2, 2018
31. National Youth Science Fiction Literature and Model Exhibition 2018: published on 2 June 2018, a depiction of a North Korean orbital manned spacecraft, powered by two pair of solar panels, linked to a cylindrical module that shows 3 portholes.

This indicates that North Korea would have to develop rendez-vous and docking technologies.

Several launches of Unha-20 would be needed for assembling a DEW complex with a total mass of under 100 tons.

Once North Korea succeeds in the development of its geostationary communication satellites, it will start building its own GPS system.

This first step is essential, and the experience would allow to later place into orbit an entire array of DEWs complex with global world coverage.

5.2.3. Iran

North Korea has hinted that it was involved in DEW researches with Iran.

This included a possible North Korean-Iranian Neutrino-Antineutrino annihilation at the Z0 pole counter nuclear weapon, along more conventional laser.

To power the electric driven lasers, miniaturized nuclear reactors might be envisaged. Iran is known to have started the development of miniaturized nuclear reactors. It should provide the electric power for its 10,000-ton-class strategic submarines (SSBN) program disclosed in 2012.

Iran has disclosed discussion on a 3 meter Class Telescope with Adaptive Optics for its National Observatory Program (2011).

The Iranian Space Research Center's Orbital Telescope is a project in its early stages. The feasibility and needs assessment study of this project was carried out.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190805150156if_/http://ipic.su/img/img7/fs/image17.1565017296.jpg ; https://archive.fo/Hgfzf/1ae8342e4b2a9782018bbaac9ccad4485aec46a6.jpg ; https://isrc.ac.ir/getattachment/پژوهشکده-ها/مرکز-فضایی-ایران/image17.jpg ; https://isrc.ac.ir/en-US/پژوهشکده-ها/مرکز-فضایی-ایران ; http://archive.fo/T9L7L
32. Iran's Orbital Telescope.

Iran's Communication Satellite Developing Plan 2026 of the Iranian Space Research Center (I.S.R.C.) has revealed its future space launcher's payload capabilities:

• Nahid-1, 50 Kg, LEO, Safir-1 SLV
• Nahid-2, < 100 Kg, LEO, Safir-2 SLV
• IRANSAT-1, 1 ton, GEO, Safir-3A SLV
• IRANSAT-2, 3 tons, GEO, Safir-3C SLV


http://web.archive.org/web/20190801104910if_/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DVw4DqgXUAEOXQg.jpg ; https://archive.fo/TVRNZ/e148f10050430ae9d3e72e3606acc85cb88610a6.jpg ; https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DVw4DqgXUAEOXQg.jpg:large
33. Iran's roadmap for communication satellites. From official presentation of the Iranian Space Research Center.

The existence of an even more powerful heavy space launcher, able to place 20 tons into LEO, has also been revealed, the Safir-4.

An Iranian version of the North Korean Heavy-Lift Space Launcher Unha-20 has figured prominently in a huge graphic that was displayed during January 2019 in Tehran's Valiasr Square. The billboard was running in conjunction with the 40th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190322040402if_/http://ipic.su/img/img7/fs/proxy_006.1553224298.jpg ; https://archive.fo/LlgII/ff65c5e613f4e6fa6117675b60d31c2b1e1ec5e1.jpg ; http://imagesvc.timeincapp.com/v3/f...es.wordpress.com/2019/01/ddacv.jpg?quality=85 ; https://media.mehrnews.com/d/2019/01/05/4/3004791.jpg; https://www.mehrnews.com/news/4504592/رونمایی-از-جدیدترین-دیوارنگاره-میدان-ولیعصر-با-موضوع-جوانان ; رونمایی از جدیدترین دیوارنگاره میدان ولیعصر با موضوع جوانان ;
34. 17 January 2019. Note that Shahid Hajj General Hassan Tehrani Moghaddam, the father of Iran's space program is depicted bringing a treasure trove of [North Korean] blueprints to his fellow countrymen!

Iran has also plan for launching array of satellites, such as the Navigational Satellite System disclosed in 2011.

But the similarities with North Korea ends here. As North Korea has accessed the status of nuclear state, sanctioned by the recent visit of an incumbent U.S President to North Korea on 1st July 2019.

As for Iran, there is an 70 years old rule that causes the destruction or overthrow of any nation and leader of the Middle East by the U.S., should they reach the nuclear arms threshold, thus breaking the Israeli regional nuclear monopoly.

Iran (the constitutional monarchy), Iraq, Libya, Syria were only the first.

Not allowed to reach the nuclear state status, it is even less likely that the U.S. would tolerate an Iran with DEW orbiting the earth, able to strike Israel and Saudi Arabia without mentioning anywhere in the U.S. mainland, and all the U.S.' space assets.

5.3. The Outsider

Great powers that have been defeated at the end of the Second World War are excluded from the 1945 new world order.

No place for the ex-Axis powers in the U.N. permanent security council, the Elite Nuclear Club, Elite ASAT Club, or the Elite Manned Spacefaring Club.

That is at least in theory, as Japan, under the connivence and patronage of its U.S. overlord has effectively demonstrated both ICBM, ASAT and nuclear military capabilities.

Thus one should be aware that Japan could ounce again become an unofficial space DEW power anytime in the years to come.

5.3.1. Japan

Today's post-WWII State of Japan has already mastered many of the prerequisites needed to place DEWs into space.

Its H-IIA can place 10 tons in LEO, the HIIB can place 16.5 tons into 410 km LEO.
The State of Japan has mastered rendez-vous and docking with its Kibo manned space module as well as KOUNOTORI unmanned cargo.

The State of Japan has already launched array of satellites such as the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) for its satellite-based augmentation system. From 4 satellites in 2018, the number will be increased to 7 satellites by 2024.

The State of Japan has mastered Adaptive Optics, such as the AO 188 Elements of the Subaru Telescope.

The State of Japan has studied fabrication process for large aperture lightweight silicon carbide mirror for space telescope.

