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Mujib was most responsible for 1971 - Bengali scholar

Apprentice

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Fellow Bangladeshi members, I recommend you sit back and watch the show without posting. Some Pakistanis are desperate to find relief by washing their hands off any responsibility and as usual blame India for everything.

Let them have it.

You see the same tendency with many Indians.

We are a separate nation now. What Indians or Pakistanis think has no material impact on us.
Actually this post was written so that we Pakistanis can identify our faults. And our biggest mistake was not nipping Awami League and Bengali ethnic nationalism in the bud. Instead we allowed it to grow.
 

Imran Khan

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It was a summary of Gholam Wahed Chowdhary's book which focuses on the 1969-1971 period and shows Mujib's dishonest game (as well as Bhutto's) while Yahya tried to be fair. As for the "distrust" factor I advise you to read Professor Syed Sajjad Hussain's "Wastes of Time."


But we have to learn from history instead of self-blame. Otherwise we can never stop future treason by elements in our country. That is purpose of this post.
we have so many examples to learn here in west pakistan too . east pakistan was leave us one day even if you spend 1 trillion dollar per year and make it with gold . give you example ? people in country like USA /SAUDI ARABIA /UK /also want to break country and make a new country with in . how can we control them from here then ? it was our first mistake to start with them in 1947 rest is history it was dirty bloody and ugly as everything in south Asia .
 

Bilal9

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Fellow Bangladeshi members, I recommend you sit back and watch the show without posting. Some Pakistanis are desperate to find relief by washing their hands off any responsibility and as usual blame India for everything.

Let them have it.

You see the same tendency with many Indians.

We are a separate nation now. What Indians or Pakistanis think has no material impact on us.
স্বপ্নের রসগোল্লা একটা কেন দশটাই খাওয়া যায়
 

bluesky

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Did you read the summary of Yahya Khan's Bengali adviser which I posted above?

The election was held under the Legal Framework Order (LFO) 1970. The Six Points of Mujib violated the LFO. One can't claim victory in an election and then violate the conditions of the agreement which that same election derived its legitimacy from.

Besides, Awami League's "victory' was gained through violating all martial law regulations (with all the regional hate propaganda) and using militant tactics against opposition parties to prevent their election campaigning.
You are too simplifying the politics of then 1970/71 blaming Mujib for every trouble. Yahya Khan should have convened the National Assembly on March 25, 1971 in Dhaka and let the elected members talk and debate on issues. Instead of waiting for their quarrelling there, Yahya took an unilateral decision to crack down in East Pakistan with machine guns.

Do you guys think Pakistan Awami League with a thin majority would have been able to pass any legislature to grant autonomy to east Pakistan? It needed a 2/3rd majority to change the then status quo. Yahya acted too early with too much of force that finally broke Pakistan into two.

India itself was not an issue. Issue was the three top leaders including Mujib. They were bickering among themselves and India took advantage of the situation. We ourselves in the east had no other recourse to resist machine gun fires than to seek Indian help.
 

Apprentice

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You are too simplifying the politics of then 1970/71 blaming Mujib for every trouble. Yahya Khan should have convened the National Assembly on March 25, 1971 in Dhaka and let the elected members talk and debate on issues. Instead of waiting for their quarrelling there, Yahya took an unilateral decision to crack down in East Pakistan with machine guns.

Do you guys think Pakistan Awami League with a thin majority would have been able to pass any legislature to grant autonomy to east Pakistan? It needed a 2/3rd majority to change the then status quo. Yahya acted too early with too much of force that finally broke Pakistan into two.

India itself was not an issue. Issue was the three top leaders including Mujib. They were bickering among themselves and India took advantage of the situation. We ourselves in the east had no other recourse to resist machine gun fires than to seek Indian help.
No brother I am not ignoring the role of Bhutto or the military junta's role. I have acknowledged their mistake of postponing the National Assembly meeting which was scheduled for 3 March. Neither the military junta (apart from Yahya) or Bhutto wanted Awami League in power. They had reasons to distrust him because of the India factor. Mujib had given West Pakistanis sufficient reason to believe that he was India-friendly and this would have impacted on the foreign policy which West Pakistan and the Army desired. (Remember, Bhutto won seats because his election campaign was on an anti-India platform and that is also why he attracted the military junta's support.)

Then there is also Mujib's own admission in a private session with his party members in 1970, which was recorded by intelligence agencies, where he said his aim was to establish Bangladesh and tear up the LFO after the elections when no one could "challenge" him. He also referred to "outside" help (presumably Indian). This tape recorded statement was shown to Yahya Khan in the presence of his Bengali adviser Gholam Wahed Chowdhary but Yahya Khan did nothing because of his incompetence. Mujib should have been disqualified from contesting the election then and there.

