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Military and arms build up in persian Gulf Part II

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Military and arms build up in persian Gulf Part II.
Military and arms build up in Persian Gulf Part II.
Arms spending are an incomplete but very concrete way of tracking a state’s real assessment of threats and priorities. It’s becoming clear that Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, have stepped up their defense spending in recent years. Those expenditures cover a range of equipment, but anti-ballistic missile capabilities appear to be rising to the top of the priority list. the Gulf region’s role as the world’s busiest arms market

The G.C.C. Summit of January 2000 produced an agreement characterized as a "joint defense pact." The agreement reportedly calls for increase in the existing G.C.C. Peninsula Shield force (P.S.F.) and for the G.C.C. to develop a shared early warning system. The agreement also reportedly includes language stating that an attack on one member is an attack on all G.C.C. states.
The agreement represents the culmination of efforts since the end of the Persian Gulf war of 1991 to give the G.C.C. secretariat a substantial role for collective defense. In the post-war Iraq Middle East, the United States could contribute to the development of the P.S.F. in cooperation with the G.C.C. states that can serve as an instrument for regional security

The United States has long seen Gulf countries as profitable arms trading partners. Since the end of the first Gulf War, the United States has delivered more weapons to the region than any other country in the world, including more than $38 billion worth of U.S. manufactured arms, which totals nearly a quarter of all arms deliveries to Gulf countries during that period

the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council or GCC (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain and Qatar), which boast both the financial clout and political leverage to acquire the latest and the best products on offer, have made a string of procurement of air,naval and armored assets in the recent past, moving resolutely towards the creation of well-equipped and trained \ forces, capable of meeting any and every challenge.

The buildup is a sign that Iran, suspected by the U.S. and its allies of developing atomic weapons, poses a growing conventional military threat too. It is testing new missiles with a longer-range strike capability and building naval forces capable of hitting neighboring oil facilities

Oman
Defense expenditure-2003- $2.62 billion, 2004- $ 2.97 billion, 2005- $ 3.65 billion, 2006-$4.0 billion, 2007-$ 4.1 billion, 2008-$ 4.5 billion, 2009-$4.82 billion.Defense expenditure / GDP % 2003-12.0 ,2004-12.0 ,2005-11.8 ,2006-11.1,2007- 10.4,2008-9.5%,2008-9%.

Arms Procurement and Security Assistance Received
Oman 2003-2007 USA 200 Millions, Major West European (Uk,France,Germany,Italy) 2300 Millions,Other 100 million,Total-2600 million.

Australia - Arms transfers High-speed transport boats (2006) France - Arms transfers NH90 helicopters (2007) , Mistral SAMs (2004), upgrade of C4I system (2007) , A320 transport aircraft (2007), 120mm TDA mortars (2008).India - Military training Trainees abroad (2005).Italy - Arms transfers AB-139 Helicopters for security services (2004), patrol boats (2006), Centauro ACV (2008) Jordan - Military training Trainees abroad (2005).UAE - Arms transfers fast assault boats (2004), landing craft (2006) .UK - Arms transfers Super Lynx helicopters (2004), Khareef OPVs (2008) . Military training Training of air force personnel (2004)

US - Arms transfers F-16C/D (2007), Harpoon AGMs (2007), JDAMs guided bombs (2007), Paveway LGB's (2004), ARS reconnaissance systems (2007), radio communications systems (2004), Javelin ATGMs (2008),sensor fused weapons (2007), aircraft training system (2005), WCMD systems (2007), FPBs (2005), EW systems (2005) Military training Foreign advisers/instructors/serving personnel Assistance $20 million military aid (2006).

Belgium Value of Belgian licensed arms exports, by region and at Federal level, in million euros, September 2003 – August 2008Oman 67 5,596,631

Arms Sales and Security Assistance Extended
UK Facilities Use of airfields and naval bases (2006).US - Facilities Airfields at Masira, Seeb, al-Khasb, Thamarit; storage facilities and prepositioning of US Army and Air Force support equipment; naval facilities at Masira and Ghanam Peninsula; center; contraction of an air base at al-Musnana (2002)’

Foreign Military Cooperation
Foreign forces 30 US troops (as of September 2006).Joint maneuvers Egypt (2001); GCC countries (2003); India (2003); Jordan (2001); Pakistan (2008); UK (2001); US (2001).Security agreement -GCC countries; India (2005); Iran (2003); Turkey (2001); US; Yemen (2004).