The State of Japan has proposed placing 3.5 meters large aperture mirror space telescope into space.

The State of Japan is pursuing the development of high-output military laser.

6. Conclusion

The U.S. 42'000 Starlink Microwave DEW system is set to be completed by 2027. But the U.S. will not be able to deploy an array of Laser DEW, lacking rare earth. The U.S. will be limited by the inherent weakness of microwave DEW, being less effective than their laser counterparts when targeting missiles and satellites once they have reach the higher altitude out of the atmosphere.

By 2030, China forecasted with $64.2 trillion GDP (PPP), will lead the world, far ahead of India's second place with only $46.3 trillion, and more than double of the U.S.' $31 trillion at the third place.

Meanwhile, far behind with $7.9 trillion Russia will only rank 8th, along Japan's 9th place with $7.2 trillion.

While it is expected that in this coming decade, China will take the leading position in deploying an array of orbital dual Laser/Maser DEW, by 2030, North Korea as China's best pupil should be able to catch up. An unified Korea under Kim Jong Un would easily match the Japanese's GDP.

All the other powers will have difficulties, due to lack of funding and lack of access to strategic rare earth raw materials.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190401024051if_/https://i.imgur.com/IIM2jia.jpg ; https://archive.fo/IHwzR/7b51a53273a60191dcaf3af219acc286d0c640d8.jpg ; https://i.imgur.com/IIM2jia.jpg ; https://defence.pk/pdf/attachments/...8/?temp_hash=886a8c3db40055848f83bf9e51e8b9d7
35. The Great Powers of the Next World Order: Pole Position for the DPRK in the space DEW arms race, key game-changer for opening-up the dawn of the Pax Coreana.






TAGS:
BGUSAT, Kwangmyongsong-4, GOSAT-2, Yaogan 25A/25B/25C, FIA-Radar 5, KWANGMYONGSONG R/B, IRS P3, Shijian-16, USA-224, GOSAT, IGS 8A
 
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Galactic Penguin SST

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In contrast, evidence shows NK is a sovereign state. Every inch of NK territory is free of foreign troops.
NK does what it likes, including killing pro-Chinese statesmen like Jang Song Thaek. They might be dependent on us for trade as many other countries have embargoed them, but they would rather eat grass than cede their sovereignty.


Nearly 7 years since traitor Jang Song Thaek was executed in December 2013. Not surprised a little bit, that his most brutal inhumanity was only met with a most infamous death.

As common sense would recommends that rabid dogs should always be beaten to death with a stick, before it is too late.

Now new details are being leaked. Does this contribute to the healing process? Indeed, and we feel even more loyal toward the Great Marshal of the Mt Paektu.

We trust Kim Jong Un only.

Sep 12, 2020

Seoul – The headless body of Kim Jong Un’s executed uncle was displayed to senior North Korean officials, U.S. President Donald Trump told the author of an upcoming book on the U.S. president.

Jang Song Thaek, the North Korean leader’s uncle by marriage and a hugely powerful figure within the regime, was purged for treason and corruption in 2013, in what was widely seen as Kim mercilessly asserting his authority.

Kim “tells me everything. Told me everything,” Trump told Washington Post investigative journalist Bob Woodward, according to his forthcoming book “Rage.”

“He killed his uncle and he put the body right in the steps,” Trump said, in an apparent reference to a building used by senior officials.

“And the head was cut, sitting on the chest,” he added in excerpts from the book seen by AFP.

The North has never officially stated how Jang was executed, although multiple reports say an anti-aircraft gun was used.

Trump’s account — apparently intended as a demonstration of the closeness of his relationship with Kim — is the first from any senior official to mention decapitation.

http://web.archive.org/web/20200913161134/https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20200913000200325?section=nk%2Fnk


http://web.archive.org/web/20190821022714/https://imgur.com/ecYmnLG ; https://archive.is/qfOgm/015fb81f59213bdc2e4f471ae62debd201f1bbfc.jpg
1. Master of the World by 2050: Immortal Leader Kim Jong Un.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190401024051if_/https://i.imgur.com/IIM2jia.jpg ; https://archive.fo/IHwzR/7b51a53273a60191dcaf3af219acc286d0c640d8.jpg ; https://i.imgur.com/IIM2jia.jpg ; https://defence.pk/pdf/attachments/...8/?temp_hash=886a8c3db40055848f83bf9e51e8b9d7
2. The Great Powers of the Next World Order: Pole Position for the DPRK in the 2045 Great Replacement!










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Galactic Penguin SST

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Probably the first North Korean solid propellant ICBM to be unveiled soon: the Pukguksong-4 ICBM.

Kim Jong Un Insists North Korea Needs Nuclear Deterrent

September 23, 2020 11:42

North Korean leader Kim Jong Un earlier this year stressed the need for the republic to build up its nuclear arsenal.

"Continued strengthening of self-defense capabilities based on nuclear weapons guarantees our autonomy and right to live as well as the prosperity of our nation," he was quoted as saying.

Kim Jong Un's remarks were carried in a journal published in May by the North Korea's State Academy of Sciences. The author, Prof. Kang Myong Hup, quoted Kim Jong Un's teachings to stress the need to pursue strategic weapons development.

Kang wrote that it is North Korea's plan to maintain a "constant nuclear-strike posture" to make sure that no other country "dares consider using force against us."

North Korea must "incessantly continue the development of essential and decisive strategic weapons until the U.S.' hostile policies are retracted," he added.

Meanwhile, a foreign website published satellite photos of multiple-launch rocket systems, motorcycles and other parade practicing for a massive parade for the 75th anniversary of the Workers Party on Oct. 10.

"Parade Practice in Full Swing in Pyongyang," the website headlined, adding that the satellite pictures taken Sunday afternoon "revealed more than 40 vehicles on the roads of the Mirim Parade Training Ground leading to the replica of Kim Il Sung Square."

A South Korean military source said, "We are focusing on the fact that North Korea built a temporary facility at Mirim Parade Training Ground that is large enough to house a transporter erector launcher."