When they announced that assembly postponement on 1 March the Awami League usurped the government's authority in the province which in itself was an act of treason and their militants started attacking non-Bengali Muslims, West Pakistanis (civilians and soldiers) as well as loyalist Bengali Muslims (who did not support the Awami League). There are testimonies (in the book "Blood and Tears") which mention the involvement of EPR in these atrocities even before 25 March.

Yahya did still come to talk with Mujib in mid-March and the Awami League by then was openly talking of Bangladesh while Mujib may have been talking of confederation (this had also been Bhutto's idea) as a last minute thought. The government also believed that Mujib (who had appointed Colonel Usmani as Commander) and that the Awami League in particular had planned a mutiny scheduled for 26 March. That is why they launched Operation Searchlight to pre-empt that mutiny. The objectives of the Operation were to restore the government's writ over the province which the Awami League had usurped and disarm Bengali policemen and soldiers. The atrocities were never an intended objective of the Operation.

Dhaka University was targeted because some of its dormitories had been insurgent training centres and arsenal depots. Of course, atrocities were committed during that entire Operation in Dhaka. The soldiers over-reacted due to the pressure they were under in the previous three weeks. And then it spiralled out of control on both sides. West Pakistani and East Pakistani soldiers turned on each other and also committed atrocities against each other's civilians. Tragic. (Although I will note here that some Bengali officers remained loyal to Pakistan till the very end).

It was ultimately a mix of our errors and the insincerity of a large part of the Awami League. But would any of this have happened if the Awami League had not espoused Bengali nationalism and won the 1971 elections with thug tactics against its opponents in East Pakistan? There were other parties in East Pakistan which remained loyal. Even some Awami Leaguers defected to the government's side when Operation Searchlight started. The crux of the issue was ideology.

How could West Pakistanis been expected to feel comfortable with a party which believed in Bengali nationalism over two-nation theory? For instance, even if PPP was also confined to one wing like AL, it was at least cross-provincial. It won votes across Sind and Punjab and united Pakistanis across ethnic lines. Punjabis voted for a non-Punjabi - a Sindhi. Bengalis who supported the Awami League were talking in exclusive ethnic terms (i.e. "we are majority so we should rule") and West Pakistanis did not like this kind of thinking. Especially Punjab. Despite being majority in Pakistan today we still don't think in terms of "we Punjabis are ruling the other ethnic groups" because Punjab itself is an inclusive and hetereogenous province where anyone is welcome and can identify himself as a "Punjabi" regardless of his actual ethnicity.

For example, I am a Kashmiri while PM Imran Khan Niazi is a Pathan of Punjab. There are also large Sindhi, Baloch and Urdu-speaking populations in Punjab. There is no collective consciousness among Punjabis that we are one ethnic group and that we must rule others or exclude them. We ourselves are welcoming and inclusive in our own province. And I think that was the issue from day one for why Bengalis never understood us. They were homogenous and we were heterogeneous. (This was also the cause of the language movement in 1952 - which was a separate issue but sprung form the same factor of misunderstanding West Pakistan and Punjab's heterogeneity)

And we also didn't have an issue with Bengalis who did not support Awami League or the other pre-secessionist parties. (Remember Awami League still only won 42% of the total Bengali electorate). Maybe if Awami League was not allowed a free hand for years by our own government, they would never have become popular in East Pakistan. This was also what Professor Syed Sajjad Hussain says. Our own central government for many years allowed Bengali nationalists and leftists and communists to use all our official organs and media to spread hate propaganda against West Pakistan, suppress facts, exaggerate economic problems and spread their ethnic nationalist ideology against the two nation theory.
 
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Norwegian

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Actually this post was written so that we Pakistanis can identify our faults. And our biggest mistake was not nipping Awami League and Bengali ethnic nationalism in the bud. Instead we allowed it to grow.
Nipping dissent and separatist movements is not the right policy. What has India achieved by suppressing Kashmir independence movement? Brut force can temporary give relief but permanent solution is to remove the grievances and bring separatists into mainstream national politics
 

Apprentice

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Nipping dissent and separatist movements is not the right policy. What has India achieved by suppressing Kashmir independence movement? Brut force can temporary give relief but permanent solution is to remove the grievances and bring separatists into mainstream national politics
Why did the Pakistani Federal Government allow the Awami League to preach hate, nationalist propaganda and exaggerated/distorted facts for so long? That too from state organs and media. Why didn't they put a stop to this?
 