Ground Forces Personnel -25,000. Initially, nearly all the army officers and men were Baluchis from Pakistan, except for senior commanders, who were British. As of early 1993, most of the officers were Omanis, 15000 ,Pakistan are working in Omani armed forces till now in 2009.Tanks- 124 (201) (High quality Challenger-2, Medium and low quality M-60 A3, M-60 A1, Chieftain, Light tanks- Scorpion).APCs/AFVs -446 (476) (APCs GKN-Defense Piranha, AT-105 Saxon ,Fahd, Spartan, ,VAB , WZ-551B, IFVs, V-150 Commando, Reconnaissance VBC-90, Light armoured Vehicles- VBL). Artillery- 133 (139) (and howitzers- 155mm G-6, Towed guns and Howitzers-155mm FH-70 -130mm Type 59 -122mm D-30 25 , 105mm L-118)

Air Force- 5000.Combat aircraft-41 (Advanced Multi-role 12 F-16 C/D,18 Jaguar Mk ,11 HAWK Mk-203). Transport Aircraft -50 (54)( BAe- BN-2 Defender/Islander C-130H Hercules, CN-235 DC-8 , DC-10 , Dornier,Do-228-100, Gulfstream ,Skyvan Srs 3M).Helicopters-63(AB-205, Bell 212, AB-214, NH90 TTH, AS-332 Super Puma, Bell 206 Jet Ranger, Naval attack-Super Lynx 300). Training and Liaison Aircraf-40-Model(Jet trainers -PC-9, BAC-167 ,Strikemaster Mk 82 ,Hawk Mk-103 .Piston/Turbo-prop -AS-202 Bravo ,MFI-17B Mushshak). Maritime surveillance -Skyvan Srs 3M ,Dornier DO-228-100.

Air Defense Forces Light SAM launchers-112. Air Force Infrastructure
Aircraft shelters-For all combat aircraft, at Masira and Thamarit .Military airfields -6 Al-Musnana, Bureimi, Dukha, Masira, Muscat (Seeb), Salala, Thamarit

Navy-4000.Combat vessels-9(Missile corvettes Qahir class (Vosper Thornycroft , MFPBs- Dhofar class (Province class, Gunboats al-Bushra (P-400).Patrol craft-69 (CG-29, CG-27, Cougar Enforcer 33, • Mk V, Seeb (Vosper Thornycroft, Vosper .Zahra (Watercraft type), P-2000, P-1903,Dheeb al Bahar (D-59116), Seaspray Assault Boats, Rudman 58 ). Landing Craft -7-Type- Nasr al Bahar (Brooke Marine LST) ,Shinas (Fast
transport ship) ,al-Munassir ,Vosper 230-ton LCM ,Al-Neemran (LCU) , High speed sealift vessel (Helicopter deck 40 LAVs; 200 troops Deliveries by 2008. Auxiliary Vessels -5-Type - Mabrukah (Brooke Marine training ship) ,Al-Sultana (Conoship Groningen) ,Fulk al Salamah ,Survey craft ,Diving craft .

Naval Infrastructure-Naval bases -4,Mina Raysut (Salala), al-Khasb, Muscat, Wuddam. Ship maintenance and repair facilities Muscat.

Anti-Tank Missiles-(Javelin, BGM-71A TOW, MILAN). Air-to-air-missiles
R-550 Magic (70), AIM-9P/J Sidewinder (330), AIM-120 AMRAAM (50), AIM-9M Sidewinder (100). Air-to-ground-missiles -AGM-84D Harpoon (20) , AGM-65D/G Maverick (80) Bombs BL-755 CBU, GBU-31/38 JDAM (84), GBU-10/12 Paveway -2 , CBU-97 SFW (350). Targeting Pods -TARS reconnaissance systems (2), Sniper targeting pods (7). Surface-to-Air Missiles-112-Model (Light missiles -Mistral-2 ,Rapier Mk2 ,Javelin ,Tigercat). Shoulder- launched missiles-Blowpipe ,SA-7 (Grail)

Air defense systems (missiles, radars and guns) Skyguard AD system
Short-range guns- 40mm Bofors L-60 ,35mm Oerlikon Contraves ,23mm ZU 23x2 ,20mm 20x2 VDAA SP. Radars -OFEQ-2000 C4I ,AR-15 ,S-713 Martello 3D ,S-600 ,Watchman.

Qatar.
Qatar played an important role in the Gulf War of 1991, taking part in the Battle of Khafji. The Qatari contingent, composed mostly of Pakistani recruits, The Government of Pakistan will provide specialized officers, technicians and other military personnel to work for Qatar armed forces in various military domains such as equipment, arms maintenance and ammunition. ". By one estimate, Qatari citizens constitute only 40 percent of the army, in which more than twenty nationalities are represented. Many of the officers are of the royal family or members of leading tribes. Enlisted personnel are recruited from beduin tribes that move between Qatar and Saudi Arabia and from other Arab groups. 20%Pakistanis serve in combat units

The Qatar Emiri Air Force’s development plans are heavily conditioned by the country’s position as the host to the US CENTCOM Forward Headquarters, with pre-positioned materiel to equip two armoured brigades (the largest such pre-positioning of US Army materiel outside the US). The overall protective umbrella by US forces that stems from this situation tends to reduce the need for very capable own forces, but on the other hand it also has a certain impact on the type of aircraft Qatar would wish to procure and from whom.