"There is a chance that North Korea will [...] unveil a new intercontinental ballistic missile or other strategic weapon."

The website said the images show two temporary facilities that are 37 m long and 7 m wide. That suggests they could house an ICBM that is even bigger than the Hwasong-15 that was test-launched in November 2017, which measures 22 m.


https://archive.vn/aKdRv/fec0f86f7ca5d3ba68360277e0c457732c9f5d30.jpg ; https://archive.vn/aKdRv/f9178304ff62d8e037a9e4c095e15c35ecffc7e4/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200924...ig3_Mirim-Upd-20-0921_20-0920-PL-1024x768.jpg ; https://www.38north.org/2020/09/mirim092120/
1. This satellite image from Sept. 20 shows what appear to be vehicles practicing for a parade in Kim Il Sung Square in Pyongyang ahead of the founding anniversary of the Workers Party on Oct. 10.
The source said the images show two temporary facilities that are 37 m long and 7 m wide. That suggests they could house an ICBM that is even bigger than the Hwasong-15 that was test-launched in November 2017, which measures 22 m.





 
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Galactic Penguin SST

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This has been Christmas every day lately and with Easter eggs!

After the possible solid propellant Pukguksong-4 ICBM as a TEL launched ballistic missile, today the next game ender, a new SLBM spotted from space by an U.S. satellite!

What could be its name? Maybe Pukguksong-5 then?

And a test launch maybe sometimes after the U.S. presidential election, that is only after a confirmed defeat of the incumbent president, as Putin would never allow the DPRK to jeopardize his candidate's re-election.

Images of SLBM in North Korea's Sinpo Shipyard Captured by US Intelligence

Write: 2020-09-25 08:43:33 / Update: 2020-09-25 10:54:59

U.S. intelligence authorities have reportedly captured images of a submarine-launched ballistic missile(SLBM) at the Sinpo shipyard in North Korea.

KBS has learned that the U.S. secured the satellite images of the SLBM and submersible launcher on Wednesday through intelligence assets and conveyed them to South Korea.

It is the first time a North Korean SLBM under development was captured by a U.S. reconnaissance satellite.

As the photos were not released to the public, it is unknown whether the U.S. captured the missile being transported on the ground or to a submarine.

South Korean and U.S. intelligence authorities are reportedly assessing that North Korea is unlikely to launch the SLBM before October 10, the anniversary of the founding of the North's ruling Workers' Party.






 
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Galactic Penguin SST

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The assessment made by Galactic Penguin of a new North Korean SSB carrying Pukguksong-3 SLBMs, was first published here on 21st June 2020. And testified by the serious readers of PDF.

Today, ever more OSINT analysts worldwide and governmental intelligence agencies have to concur with Galactic Penguin's accurate prediction.

Simply because time is running out, as Trump's reelection are now next to nil, having himself succumbed on 1st October 2020, on the occasion of the most auspicious 2020 National Day of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国国庆节), to the man-made COVID-19 pandemic.

Indeed, once elected President of the U.S.A., Joe Biden will only trigger a barrage of ballistic and space launches from the DPRK, a man abhored and recently denounced in Pyongyang as:

a "profiteer" who is greedy for power and "wandering about like a starving field dog."

"He will be made to see even in a grave what horrible consequences will be brought about by his thoughtless utterances."

a "fool of low IQ", a "rabid dog" that should be "beaten to death."



21 June 2020 Update

Based on new recent artistic illustrations circulated on the internet, the following update was made.

The "Narval" Class (일각고래: ILGAKKOLAE) SSB is the first test bed for multiple ballistic missile launch tubes. Up to 6 Pukguksong-3 SLBMs of ~1.4 m diameter, ~8 m long and ~2'500-3'600 km range, with launch tubes extending in the sail.
These 3,000-ton-class subs are currently under construction at the shipyards in Sinpo and Chongjin. They are about 76 meters long, and the hull are smaller than 10 meters in diameter. No anechoic tiles are to be applied.


http://archive.is/ToL5e/b88b254b5e85b099ee3c3a07ad9386df95f89b61.jpg ; https://archive.is/ToL5e/f2cfe272928885cd31357fd0abdbcd14ab78600f/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200621160548/https://i.imgur.com/xReajfx.jpg
1. The "Narval" Class (일각고래: ILGAKKOLAE) SSB is the first test bed for multiple ballistic missile launch tubes (up to 6 Pukguksong-3 SLBMs). June 2020.

https://archive.is/fjYw1/c8e8e3b66c318c20641e090e357d49f0f4688990.jpg ; https://archive.is/fjYw1/0ef91c9eeb49e04af3cb553106b3f5ce1ae230e4/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201003080338/https://i.imgur.com/wMqShxD.jpg
2. New North Korean SSB carrying Pukguksong-3 SLBMs. 2020.




 
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Galactic Penguin SST

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The website said the images show two temporary facilities that are 37 m long and 7 m wide. That suggests they could house an ICBM that is even bigger than the Hwasong-15 that was test-launched in November 2017, which measures 22 m.
North Korea seen moving intercontinental ballistic missile: report

Published : Oct 4, 2020 - 14:10 Updated : Oct 4, 2020 - 16:35

South Korean and US intelligence have spotted North Korea moving an intercontinental ballistic missile, along with four mobile launchers, at an auto plant on the outskirts of Pyongyang, a Seoul official told a local media outlet on Saturday.

The missile is larger than the one they fired in 2017 and we believe they will showcase that at a military parade on Oct. 10,” the official said. North Korea fired its first ICBM, Hwasong-15, in 2017 and appears set to stage a show of force on the founding anniversary of its ruling party.

Speculation continues to mount over North Korea’s unveiling of a more advanced ICBM, with some experts expressing reservations, contending that Pyongyang could not have developed newer technologies without outside help.

The Seoul official added Pyongyang could unveil a newer submarine-launched ballistic missile as well as an enhanced submarine, pointing to intelligence that picked up signs of the activity involving the latest development at the North’s Sinpo South Shipyard along the east coast.