Norwegian

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we have so many examples to learn here in west pakistan too . east pakistan was leave us one day even if you spend 1 trillion dollar per year and make it with gold . give you example ? people in country like USA /SAUDI ARABIA /UK /also want to break country and make a new country with in . how can we control them from here then ? it was our first mistake to start with them in 1947 rest is history it was dirty bloody and ugly as everything in south Asia .
Greenland, Alaska are separated by thousands of miles from Denmark and USA. Culture, language etc are different in those regions too. Yet they seem to be united and are not seeking independence. So please stop calling establishment of Pakistan in East and West a mistake. Had our military leaders not imposed martial laws and let grassroots democracy grow naturally, we would still have East Pakistan
Why did the Pakistani Federal Government allow the Awami League to preach hate, nationalist propaganda and exaggerated/distorted facts for so long? That too from state organs and media. Why didn't they put a stop to this?
Awami League was born out of events in 1954 where East Pakistan's first elected govt was dismissed after only a month in power:
"The dismissal of the United Front was a key turning point in aggravating East Pakistan's grievances in the Pakistani union, and lead Maulana Bhashani to openly call for separation and independence in 1957, in his Salaam, Pakistan (Farewell, Pakistan) speech."
 

Apprentice

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Greenland, Alaska are separated by thousands of miles from Denmark and USA. Culture, language etc are different in those regions too. Yet they seem to be united and are not seeking independence. So please stop calling establishment of Pakistan in East and West a mistake. Had our military leaders not imposed martial laws and let grassroots democracy grow naturally, we would still have East Pakistan
That is an oversimplification. Its under democracy that Australia cut off its legal ties with the UK (i.e. became independent from the UK) despite being almost the same people in culture, language and ethnicity.
Awami League was born out of events in 1954 where East Pakistan's first elected govt was dismissed after only a month in power:
"The dismissal of the United Front was a key turning point in aggravating East Pakistan's grievances in the Pakistani union, and lead Maulana Bhashani to openly call for separation and independence in 1957, in his Salaam, Pakistan (Farewell, Pakistan) speech."
The Pakistani government also dismissed an elected government in NWFP - even before this. What was different there? The ideology which was disseminated in the masses. How come Awami Muslim League dropped "Muslim" from its name to become Awami League? There was an ideological change (like Sheikh Abdullah in Kashmir) from two nation-theory to ethnic nationalism. And they propagated that ideology to the masses. Its not just about political grievances.
 

Norwegian

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The Pakistani government also dismissed an elected government in NWFP - even before this. What was different there? The ideology which was disseminated in the masses. How come Awami Muslim League dropped "Muslim" from its name to become Awami League? There was an ideological change (like Sheikh Abdullah in Kashmir) from two nation-theory to ethnic nationalism. And they propagated that ideology to the masses. Its not just about political grievances.
Under democracy, political parties are free to pursue their own agenda. There are many secular and liberal parties in Pakistan today. Should they be banned just because they refuse to follow "state ideology" Islam?
 

PAKISTANFOREVER

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Is this the 9,999th or 10,000th time this topic has been discussed and over-analysed to extreme proportions?......... :disagree:

Seems like some folk on PDF have too much time on their hands or are quite high on the Autism spectrum. Perhaps both.........:disagree:
 

Norwegian

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That is an oversimplification. Its under democracy that Australia cut off its legal ties with the UK (i.e. became independent from the UK) despite being almost the same people in culture, language and ethnicity.
US and Australia were colonial states that seeked independence from their mother homelands. East Pakistan in comparison was equal part of Federation of Pakistan. The reason East Pakistanis went for separation was due to non democratic treatment they faced from West Pakistan establishment
 

Apprentice

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Under democracy, political parties are free to pursue their own agenda. There are many secular and liberal parties in Pakistan today. Should they be banned just because they refuse to follow "state ideology" Islam?
The first condition in the Legal Framework Order 1970 was that Pakistan would be based on Islamic ideology. Talking against that or preaching regional hatred was outlawed in the martial law regulations and Awami League did both.

And yes the Constitution of Pakistan which all political parties are signatory to encloses the Islamic ideology. It is also a crime in our penal laws to talk against it today.
 

gangsta_rap

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Under democracy, political parties are free to pursue their own agenda. There are many secular and liberal parties in Pakistan today. Should they be banned just because they refuse to follow "state ideology" Islam?
The first condition in the Legal Framework Order 1970 was that Pakistan would be based on Islamic ideology. Talking against that or preaching regional hatred was outlawed in the martial law regulations and Awami League did both.

And yes the Constitution of Pakistan which all political parties are signatory to encloses the Islamic ideology. It is also a crime in our penal laws to talk against it today.
 

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