Qatar is still trying to sell its fleet of twelve MIRAGE 2000-5 fighters, which were withdrawn into storage after a very short service period (thus leaving the Air Force without first line combat planes) reportedly because it was not felt appropriate to have French technical assistance personnel and advisors on the very same base that houses the CENTCOM forward HQs. A tentative deal with India collapsed in mid-2009 as the price offered by India ($375 million) proved to be less than half the Qatar’s request

Foreign Military Cooperation
Foreign forces US (3,500 troops, operating two bases and 2 Patriot SAM batteries).Forces deployed abroad UNIFIL (Lebanon). Joint maneuvers- France (2003), GCC countries (2003), India (2007), Italy (2007), NATO (2008), Pakistan (2007) UK, US (2007),Yemen. Security agreement- France, GCC countries, Germany (2005), Italy, India (2008), Iran, NATO (2008), South Africa (2008), South Korea (2006), UK (2008), USA (2003)

Arms Procurement and Security Assistance Received
France -Arms transfers C4I system (2007), AD radar (2008), Military training Training of officers in Qatar (2007) Italy - Arms transfers AW139 helicopters (2008).Sweden -Arms transfers Tactical communication systems (2004).UK - Military training Training of officers in Qatar (2008) .US - Arms transfers S-92 helicopters (2005) , Patriot SAMs (2007), C-17 transport aircraft (2008), C- 130J aircraft (2008),Military training Advisers, instructors (2006), Mexico • Arms transfers Milan ATGMs (2006).US • Facilities Use of Air Operations Center at al-Udeid AFB and Ground Operations Center at as- Sayliyah; pre-positioning of equipment for rapid deployment forces (2006)

value of Belgian licensed arms exports, by region and at Federal level, in million euros, September 2003 – August 2008 Qatar 17 5,424,412

Ground Forces 8,5000, Tanks-30 (44) Model MBTs Medium and low quality
AMX-30 .APCs/AFVs-280 (310) Model APCs VAB , AMX- 10 VCI .IFVs
Piranha II , AMX-10P , V-150 Commando. Reconnaissance -AMX 10RC ,Engesa EE-9 Light Armored Vehicles -VBL ,Ferret. Artillery (including MRLs)-56- Model -Self-propelled guns and howitzers -155mm Mk F-3 (AMX) .Towed guns and howitzers -155mm G-5 .Mortars, under 160mm - 120mm Brandt , 81mm VPM SP. MRLs -122mm BM-21 -Astros II .

Qatar Armed Forces signed a contract for 18 AW139 helicopters in early 2009. The contract value is in excess of $260 million and includes crews training and initial spares package. The helicopters will be used for troop transport, SAR, border patrol and homeland security roles

Air Force- 1500. Combat aircraft - 12 -Model -Advance multi-role -Mirage 2000 . Transport aircraft 14–Model-Airbus 340 ,Boeing 727 ,Boeing 707 , Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander ,Mystère-Falcon 900 ,C-130J-30 ,C-17 Globemaster . Training and Liaison Aircraft-6- Model -Jet trainers - Alpha jet.Helicopters- 24 (25) Model- SA-342 Gazelle ,Medium transport - S-92 , Westland Commando Mk 2/ Mk AW139 -18,Delivery in 2010 . Target drones -TTL BTT-3 Banshee. Military airfields -3 -Doha, al-Ghariyeh, al-Udeid
A direct purchase agreement (i.e., outside FMS channels) was signed with Boeing in July 2008 for two C-17 GLOBEMASTER III strategic transport aircraft and associated equipment and services, with an option for two additional aircraft. The two C-17s were delivered in August and September 2009, respectively. Another direct purchase contract with Lockheed Martin covers four C-130Js, with deliveries to begin in 2011.

Air Defense Forces-Surface-to-Air Missiles- Model -Heavy batteries -Patriot PAC-3 missiles -Mistral , Rapier ,Roland 2 .Shoulder-launched missiles - FIM-92A Stringer, Blowpipe .Radars -MRR-3D .Command and Control-GCC Arial Early warning system, National Security Shield C4I network.

Most of the recent contracts signed by GCC and other Arab countries involved the purchase or upgrade of patrol boats of various sizes. CMN is currently doing maintenance and upgrades to eight Kuwaiti patrol boats, and plans to submit a tender for six 45-meter patrol boats to Qatar. Abu Dhabi Ship Building (ADSB) is performing upgrades and maintenance on four Bahraini patrol boats and has just signed a contract with the UAE Coast Guard to build a dozen 34-meter Composite Patrol boats

Navy -Navy (including Marine Police) 1,800 Combat vessels - 7 -Type -MFPBs -Barzan (Vita Vosper Thornycroft) , Damsah class Combattante III) .Patrol craft - 13 Type - Helmatic (M-160) Damen (Polycat 1450) ,Crestitalia (MV-45) , DV-15
Landing Craft -1-Type - Rabha LCT(3 tanks, 110 troops). Auxiliary craft -6-Type Helmatic Pilot craft ,Rotork craft .Costal Defense Type - MM-40 Exocet . Naval bases -2- Doha, Halul Island