Larger than the Hwasong-15 ICBM means longer than 22.5 meter and larger than 2.4 meter in diameter.

Solid propellant ICBM are smaller, such as the DF-41 ICBM's 23 meter length and 2.2 meter diameter. This means the new ICBM might be a liquid propellant one:

Such as the U.S. Air Force ICBM of 55 meters length:


https://archive.is/XIkWe/0417e84fa31f40fa27624f55e43fa8e422aa1843.png ; https://archive.is/XIkWe/b042cfe83df08aad0121095665b24457eca63963/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201004101604/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/EjRQ2xgVkAAcpss?format=png&name=small
1. U.S. ICBM of 55 meters length.

Such as the Chinese DF-5B ICBM with 32.5 meter length and 3.35 meter diameter, 13'000 km range:


https://archive.vn/d2E6M/156eb115c9de1332a493696470caa730688f618f.jpg ; https://archive.vn/d2E6M/f03e7da66aaecb773b7cba386f24f0d980a38bd1/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201004103515/http://p9.pstatp.com/large/2dd450000477b1f0a7c5a.jpg
2. Chinese DF-5B ICBM.

Unless it is an improved mockup of this old unnamed North Korean ICBM parade model:


___
2. Most auspicious year of 2020 with the new North-Korean Topol-class ICBM to be paraded this week!


So what's going on with the Kim Jong Boom? He dead or nah? Any North Koreans in here?
As braindead as a zombie.
:yahoo::bunny::woot::cheesy::flame::lol::omghaha::yay::omghaha::rofl:


https://archive.vn/9RFv9/0735028dec08ba3774fd0aa862eb56fc279b310c.jpg ; https://archive.vn/9RFv9/dcc923f629f423a0971ee230a97fdaee54ab3235/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201004112421/https://i.imgur.com/LmNVmkj.jpg
3. As braindead as a zombie.




 
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Galactic Penguin SST

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Hwasong-15B MIRV ICBM And Pukguksong-4A SLBM

AS promised, the new liquid propellant Hwasong-15B MIRV ICBM (provisional naming by Galactic Penguin), with improved transporter erector launcher (TEL) with 11 axles, versus 9 axles for the Hwasong-15A previously.

Range should be same as Hwasong-15 ICBM, but with increased warheads and penetration aid decoys, possibly up to 10.

Also the brand new Pukguksong-4A SLBM, with range of 5'000 km, while no hint has been released to date about the associated strategic submarine (SSBN)!



https://archive.is/Rsp3A/84a89b7a338551731595d19cfa620be6b2489049.png ; https://archive.is/Rsp3A/a801794759b4201a7f4afb80a96bd7cb429beb49/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010...ews/mainland/2020/10/10/20201010201338384.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010152710/https://www.guancha.cn/politics/2020_10_10_567683.shtml ; https://archive.vn/2BcDL
1. The new liquid propellant Hwasong-15B MIRV ICBM (provisional naming by Galactic Penguin).


https://archive.vn/401cB/6ae8dda81b43aa4f2d246db99288a6af831dd9c1.png ; https://archive.vn/401cB/ce057165f1e37cf55023a53e9ad035367621672d/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010...ews/mainland/2020/10/10/20201010201325634.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010152710/https://www.guancha.cn/politics/2020_10_10_567683.shtml ; https://archive.vn/2BcDL
2. The new liquid propellant Hwasong-15B MIRV ICBM (provisional naming by Galactic Penguin).


https://archive.vn/bIb8K/b8192c39d8bcfcee55b98e43f55cfb62671271f4.png ; https://archive.vn/bIb8K/f76214005fbc30421530347aba896fa71839ac18/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010...ews/external/2020/10/10/20201010201353145.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010152710/https://www.guancha.cn/politics/2020_10_10_567683.shtml ; https://archive.vn/2BcDL
3. The new liquid propellant Hwasong-15B MIRV ICBM (provisional naming by Galactic Penguin).


https://archive.vn/p0Jd6/b818952e66337b2822ee252d79889267f25b3c88.png ; https://archive.vn/p0Jd6/c15d3fac2fbb6e448f92a9f32d7212f8a4377ebb/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010...ews/external/2020/10/10/20201010201408549.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010152710/https://www.guancha.cn/politics/2020_10_10_567683.shtml ; https://archive.vn/2BcDL
4. The new liquid propellant Hwasong-15B MIRV ICBM (provisional naming by Galactic Penguin).


https://archive.vn/TvYBS/8184d21755dee32cdd24b7b469b08e506c5c09c5.png ; https://archive.vn/TvYBS/e935675214054bbc1f91b0e6ab410f65ac11f3b0/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010...ews/mainland/2020/10/10/20201010201419199.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010152710/https://www.guancha.cn/politics/2020_10_10_567683.shtml ; https://archive.vn/2BcDL
5. The new liquid propellant Hwasong-15B MIRV ICBM (provisional naming by Galactic Penguin).


https://archive.vn/H7ElG/b42d04e26c5560874a0cc0eae9deba539b64f675.jpg ; https://archive.vn/H7ElG/cf45cf157a862af4b025e543e095e6b5026f3475/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010...ews/mainland/2020/10/10/20201010203512318.jpg ; https://www.guancha.cn/internation/2020_10_10_567684.shtml ; https://archive.vn/If79j
6. The new Pukguksong-4A SLBM, with range of 5'000 km.


https://archive.vn/9xzH4/7eebb68727e21c8558a945c898a0204e4c561e9d.png ; https://archive.vn/9xzH4/1e57bc9f323482588ff32d66921b8187204a4434/scr.png ; https://i.guancha.cn/news/mainland/2020/10/10/20201010203524629.png ; https://www.guancha.cn/internation/2020_10_10_567684.shtml ; https://archive.vn/If79j
7. The new Pukguksong-4A SLBM, with range of 5'000 km.


https://archive.vn/56RBD/01a7659b04fbe0f30ed5de117243e3779e600804.png ; https://archive.vn/56RBD/ef5e9afc67cc87b30bc1f76f42cd5855b20d1a10/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201010...ews/mainland/2020/10/10/20201010203535281.png ; https://www.guancha.cn/internation/2020_10_10_567684.shtml ; https://archive.vn/If79j
8. The new Pukguksong-4A SLBM, with range of 5'000 km.



