• Saturday, July 20, 2019

Metaphysics of War

Discussion in 'Military History & Tactics' started by Desert Fox, Feb 28, 2018.

  1. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    Metaphysics of War: By Julius Evola

    I initially planned to just write a simple book review on this book but i believe this deserves its own thread because it pertains to a category of its own, ie. the Metaphysical aspect of warfare in the context of the traditional worldview from the point of view of many ancient and current world religions.

    The author of the book, Julius Evola, was an Italian traditionalist intellectual and philosopher. If you google his name you will find allot of misleading information about him due to the recent resurfacing of his name after Donald Trump's former chief strategist, Steve Bannon, cited him as one of his influences. But Evola has been dead for quite some time now (1974), yet despite this he has come back to haunt the Liberal world order from his grave. Liberals and leftists in the West are so panick-stricken that article after article has been written to smear Evola, though this has only stoked more public interest in the man and his work.

    Evola[1].jpg
    Julius Evola

    But who was Evola? A artillery officer in WW1, a thinker, a philosopher, an expert on esotericsm, and a man of action who firmly acted on his own convictions, something of a rarity in our current age of men of chatter.

    Metaphysics of War is Evola's take on the spiritual and more-than-physical aspect of warfare from the point of view of major contemporary world religions like Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Japanese Shintoism as well as ancient world religions like Nordic/Germanic Paganism, Roman Paganism, Persian Zoroastrianism and the warrior code of the Samurai.

    Evola shifts the lens away from the contemporary Liberal-Bourgeois view of warfare in purely physical-materialistic terms as simply masses of men and equipment and war itself as disdainful yet "necessary evil" (though one which the Liberal world order has not been hesitant to employ for the purpose of its own expansion over and over again), and more towards the spiritual and metaphysical aspect of warfare, one in which forces beyond the purely physical-materialist realm also take part and determine the outcomes of great struggles.

    Metaphysics of War is a compilation of Evola's various essays he wrote on the subject of warfare during the tumultuous years of the interwar period, through the duration of World War 2 and into the post war years. Having witnessed the dissolution of European empires, creation of Democratic states, and then finally their dissolution at the hands of Communist movements and the rise of Fascism, particularly in Italy since Evola himself was an Italian, he gives a unique perspective of that world-historical era from the point of view of a Traditionalist and esotericist.



    41sNtIbtn0L._SX322_BO1,204,203,200_[1].jpg

    Despite his Liberal detractors accusing him of being a "Fascist", Evola was in fact critical of Fascism in many of his works during and after WW2. But despite this, he did view Fascism as Europe's attempt to restore the traditional masculine virtues of the warrior ethos in a Western civilization further sinking into spiritual decay and materialistic-consumerism, nihilism, and cult of "democracy" and "equality".


    Why Evola Matters Today

    Evola is long gone, but today in every major Western country strong currents of political change are once again shaking the sacred pillars of Liberalism as they once did during Evola's time. In the Liberal bastions, within the belly of the beast itself, movements like the European New Right, the Identitarian Movement and the American Alternative Right (more commonly Alt-Right) are the spearheads of this change. These movements have taken great inspiration from the works of men like Evola. Made up primarily of young men who grew up in an age of decadence and nihilism, ranging from veterans of NeoCon wars in the Middle East to intellectuals from American Ivy-League universities, from working class men to high school students concerned about their dwindling prospects for the future, showing an uncanny resemblance to the Nationalist movements of the 1920's, 30's and 40's and not unlike them at all in most aspects, only now backed by ease of communication & access of information due to technology like the internet which has served as a huge advantage in their service. In an age of Feminism, homosexuality, transgenderism (or "gender fluidity"), these men seek to rediscover the masculine ideals described by Evola.


    But Evola is not only important to the West, he is also of significance to all nationalist and traditionalist minded individuals who seek to maintain their national identities and traditions, wherever they may be, in the face of global-capitalist mono-cultural encroachment which seeks to mold the entire world into a single consumerist culture of atomized individuals, boasting jeans, McDonalds, KFC and virtual-reality p0rnogrophy, devoid of any attachment to a purpose higher than the quick satisfaction of their immediate physical urges while an exclusive club of wealthy financial elites comfortably maintain their power over the herd of subservient humanity.


    Although Metaphysics of War is an important work of Evola, it is not what he is most known for. His more prominent work includes Revolt Against The Modern World, Men Among The Ruins, and Ride The Tiger, to name a few.

    This book, Metaphysics of War, along with Evola's other work can be purchased from Arktos and it is preferable to purchase it from them since they are the ones doing a great service to humanity by translating such work and making it available for all and the least we can do is give them their due credit so they can continue their services.

    @Nilgiri @Psychic @Nefer @Vergennes @vostok
     
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  2. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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  3. khansaheeb

    khansaheeb SENIOR MEMBER

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  4. Nilgiri

    Nilgiri ELITE MEMBER

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    @Desert Fox thank you, will have to read this, I believe its the compilation of his essays from before the war.

    I have read some of his other work,..like "Men among Ruins" (a post war direct work)...which I believe is a must read I really need to get more into his other works...but men among ruins I believe is really the solid summarised base (of how we are in the age of decline and are being removed quite purposefully and nefariously by the powers that be from our spiritual and traditional base....so that we may be pitted against each other and used as pawns)....and the ideal "organic" state he suggests that can weather this storm the best (without too much authoritarianism or anarchy...but how to have a solid traditionalist edifice always).