Air-to-air-missiles -Mica (144), R-550 Magic II (272), R-530 (128) .Air-to-ground-missiles AM-39 Exocet, AS-30L (128). Anti-Tank Missiles -Model - HOT

KSA

Saudi Arabia has long been involved in a process of military modernization. It has tried to develop a qualitative edge that could deter any attack from its northern Gulf neighbors and from Middle East especially from Israel. Saudi Arabia spent nearly 36 billion dollars on defense platforms in 2008 and it will likely spend the same amount annually over the coming five years, said a report released Sunday by the Frost & Sullivan consulting firm.

Defense expenditure of KSA IN 2004 $20.9 Billion,2005-$ 25.4 Billion, 2006-$ 29.5 billion,2007- $35.4 billion, 2008- 38.2 billion,2009-$ 40.2 billion .Defense expenditure/GDP -2004-8.3 %,2005- 8.0%,2006- 8.3%,2007- 9.3 %,2008-8.5%,2010-10 %

The RSAF received the first two aircraft, out of an order of 72 new Typhoon combat aircraft from the UK. The first of which are being manufactured in Britain, with the rest to be assembled in Saudi Arabia – in a new facility being built. The RSAF is upgrading 84 of its aging Tornado IDS attack aircraft to the GR-4 standard. Concurrently it will phase out its obsolete F-5 aircraft. The RSAF has ordered additional 12 AH-64D Apache combat helicopters and will upgrade the 12 existing older Apache AH-64A to the same standard. Other programs for the RSAF include an order for 3 A330 MRTT refueling aircraft, and upgrading the old E-3A AWACS The air defense forces are upgrading their C4I system with new centers and new systems.The Saudi Arabian National Guard launched a major upgrade program including the procurement of numerous armored combat vehicles.

Foreign Military Cooperation
Foreign forces GCC “Peninsula Shield” rapid deployment force (currently only skeleton presence of other countries' forces is present:; some 8,000 Instructors and technicians from Pakistan; UK (25) (2004); US (290 troops). Joint maneuvers Egypt (2004), France, GCC countries (2004), Jordan (2001), Pakistan (2008), UK (2007), US (2001), Yemen (2005). Security cooperation France (2006), India (2007), PRC (2006), Russia (2008),
Spain (2008)

Arms Procurement and Security Assistance Received
Australia - Military training Pilot training in Australia (2008).Egypt - Military training Instructors in country (2005).France -1990 $2.7 billion. It includes purchase of 600 Matra Mistral shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and two or more helicopter-carrying frigrates. Arms transfers Upgrading SAMs (2005), al-Riyadh missile frigates (2005), AD C4I system (2008), 155mm Caesar guns (2008), A330 MRTT tanker aircraft (2008), DAMOCLES targeting pods (2008), AS550 Fennec
helicopters (2008).Military training Training of naval personnel (2004)India - Military training Trainees in India (2008).Jordan - Arms transfers Black Iris RVs (2004).Norway - Arms transfers Tactical communication systems (2005)

Pakistan – Pakistan has provided military aid and expertise to the kingdom for decades. It began with help to the Royal Saudi Air Force to build and pilot its first jet fighters in the 1960s. Pakistani Air Force pilots flew RSAF Lightnings that repulsed a South Yemeni incursion into the kingdom’s southern border in 1969. In the 1970s and 1980s up to 15,000 Pakistani troops were stationed in the kingdom, some in a brigade combat force near the Israeli-Jordanian-Saudi border. The close ties continue between the militaries today Arms transfers Super Mashak aircraft (2004), al-Khalid MBTs (2004)
Military training Instructors and technicians (2004).

PRC -Military training Foreign advisers/instructors/serving personnel for CSS-2 missiles (unconfirmed). In the summer of 2008 China signed a contract to provide Saudi Arabia with one battalion of artillery pieces.

Russia - Saudi Arabia has earmarked over $12 billion for purchase of military hardware. A $ 4 billion order to Russia implies that nearly 33% of the $ 12 billion planned expenditure on arms purchases would go to Russia.
Tanks T-90- 150 ,Helicopters MI-17 and MI-35 - 100 ,BMP Armoured Infantry Combat Vehicles - In hundreds ,Air defense systems BVIC M2 F - 20 Russian T-90 tanks will be delivered to Saudi Arabia in the time frame 2008-2009. Arms transfers Armored trucks (2004).Sweden - Arms transfers Communication systems (2004).

Turkey Arms transfers Upgrading of M113 APCs (2008)
UK - The UK was already a major supplier of arms to Saudi Arabia prior to The main contract was signed in 1966 for 40 Lightnings and 25 Strikemasters (eventually raised to 40). Overall spending by the RSAF was over £1 billion .