[록화실황] 조선로동당창건 75돐경축 열병식 Military Parade on 75th Founding Anniversary of the Workers' Party of Korea (Pyongyang Oct 10, 2020) : 2 hours 16 minutes

102 views •Oct 10, 2020 KanccTV 722 subscribers
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u27UR4LoAHE

Alternate longer Video:

North Korea Military Parade 2020 - Livestream & Analysis : 2 hours 42 minutes

29,721 views •Streamed live 5 hours ago NK News 4.62K subscribers
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8dZl9f3faY





 
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Galactic Penguin SST

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:yahoo::yahoo:Great military parade 2020 from North Korea.
Bro, the real good news are in the debrief!

The new Hwasong-15B ICBM (provisional name) seems to have a longer nose cone than the previous Hwasong-15A ICBM.

This allows to add a Penetration Aid Carrier (PAC) needed to increase the survivability of the multiple Re-entry Vehicles (ReB) and defeat the U.S. Alaskan missile interceptors bottleneck.


https://archive.vn/ckNck/bf9657177f58ecc63971c00a753ed4d92c3331b1.jpg ; https://archive.vn/ckNck/72b406633748da2cd6f89d40ad34d227363357b2/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201012201256/https://rodgersericv.neocities.org/chevaline3.jpg
1. Penetration Aid Carrier (PAC) and multiple Re-entry Vehicles (ReB).


https://archive.vn/7Rp5c/6314fc270a83c662718c3f189c7114217835a17e.png ; https://archive.vn/7Rp5c/574c8a43a97cdff56a597886e0e2d9d18556801d/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201012201405/https://rodgersericv.neocities.org/chevaline.png
2. Deployment sequence of Penetration Aid Carrier (PAC) and multiple Re-entry Vehicles (ReB).


Meanwhile first photogrammetric measurement of the Pukguksong-4A suggest a 1.8m diameter and a length of about 9.8m, based on the Howo A7 tractor's wheel base as a baseline.


https://archive.vn/SQIwB/70b88a550b502efde498993381a6d841e9ba5c02.jpg ; https://archive.vn/SQIwB/1e5c5edd66014918e4d35330fe4bb196f69c3ca9/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201012200221/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/EkJpfQ6X0AI2UQF?format=jpg&name=medium
3. First photogrammetric measurement of the Pukguksong-4A suggests a 1.8 m diameter and a length of about 9.8 m.


https://archive.vn/mqn62/5c10051969d5f1fe0ebdd1650ca42911d3d9c753.jpg ; https://archive.vn/mqn62/13cc6dceb1fbd79104c565fded7b5c2ecb049181/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201013194817/https://i.imgur.com/PUwBIks.jpg
4. First photogrammetric measurement of the Pukguksong-4A indicates that the 1.8 m diameter is slightly bigger than a standing KPA soldier of ~1.70 meters.

Obviously, the range is above 5'000 km.

This range is of course of little military use. As the 13'000 km threshold is imperative in assuring an effective military deterrence against the U.S.

The Pukguksong-1 SLBM, Pukguksong-2 GLBM, Pukguksong-3 SLBM, Pukguksong-4 SLBM were only the first incremental developmental steps, each with an increased diameter: 1.1m, 1.4m and 1.8 m.

The next step will allow to finally reach the critical level of a M51-class SLBM, as the ultimate Pukguksong-5 SLBM. The one that will be carried onboard the North Korean strategic submarines (SSBN):

•Diameter: 2.3 m
•Length: 12.0 m
•Mass: 52'000 kg
•Warheads: 6 to 10 MIRV with penetration aids.
•Engine: three stage Solid-fuel rocket
•Operational range: 8'000–10'000 km
•Maximum speed: Mach 25
•Launch platform: Orca-class SSBN




 
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foxhoundbis

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2. The new liquid propellant Hwasong-15B MIRV ICBM (provisional naming by Galactic Penguin).
At first thx Galactic Penguin for your work.
Regarding North Korea, it is very hard to get reliable information about military hardware. However, it exists a way to guess or evaluate where is NK.
The best way is to evaluate where Iran is in the weapons defense industry area, because Iran is very close to NK, and they are allies for a long time ago.
The best fate about this new mobile ICBM, it must be the new hypersonic NK missile. The US -via their so-called media like Washington post, NY times, National Interrests etc...- will do all its possible to debunk this reality. However, everybody knows that NK helped Iran to obtain most of its weapons industry, including nuclear devices.
A few months ago Iran succeeds to test a new Hypersonic missile, it does mean that NK has this technology before Iranians then this new ICBM could be a completely new generation of missiles, it could explain its huge size.

Moreover, the fates of NK did not stop only to the missile, contrary to the ugly westerner's assertions. The main, and dramatic fate is its Mig-29. NK is now producing its own Mig-29 models with its indigenous RD-33. It is not only fate but the seismic event that will have heavy consequences in the coming years, if not months.
 

Galactic Penguin SST

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North Korean Pukguksong series Part 4: Pukguksong-4 SLBM

The structure of the Pukguksong-4 SLBM

From the initial analysis of the Pukguksong-4, this new class of missile does not follow the main engine plus small graphite jet vane deflector design of the Soviet era R-27/4K10 submarine-launched ballistic missile, and it does not have the large grid fins of the Hwasong-10 missile.

It has most likely adopted the TVC (Thrust Vector Control) Actuator System, technology that has been fully verified on the Hwasong-15 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Shape analysis of the Pukguksong-4 SLBM

Judging from the shape and technical data of the missile body of the Pukguksong-4 currently disclosed, its performance is not weak at all, and its performance has even exceeded by a quantum leap the old vintage Soviet-era R-27/4K10.

Compared with the Pukguksong-1 SLBM which was first publicly tested in 2015 and the Pukguksong-2 GLBM which was first tested in 2017, the biggest difference is the shape of the Pukguksong-4's fairing and its aerodynamic.

The warhead's fairing of the Pukguksong-1 submarine-launched ballistic missile adopts a sharp cone design with a huge stable skirt, which can effectively reduce the drag when flying in the atmosphere. This is also a commonly used design for early submarine-launched ballistic missiles, such as the US Polaris-A1 and the Soviet Union's R-27 submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and also China's Julang-1 missile.

Judging from the currently disclosed photos of the Pukguksong-4 SLBM, this type of missile has changed the design of the conical warhead with a stabilizing skirt used by the Polaris-1 missile, and adopted the same design as the U.S. Trident-IID5 and the French M51. The same oval blunt head design. Compared with the conical warhead, this design has better underwater hydrodynamic flow performance, but greater flight resistance in the atmosphere.

According to the analysis of military experts, the Pukguksong-3/4 SLBM has removed the design flaws of the previous two generations, and its flight stability has been improved. It has shown a leap forward in the field of submarine-launched missiles, such as changing the pointed warhead of the Polaris-1 missile to a gentle arc, reducing underwater resistance and so on.



Secondly, the details of the high-definition picture of the missile body also show that the Pukguksong-3/4 SLBM has added bubble generating holes on both sides of the missile body's top, which are used to generate bubbles that wrap the missile body underwater, and isolate the missile body from contact with seawater.

This Active Cavitation Technology reduces the underwater resistance of the missile. This design can also be seen in the submarine missiles of other countries.

The principle of Active Cavitation Technology in water is similar to the supercavitation phenomenon. The missile is equipped with a cavitation generator, which can produce a large number of cavitations to wrap the missile body. At this time, the medium in contact with the missile body will change from sea water to gas. Greatly reducing the friction resistance of the missile. Active Cavitation Technology in water is commonly used in submarine-launched ballistic missiles in France and Russia, because the French and Russian missiles usually use underwater ignition technology.

Water friction resistance is much larger than un the air, which greatly consumes missile fuel and affects the maximum range. Therefore, Active Cavitation Technology is required to reduce water resistance.


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1. The Pukguksong-3/4 SLBM has added bubble generating holes on both sides of the missile body's top.


https://archive.vn/7506P/b4a0fcbede5cdab7031dbde31e00d813481ad110.jpg ; https://archive.vn/7506P/64f6b41c96af231eefb420b28e9d64775e0d05f0/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201019233647/http://cimg.fx361.com/images/2020/07/17/qkimagespqzspqzs202007pqzs20200709-11-l.jpg ; https://web.archive.org/web/20201019233646/http://www.fx361.com/page/2020/0716/6874201.shtml ; https://archive.vn/t7uSy
2. Illustration of Active Cavitation Technology.

Launching ballistic missiles underwater is a very difficult technology. Overcoming this technology shows that North Korean submarines can launch ballistic missiles from underwater, improving the missile's attack capability and survivability.

The underwater launch of submarine-launched missiles has to go through three stages: underwater flight phase, water exit phase, and atmospheric flight phase. Among them, the underwater flight phase and the water exit phase are unique to the launch of submarine-launched missiles, and are also critical in determining the success or failure of the launch.

The most difficult part of launching a missile under water is to consider the evolution of the missile in two different mediums: underwater and atmospheric. Submarine-launched missiles must be agile in both water and the atmosphere. The missile is launched from the water into the atmosphere, and it has to work stably in two different media. This step takes the shortest time, especially when it breaks through the water. It is calculated in seconds, but it is the key to the success or failure of the submarine-launched missile launch. If a pointed warhead is used as the warhead shape, a wide truncated cone needs to be installed at the rear to stabilize the attitude of the missile in the water.

This not only increases the length of the submarine-launched missile, but also causes a sharp decrease in resistance when the missile crosses the water's surface into the atmosphere.

This results in the missile's attitude to be instable, which in turn leads to the launch failure.

Most of the early submarine-launched missiles in many countries all over the world also used pointed designs, such as China’s Julang-1, the U.S. Polaris-A1, Russia’s R-27, etc., but the launch success rate is actually not high.

The U.S. submarine-launched ballistic missile Polaris-A1 to Trident-II D5 changed gradually from a cone to a blunt nosecone.

Therefore, in order to ensure the stability in the water, with the gradual research of submarine-launched technology, the warheads of submarine-launched missiles have been changed to a blunt shape, which is different from ordinary intercontinental missiles.

In the process of developing submarine-launched ballistic missiles, the Americans gradually improved from the Polaris-A1 and A2 with a cone-shaped head design to the Trident series use of an oval blunt head.

In addition, Russia's Bulava, China's Julang-2, France's M51 and other submarine-launched missiles also use a blunt body shape.

The reason why the blunt shape is favored for underwater launch is its cavitation effect.

Since the top surface area of the warhead of this shape is large, a larger water area can be opened during the propulsion process, and the missile body can move forward in the cavity supported by the warhead. If a bubble generator is added to the warhead, it is basically the same as traveling in the air, which can minimize the resistance in the water. In addition, the use of blunt warheads can also increase the internal space and be equipped with more multiple reentry vehicle (MRV) to improve the missile penetration and attack capabilities.


General land-based missiles and air-based missiles only need to consider air resistance. In order to reduce air resistance, missiles often use a slender body and a sharp conical warhead or arc design. However, this kind of missiles are not intended to be used underwater, and more cavitation will be produced when the missile exits the water.

These cavitation bubbles will quickly collapse at the moment the missile exits the water, which will cause a large load on the warhead and the missile body and damage the missile structure. For sea water to flow out steadily, it is best to have a blunt tip, and it is best to generate bubbles by itself to reduce water resistance and maintain a stable hydrodynamic flow.