Al Yamamah I- 48 Panavia Tornado Interdictor Strike (IDS)s 28 GR1 Standard ,6 GR1A Reconnaissance Standard ,14 Dual Control Trainers,24 Panavia Tornado Air Defence Variant, equivalent to RAF Tornado F3 standard JP233 Runway Denial Munition ,Sea Eagle Anti Ship Missile ,ALARM Anti-Radar Missile ,Sky Flash Missile The second stage (Al Yamamah II) was signed on 3 July 1988. Al Yamamah II Deliveries early 1990s – 1998 -48 Panavia Tornado IDSs .

On 18 August 2006 a contract was signed for 72 aircraft. The aircraft cost approximately £4.43 billion, and the full weapons system is expected to cost approximately £10 billionArms transfers Typhoon aircraft (2008), On 10 September 2006 BAE won a £2.5bn (€3.7bn, $4.6bn) contract for the upgrade of 80 RSAF Tornado IDSsUpgrading of Tornado IDS aircraft (2008), Tactica APCs (2007), EW C4ISR system (2007). Maintenance aid Technical assistance and maintenance (2006)

The Salam Support Solution.” This is a full availability-based service contract, which also includes Saudi pilot training in the UK and training for RSAF maintenance technicians. BAE Systems followed that up by announcing a 5.5 year performance-based contract worth more than GBP 400 million (currently about $654 million), to support the ECR-90 radars and defensive aids sub systems (DASS) on the core partner nations’ Eurofighter fleets. Now, SELEX Galileo is announcing a large sub-contract.

Saudi Arabia’s tentative strategic shift away from the United States was significantly discernible when during Gulf War II against Iraq in 2003, Saudi Arabia denied the United States the military use of its bases for the Iraq military intervention. Saudi Arabia had been the most unreservedly staunch ally of the United States for the better part of the last century.

US - Arms transfers AIM-9X AAMs (2008), AIM-120 AAMs (2006), upgrading of Hawk air defense batteries (2004), C4I naval system (2004), avionics for aircraft (2005), S-70 Blackhawk helicopters (2008) , LAV APCs (2007), upgrading of M1A2 MBTs (2008), upgrading of AH-64 helicopters (2007), upgrading of E-3 AWACS aircraft (2008), JDAM (2008), Sniper targeting pods(2008), King Air 350 aircraft (2008), S-92 .helicopter (2008), S-76 helicopter (2007), S-434 helicopter (2007), upgrading of FPS- 117 AD radars (2008), AH-64D Apache Longbow helicopters (2008). Maintenance aid Technical assistance and maintenance (2006),Military training Foreign advisers, trainees in the USA

Belgium- value of Belgian licensed arms exports, by region and at Federal level, in million euros, September 2003 – August 2008 Saudi Arabia 71 458,695,358

Saudi Arabia buy weapons from different countries in 2000-2003 , USA 2,700 Millions European 3,200,Russian -500, 2003-2007 Saudi Arabia with USA 5,200 ,China-600 , Major West European (Uk,France,Germany,Italy) 16,900,All Other European 400 Other 100 million, Total 23,200 million.

Ground Forces-75,000, National Guard -100,000, Royal Guard- 2,000, Total 214,500.Tanks -750 (1,015)(MBT High quality-M1A2 Abrams, Medium and low quality-M60 A3, AMX-30, Al-Khalid.) APCs/AFVs-4,180(APCs-Piranha APC, M113 A1/A2, ACV, AMX-10/AMX-10P, BMR-600 M-3 (Panhard). IFVs (Piranha IFV, M-2/M-3 Bradley, V-150 Commando, AML-60/90, Reconnaissance - Piranha LAV-AG)

Artillery (incl. MRLs)- 410 Model(and howitzers- 155mm M109 A2, 155mm GCT, howitzers- 155mm M-198, 155mm M-114, 155mm FH-70, 105mm M102/M101, Mortars, under 160mm - 120mm TDA SP, 107mm M-30, MRLs- Astros II, Mortar locating Radars- AN/TPQ-37, 155mm Caesar).

In June 2008, over $10 billion worth of December 2007 Patriot missile upgrade requests in the UAE and Kuwait shone a spotlight on the region’s new defense priorities. In December 2008, a multi-billion dollar Patriot missile contract from the UAE seemed to lock in that shift, and Kuwait is proceeding with upgrades to its own Patriot systems. Upgrades that have led to recent contracts, and sales request

M-123 Viper minefield crossing system, Aardvark Mk 3 flail, M-69 A1 bridging tanks, bridging equipment, AFV transporters (600), Piranha ARVs (67), Piranha ENG (34).

Anti-Tank Missiles-Model (Piranha ITV, AMX-10P SP, • VCC-1 SP, BGM-71C Improved TOW/BGM-71D TOW II, M-47 Dragon- total-2,150)
Air-to-air-missiles – Model (AIM-7F Sparrow (1,100); AIM-7M (1,000); AIM-9J/P Sidewinder (1,800);AIM-9L/M Sidewinder (1,500); AIM-9S (150), Red Top; Sky Flash (550), AIM-120 AMRAAM (500) .Air-to-ground-missiles-Model ( AGM-65A/D/G Maverick (1,805); ALARM (200); AM-39 Exocet; AS-15TT (220); Sea Eagle (350) Bombs CBU-86; CBU-87; BL-755 CBU; Paveway 2 (100); GBU-10/12/15 Bombs ATLIS targeting pods (30)AIM-9X (250), AIM-120C (50), JDAM (900), Democles targeting pods (30), AAQ-33 Sniper targeting pods (33), Marte AAMs)


Air Force- 20,000, Combat aircraft- 256 Model (Interceptors-F-15 C/D Eagle, Tornado ADVAdvanced multi-role -Typhoon Tranche-2, F-15S, Multi-role- Tornado IDS , Tornado TSP, Obsolete- F-5E/F). Transport aircraft -38 (51) Model (C-130E/H Hercules, CN-235, King Air 350) .Reconnaissance-Tornado IDS, RF-5E, EW/AWACS-E-3A AWACS,RE-3A,Tankers- KC-130H, KE-3/Boeing 707.

Helicopters- 228 Model (Attack-Bell 406CS, AH-64A Apache, Medium transport- S-70A Black Hawk, • AS-532 UC, S-92, • KV-107/KV-107 IIA, AB-412, AB-212, Bell-205, Light transport- AB-206 JetRanger). Naval combat- AS-365 Dauphin/AS-565MA, AS-532 SC Cougar. Air Defense- 4,000, Heavy SAM batteries -25, Medium SAM batteries- 21. Aircraft shelters For combat aircraft . Military airfields -15 ( Abqaiq, al-Ahsa, Dhahran, Gizan, al-Hufuf, Jidda, Jubail, Khamis Mushayt, al-Kharj, Medina, Riyadh, Sharawra, al-Sulayyil, Tabuk, Taif).

The Saudi navy is considering buying up to six multipurpose frigates at a cost of 1.5 billion euros ($2.2 billion) from Italian shipbuilder Fincantieri, Trieste-based Fincantieri

Navy -13,500, Combat vessels -27 Model (Missile frigates-al-Riyadh class (F-3000S), Madina class (F-2000) ,Missile corvettes -Badr class (PCG-1 class), MFPBs- al-Siddiq (PGG-1 class), Mine warfare vessels-Addriyah (MSC-322 class minesweeper), al-Jawf (Sandown class)Patrol craft -68. Model (al-Jubatel (Abeking- Rasmussen), al-Jouf (Blohm & Voss), Halter type, Stan Patrol 2606 Class, Sea Guard, Inshore Patrol Craft, Simonneu Type 51). Landing Craft-12 Model (Slingsby SAH 2200 hovercraft, 1610 class LCU, LCM 6, Griffon 8000TD(M)Auxiliary Vessels- Tabouk training ship, Abdul Aziz (Royal yacht), al-Yamama (Royal yacht), Pegasus (Royal yacht), Mod Durance class (Supply ships), Coastal tugs, Small tankers

Naval bases (including coast guard)- 13 (Aziziya (Coast Guard), al-Dammam, al-Haql (Coast Guard), Jidda, Jizan, Jubayl, Makna (Coast Guard), al-Qatif, Ras al-Mishaab, Ras Tanura, al-Sharma, al-Wajh, Yanbu
Ship maintenance and repair facilities
Repair of vessels dependent on foreign experts; 22,000-ton and 62,000-ton floating docks at Dammam; 45,000-ton and 16,000-ton floating docks at Jidda

Assets-Satellites Arabsat 1/2/3/4 Communication Civilian satellite communication network.Bader-4 -Communication Civilian TV broadcasting satellite. Saudi Comsat -Research Commercial micro satellites; Seven satellites, out of 24; 12 kg each. Saudi Sat 1/2/3- Remote sensing and space research.2 (10 kg. each) were launched in September 2000 by a Russian military rocket, and are orbiting 650 km above earth. The third satellite was launched in December 2002. Saudi Sat 2 (30kg) was launched in June 2004. Saudi Sat 3 was launched in April 2007. Badr-5/6 Communication Three New-generation satellites during 2008-2010. Arabsat-5/6 Communication Fifth generation satellite planned for launch in 2011, 2012.

KSA is next move is toward nuclear Deterrence against Iran.
Kuwait.
Iraq's surprise attack and occupation of Kuwait caused the virtual disintegration of the Kuwaiti armed forces. Large numbers of personnel were killed, captured, or dispersed, and most Kuwaiti equipment was destroyed or taken over by the Iraqi armed forces. The minister of defense said that 90 percent of military installations had suffered major damage. By early 1992, most army barracks were again usable, and the naval base was in operation but needed rebuilding. The air force flew temporarily from the civilian airport near the city of Kuwait while the air bases were being reconstructed in 1992. Kuwait expected to spend about US$9 billion--six times the prewar defense budget--in 1992 to replace destroyed equipment and installations.