However, the shortcomings of the oval blunt design warhead are also very obvious. When the submarine-launched missile flies in the atmosphere at high speed after exiting the water, the blunt tip has a large air resistance, which severely reduces the speed and range of the missile. Flying in the air requires the least resistance arc head.

Two ways to resolve this contradiction have been developed among the major powers.

One is the blunt-headed Trident of the United States and the M51 of France that pop up the drag reducing rod called aerospike after exiting the water.

Missiles or launch vehicles will encounter huge air resistance when flying in the air, and a large part of the engine energy is used to overcome air resistance. The head resistance of the spacecraft mainly comes from the bow shock wave near the head. The faster the missile or rocket, the higher the pressure and temperature in this area, and the resistance will increase sharply. It is generally believed that in order to overcome the bow shock, a missile needs at least a quarter of the thrust of the engine, which can be said to be very lossy. The drag reduction aerospike is designed to overcome the bow shock wave. Its principle is very simple. It pierces the bow shock wave and turns it into an oblique shock wave. The pressure and resistance of the latter are much smaller than the bow shock wave. This is equivalent to increased engine thrust and improved missile range.

The American Trident-IC4 uses a retractable drag reduction aerospike for the first time on a submarine missile, which is usually retracted in the fairing.

When the missile's exits the water, the rocket engine is ignited after 4 seconds, the drag reduction aerospike extends out of the fairing and pierces the air.

According to relevant data, the drag reduction effect of the aerospike can reach more than 30%.

In addition to the use of aerospike, a double-head design can also be used to solve the problem of the contradiction between the movement of the missile in the water and the atmosphere, which is to add a blunt fairing outside the missile cone fairing.

After the missile exits out of the water and enters the atmosphere, the blunt-headed outer cover is separated, and the missile exposes its cone fairing ready to start its atmospheric flight.

India’s K15 submarine-launched missile uses this design. The most ideal shape of the fairing to deal with seawater resistance is a blunt head shape. The blunt head shape fairing has little resistance underwater, but after exiting out of the water, the resistance increases. The sharp cone fairing is the opposite, so the most ideal fairing shape for atmospheric resistance is a sharp cone. The purpose of adopting the double hood design is to complement each other and have the best shape underwater and in the air.

But the disadvantage is that it increases the complexity of the launch process, mainly due to the addition of a low-altitude fairing ejection step. At the same time, the blunt fairing and ejection pyrotechnic will increase the length and weight of the missile, and make the internal structure of the missile more complicated, which will reduce the missile's reliability.

The most eye-catching part of the Pukguksong-3 missile test is that the missile exits directly out of water without the need for an additional protective cover, thus effectively reducing the length and weight of the missile. As an economically and technologically underdeveloped country, North Korea’s ability to acquire such mature technology is indeed impressive.


https://archive.fo/93Tek/64bc5a4fa5077d0911e4f7ef06cfcd3f4131ba92.jpg ; https://archive.fo/93Tek/69c97d0437947fb9550b088c85d72e24c3e5595f/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20191025.../10/multi_photo_2019-10-24_dn99517_image1.jpg ; http://www.uriminzokkiri.com/index.php?ptype=photo&no=8201 ; https://www.dprktoday.com/index.php?type=42&s=1#/42&s=1/
3. Korean-developed Singijon, at the origin of multistage rockets, in the early 15th century, and fitted with aerospikes to extend the range.


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4. M-51 SLBM nose cone section with an aerospike.

Further development of this concept should soon be demonstrated with air-spike. This is formed by concentrated energy, from a pulsed laser, projected forwards from the body, which produces a region of low density hot air ahead of the body. This has the advantage over a structural aerospike that the air density is lower than that behind a shock wave providing increased drag reduction.


http://web.archive.org/web/20190319013327/https://c1.staticflickr.com/5/4885/31487803767_7c98fddf26_b.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190810170025/https://www.flickr.com/photos/arirangmeari/31487803767/
5. Further development of this concept should soon be demonstrated with the DPRK's pulsed laser air-spike. Uploaded on December 23, 2018.

Regarding speed, it is estimated that the maximum speed of Pukguksong-3 SLBM is about 10 Mach. This is mainly because according to the available information, the Pukguksong-2 GLBM previously tested by North Korea has a similar design to the Pukguksong-3 SLBM and it is said that its maximum speed is Mach 10. However, because North Korea has the potential to continue to promote engine development, it cannot be ruled out that the missile has a higher speed. It is estimated that the potential maximum speed is about 12 Mach.


Initial calculations on the Pukguksong-4:

Weight: ~23t (without gas generator)
Payload: ~500kg
Range: ~6300km (short range ICBM)
Length: 9,8m (with gas generator)
Diameter: 1,8m

Features:
Flexnozzle TVC 1st stage
2 Filament wound composite motor stages
Compact nozzle design

8:16 PM · Oct 16, 2020


The structural ratios applied here are according to the motor technology used, reasonable estimates:

1st stage 8,75%
2nd stage 10,5%

In a worst case scenario, the range would be reduced to 5000km and the structural ratios very unfavorable at:

1st stage 12,5%
2nd stage 14,5%

With an effective aerospike the author gets ~7300km max. range

There is no space for jet vane TVC on the 1st stage and if they have flexnozzle tech. Then its certainly also applied to the 2nd stage.

Thats why the structural ratios are:
1st stage 8,75%
2nd stage 10,5%

Quite optimistic ones
https://twitter.com/Pataramesh/status/1317167509993328640


https://archive.vn/bt4tH/b5de82399b48065f8351155f7f2356f2e441eb3f.jpg ; https://archive.vn/bt4tH/239d98c18ce4517840918676cc0614c8ff6e94c5/scr.png ; https://web.archive.org/web/20201019233838/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/EkolZieWMAIY3Ka?format=jpg&name=900x900 ; https://twitter.com/Pataramesh/status/1317908291746484226
4. Differences between the DPRK Pukguksong prototype and the mature looking PK-4 from the recent parade. This is the author's interpretation of it and there are still open issues like the TVC actuator of the first stage. 2020.