In a sharp departure from previous policy, Kuwait entered into a ten-year defense cooperation agreement with the United States in September 1991. The agreement included United States port access, military equipment storage, and joint training and exercises

The Kuwaiti air force received all of its new AH-64D Apache Longbow attack Helicopters..The Kuwaiti Air Defense is undergoing a major upgrade: apart from upgrading the Old Amoun point defense system, a large scale program to upgrade the Patriot SAMs Is also underway. Under this project Kuwait will receive the new PAC-3 interceptors, while the older PAC-2 will be upgraded to the GEM-T standard. The National Guard is being reinforced and upgraded. Its manpower will be increased to 10,000, and new equipment is being procured.

Defense expenditure of Kuwait in $ bn 2003- $ 3.12, 2004- $ 3.5 2005- $3.9, 2006- $4.1, 2007-$ 5.0, 2008-$ 5.5 billion,2009-$5.75 billion.
Defense expenditure/GDP, 2003- 6.5, 2004-5.9, 2005- 4.6, 2006- 4.0 2007-4.5%,2008-4.35%.2009-4.15%.

Ground Forces- Regular 11,000, Reserves 24, 000, total 35,000, National Guard 10,000 . Tanks- 293 (483) Model (High quality, M1A2 Abrams, M-84, Medium and low Quality, Chieftain, Vickers Mk 1). APCs/AFVs-690 - Model ,APCs ( M-113 , Fahd ,M577), IFVs ( Pandur ,BMP-3 , BMP-2 , Desert Warrior) Reconnaissance -Pandur LCT 90mm .Light armored vehicles – ( Panhard VBL , Shorland S600 , TM170 , Condor-2). Artillery-177, Model -Self-propelled guns and howitzers ( 155mm PLZ-45 ,155mm M109 A2/A3 , 155mm AMX-13 F-3 . 155mm GCT AuF-1). Mortars, under 160mm ( 120mm RTF-1 , 107mm). Rockets -300mm Smerch .BM9A52-2)
Logistics and Engineering Equipment .AARDVARK Mk.3 flail, M88 ARVs (14)

Anti-Tank Missiles-Model (AT-4 Spigot , AT-5 Spandrel ,AT-10 Bastion ,BGM-71E/F TOW-2,M-901 ITV , M-47 Dragon ,TOW-2A/B RF )

Civil Defense 2,000, Surface-to-Air Missiles - Heavy Batteries -MIM-104 Patriot
PAC-2 ,MIM-23B Improved , Patriot PAC-3 .Medium Batteries -Aspide 2000. Shoulder-launched missiles (FIM-92A Stinger ,Starburst ). Air defense systems
(missiles, radars and guns)- Skyguard AD system (Egyptian Amoun) HAWK . Short-range guns - 40mm Bofors L-70/L-60 ,35mm Oerlikon-Buhrle 2x35 GDF-002
23mm ZSU 23x4 SP (Gun Dish) ,20mm Oerlikon GAI ). Radars -AN/FPS-117 (Seek
Igloo) ,AN/TPS-32 ,Tiger (TRS-2100) ,TRS 22XX ,AD command and
control unit (ADGE) .Aerostat with airborne radars -LASS

Air Force 2,500, Combat Aircraft – 58- Model-Advanced multi-role -F/A-18C/D
Multi-role -Mirage F-1B/C. Transport Aircraft -Model (Boeing 737-200 ,L-100-30 Hercules ,DC-9, C-130J). Training and Liaison Aircraft-Model (Jet trainers ,BAC-167, Hawk 100 ,Piston/Turbo-prop -S-312 (Shorts Tucano). Helicopters -48-Model
-( Attack AH-64D Apache ,SA-342K Gazelle .Medium transport - SA-330 Puma,AS-365A Dolphin , Light transport -EC-135 Naval combat - AS-332 Super Puma). Air-to-air-missiles -AIM-9M Sidewinder, AIM-7F Sparrow (200), AIM 120C AMRAAM (80) .Air-to-ground-missiles -AGM-65G Maverick (300), AGM-84 Harpoon (40), AS-11, AS-12, HOT, AGM-114 Hellfire (300) Bombs -Paveway II laser-guided .AIM-120C AMRAAM (120)

Aircraft shelters -In airfields; for combat aircraft; under reconstruction
Military airfields -3 Al-Ahmadi, al-Jahra (Ali al-Salam), Kuwait International Airport

Navy – Personnel-2,000-Combat vessel-10-Type-MFPBs (Istiklal (FPB-57),Sanbouk (TNC-45) ,Um- Almaradim (P-37 BRL) . Patrol Craft -86-Type (Inttisar (OPV-310) ,Manta ,Shaheed (FPB 100K) ,Subahi ,Kassir Inshore Patrol crafts (Ausrtal) ,Victory team (P-46) ,Inshore Patrol crafts, MK V-C). Landing Craft –Type ( al-Tahaddy LCU , Saffar (Loadmaster) LCU ,LCU (ST Marine) . Auxiliary Vessels -1,Type(Dorrar (Support ship) . Naval bases (including Coast Guard)- 6 -Kuwait City (Shuwaikh), al-Qulaya (Ras al-Qalaya), Umm al-Hainam, al-Bida, Verba, al-Harian .Command and Control systems Coastal defense system comprising of cameras and other sensors
Ship maintenance and repair facilities-A 190-meter floating dock at Kuwait City, repair capacity 35,000 dwt

Arms Sales and Security Assistance Extended- Foreign forces South Korea (135 troops), US (14,000 troops)- Joint maneuvers -Czech Republic (2003), Egypt (2001), France (2008), GCC countries (2008), Germany (2002), Italy (2008), Jordan (2001), Pakistan (2007), UK (2008), US (2008).
Security agreements- Belarus (2001), France (2007), GCC countries, Germany (2007), Iran (2002), Italy (2003), NATO (2006), PRC, Russia, South Africa(2002), UK, US .

Arms Procurement and Security Assistance Received- Bangladesh - Military training Technical training (2004).Canada -Military training Training of coast guard officers (2004).France - Arms transfers Subahi PB’s (2006) , Dauphin helicopters (2006) Military training Trainees in France (2008) the deal for Kuwait to buy some 28 Rafael fighter-jets appears to have been officially agreed (2009).Germany -Arms transfers Condor APCs (2005).Italy -Arms transfers Upgrading of Aspide SAMs (2007) Jordan - Military training Training of Special Forces (2008) Arms transfers Al-Jawad LAVs (2004)

Pakistan - Maintenance aid Operating of naval dockyard (2008), Military training Training of National Guard (2008) PRC - Arms transfers 155mm PLZ-45 SP artillery (2006).Saudi-Arabia- Military training Trainees abroad (2008)Syria - Military training Trainees abroad (2004).US -Assistance $3 million military aid (2007),Arms transfers AH-64D Apache helicopters (2007), TOW ATGMs (2008), MKV patrol boats (2005),Upgrading of L-100 aircraft (2007), Patriot PAC-3 missiles (2008), flight simulator (2008), AIM-120 AMRAAM (2008),Maintenance aid Upgrading of 2 air bases and construction of one brigade HQ (2005), maintenance of F/A-18 aircrafts (2007), maintenance ofApache Longbow helicopters (2008), Military training Naval personnel (2006), US -Assistance Annual grant for US force in Kuwait Facilities for US forces.

Kuwait 20 12,846,614 value of Belgian licensed arms exports, by region and at Federal level, in million euros, September 2003 – August 2008. Kuwait is now understood to be toying with the idea of buying the French RAFALE. A batch of 14 (but possibly up to 28) RAFALEs could be delivered by 2012, in a package deal that would also include an unspecified French-made air defence system (most probably the SAMP-T) as well as naval vessels for the Kuwaiti Navy. in July 2009 Kuwait requested the sale of eight KC-130K multi-mission cargo/refuelling aircraft, at an estimated cost of $1.8 billion. In a different sector, an aerostat-based surveillance system is on order, including the 71M LASS (Low Altitude Surveillance System) blimp carrying both the AN/TPS-63 radar and AR-900 ELINT system

GCC sale also threatens regional security. The arms buildup could spur Iran into a more aggressive search for technologically advanced weaponry beyond their traditional sources of China and Russia, and could further invigorate Iran’s aspirations of becoming a nuclear power.

Both Saudi Arabia and the UAE are understood to be evaluating the possible procurement of UAVs both for reconnaissance/surveillance and attack roles. However, while buying reconnaissance UAVs might be easy, getting their hands on attack platforms will not as the US considers this a front-line technology. Indeed, back in 2002 the US Government turned down a UAE request for the sale of ten PREDATORs. The UAE has identified UAVs as an area it can build a manufacturing base in and export its products to other Middle Eastern countries.

A research centre under the name of Air Force UAV Research and Technology Centre at the Dhafra Air Base, Abu Dhabi, was established in February 2007 and has been working on two models with the help of two European companies. The first model is in partnership with Schiebel of Austria. It is based on the S-100 design and has been branded the AL SABER UAV by the Air Force, which has placed an order for a first batch of 40 systems. The second model is being built in partnership with CybAero of Sweden based on their APID 55 design. In a more ambitious effort, a joint venture between Finmeccanica unit Alenia Aeronautica and Abu Dhabi Autonomous System Investments (ADASI) to design and develop a MALE (medium altitude long endurance) UAV was announced at the Paris Air Show 2009.
Part 3rd will be about Persian Gulf Countries Missiles programmed.Usman Karim based in Lahore Pakistan .lmno25@hotmail.com
 
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