 

Galactic Penguin SST

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Back under the presidency of I.R.I.'s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, it was known that Iran was planning to complete in the next decade a true nuclear deterrence, with land based TEL ICBMs, silo-based and a sea-based components.

An image of a SSBN with 14 SLBM was then circulated.


https://archive.vn/MPZL7/e906170db144c5b5c363be69aef4b6c439863c77.jpg ; https://archive.vn/MPZL7/a9a00f049b6e99b4bcdae09cc3f0eb326fd431f9/scr.png ; https://i.imgur.com/oXw05ph.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201018202016if_/https://i.imgur.com/oXw05ph.jpg
1. ▲ Undated image of an Iranian SSBN, with 14 SLBM.

But nothing about the SSN.

Today it seems that a clue has been revealed about this missing step.

• Diesel-electric submarine specialized for anti-submarine duties (SSK) ✔
• Diesel-electric ballistic missile submarine, capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SSB) ✔
• Nuclear-powered general-purpose attack submarine (SSN) ?
• Nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine, capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SSBN) ✔

North Korea building two submarines, one capable of firing ballistic missiles - lawmaker

November 3, 2020

SEOUL (Reuters) - North Korea is building two new submarines, including one capable of firing ballistic missiles, a South Korean lawmaker said on Tuesday, following a closed-door briefing by the South Korea’s National Intelligence Service.

“One of the submarines North Korea is building can carry a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM),” Ha Tae Keung, an opposition party lawmaker on parliament’s intelligence committee, told Reuters. “One is a modified Romeo Class and the other is a new medium-large size one.”


The modified Romeo Class is the SSB (carrying between 3 to 6 SLBMs) and the other 'new medium-large size' should designate the missing SSN in the technological tree of the DPRK.


________________


SEOUL, Nov. 3 (Yonhap) -- South Korea's state intelligence agency said Tuesday that North Korea may also announce a reorganization of the leadership with an eye to elevating the status of Chairman Kim Jong Un as well as a new line of internal and external strategies during the 8th Workers' Party Congress stated for January next year, according to the NIS officials.

"North Korea is preparing to make the congress the highest-profile political event in order to break out of the internal and external impasse ... the 8th congress could become an important tipping point for the North Korean (political) system," the officials noted.

As part of the process, Kim Jong Un may also be elevated to Generalissimo -- the highest rank of generals granted to his predecessors Kim Jong Il, posthumously in 2012, and Kim Il Sung, in 1992 -- the officials said.

Instead, his powerful sister Kim Yo Jong and other key aides have been put in charge of on-site inspections, the officials said, adding that the official party rank of the sister, currently an alternate member at the Politburo of the Workers' Party Central Committee, is likely to be elevated in the upcoming party congress.

On the military front, the country is in the process of building two new submarines that are capable of carrying submarine-launched ballistic missiles, the officials also said.





 

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North Korea displays new submarine-launched ballistic missile during parade

North Korea 17:26 January 15, 2021

SEOUL, Jan. 15 (Yonhap) -- North Korea showcased yet another new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) in just three months during a recent military parade, experts said Friday.

During the parade held on Thursday night at Kim Il-sung square in Pyongyang, the North rolled out SLBMs on transporter erector launchers (TEL), which it labeled as the Pukguksong-5ㅅ, along with a new short-range ballistic missile and various other kinds of weaponry.

The Korean letter "ㅅ" appears to indicate that it is a sea-based system.

"The world's most powerful weapon, submarine-launch ballistic missile, entered the square one after another, powerfully demonstrating the might of the revolutionary armed forces," the North's Korean Central Korean News Agency (KCNA) said on Friday.

The new missile looks longer than the Pukguksong-4ㅅ SLBM, which was first unveiled during a military parade in October last year.

Experts say the newest one appears to be designed to fly longer and fit for larger-sized warheads.

"North Korea is working to develop two kinds of SLBMs at the same time. Chances are that Pukguksong-4 is expected to be equipped with its 3,000-ton-class submarine, while Pukguksong-5 could be for a 4,000-ton one or larger," Lee Choon-geun, a senior research fellow at the Science and Technology Policy Institute, said.

http://web.archive.org/web/20210115131821/https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20210115001153325?section=nk%2Fnk
https://archive.vn/lUR3v



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1. Pukguksong-5ㅅ SLBM


https://archive.vn/hjmGB/91083af5562db6069f9c5d4548719c709cf8595f.jpg ; https://archive.vn/hjmGB/da572ed309539032799535adac590035fc22d5b8/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210115120355/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/ErvRZAtXAAcbYNK?format=jpg&name=4096x4096
2. Pukguksong-5ㅅ SLBM


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3. Pukguksong-5ㅅ SLBM


https://archive.vn/j8CEk/52ab230f55ae7c0a96f865f4a54878f8e51f0e37.jpg ; https://archive.vn/j8CEk/612bf7d8732e5fe2a154bddf200f583b6e51914c/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210115120652/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/ErvRpW4XAAMt-uq?format=jpg&name=4096x4096
4. Pukguksong-5ㅅ SLBM


https://archive.vn/cYtm6/5e1f5aa9dec5d78ad8d86ad0e4a8a121e4b08906.jpg ; https://archive.vn/cYtm6/147114fb5fa9467f14168db9e2b136a3169b797e/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210115121102/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/ErubRo9XAAEqgRa?format=jpg&name=small
5. Pukguksong-5ㅅ SLBM

Full Video: 1h27m28
Jan 15, 2021
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYbnjxjKNf8
北朝鮮 「朝鮮労働党第8回大会記念閲兵式 (조선로동당 제8차대회기념 열병식)」 KCTV 2021/01/15


Short Video: 150秒回顾朝鲜阅兵式:钢铁洪流导弹压轴 “北极星-5”重磅出场

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