    Personally, I have not much hope for most people, we have given in to too much stupidity and rot and democracy for the sake of democracy (rather than a grander ideal).... but the chosen awoken few must remain united and strong in stemming the tide the best we can.

    Speaking of Evola, hope Italian elections turn out well. I am watching and praying...
     
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  5. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    No problem bro. Yes it is indeed a compilation of his essays from before as well as during and, one or two, after the war. I will post excerpts on them here when I get the time. I won't do all of the essays because I don't want to reveal too much info and would rather people buy the book from Arktos because they deserve all the money they can get for translating and publishing books and literature that have been hitherto intentionally suppressed or hidden.
    I have read a great many positive reviews of Men Among The Ruins as well as Revolt Against The Modern World but since I was not really familiar with Evolas writing style and thought process I did not know what to expect so I decided to start off with something of a small sampling rather than dive right into his seminal works which I'm sure like any philosophical work is dense with ideas that one must contemplate on.

    After having read Metaphysics of War I am now eager to read his other works.

    I share your sentiments. Greater men before us have tried to stop the inevitable from happening and they had far more power and influence than we humble individuals, yet they could not prevent the inevitable. The best thing to do is to brace for the impact and hope to God Almighty that what remains will be the seeds for something pure and nobel.

    Btw I found this quote to be interesting from Rene Guenon, also a traditionalist and a friend of Evola's, as well as his mentor. I haven't read any of his work but I've heared great things about him. This quote caught my eye.

    Screenshot_20180228-202358.png

    I haven't been keeping up with politics in Europe, at least since the French elections. But I do wish the Nationalist parties success in so far as they aren't cucks and serve a spiritual purpose to invigorate the the grassroots Nationalists movements like Trump did with the Alt-Right.
     
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  6. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    Hierarchy and Spiritualism


    These are excerpts from Evola's essay Forms of Warlike Heroism in Metaphysics of War:

    Here Evola places into context the concept of heroism according to what he calls "castes". Nothing to do with the caste system in India. By "caste", Evola is not talking in terms of what we have come to know it as. Evola points out:

    "Here, 'caste' does not mean - as most assume - something artificial and arbitrary, but rather the 'place' where individuals, sharing the same nature, the same type of interest and vocation, the same primordial qualification, gather."

    "A specific 'truth', a specific function, defines the castes, in their normal state, and not vice versa: this is not therefore a matter of privileges and ways of life being monopolised on the basis of a social constitution more or less artificially and unnaturally maintained."


    In modern verbiage i believe the word closest would be 'stratum', though in Evola's definition a persons caste would be something they are most innately & naturally inclined towards, rather than something purely defined on the basis of economic social standing within a society.

    Historically there are four castes according to Evola: (in ascending order) the slaves, the bourgeois middle-class, the warrior aristocracy, and at the top of this hierarchy are"bearers of a pure, spiritual authority." This is the ideal order of this hierarchy which Evola calls "the doctrine of the hierarchical quadripartition."

    Each caste is spiritually distinct from the other and this difference manifests itself within the outlook of the respective castes, which includes the purpose and concept of war and heroism (the main focus of this book). But within the ascending order that Evola places each caste (slave, bourgeois, warrior, and spiritual authority) there is "a natural dependence of the inferior ways of life on the superior ones".

    The warrior, bourgeois, and the slave castes are subordinate to the spiritual elite, but as soon as this order is altered, with the spiritual being replaced with any one of its subordinate castes, this is what Evola calls "an abnormal state."

    For Evola, contemporary West is the manifestation of the worldview of the Bourgeois caste where it is in the dominant position, whereas Bolshevism/Communism was the manifestation of the worldview of the slave caste.


    Roman Conception of War & Heroism

    Excerpts included here are from Evola's essay The Sacrality of War, included within Metaphysics of War.

    Evola himself was an Italian and a European and thus for him the true ideal for Europe (and the West in general) was the Roman ideal. Rome being one of the greatest civilizations of the ancient world who's legacy has withstood the ages.

    He argues that the contemporary historical understanding of Rome wherein the religious aspect of the Romans is overlooked or downplayed if ever mentioned at all, is in fact historically inaccurate. Evola states:

    "One generally has only a secular idea of the values of ancient Rome. According to this idea, the Roman was merely a soldier, in the most limited sense of the word, and it was by means of his merely soldierly qualities, together with a fortunate combination of circumstances, that he conquered the world. This is a false opinion"

    "According to the unanimous testimony of all the Classical authors, the early Romans were highly religious... but this religiosity of theirs was not confined to an abstract and isolated sphere, but pervaded their experience in its entirety, including in itself the world of action, and therefore also the world of the warrior experience."

    "In the first place, right up until the end, the Romans considered it an article of faith that divine forces both created and protected the greatness of Rome – the imperium[2] and the Aeternitas."

    roman_armour_by_portohle-d4ujlfz.jpg  712×1123 .png
    Image courtesy of: Source



    Roman Sacrifice (Devotio)

    The act of devotio was a religious ritual in which the leader, commander or general, before a battle would commence, would offer to sacrifice his own life in battle, intending never to return alive, with the belief that doing so would assist in the victory for the Romans through the unleashing of powerful forces.

    "...the Roman attributed the victory of his leaders less to their simply human attributes than to a transcendent force manifesting itself in a real and efficient manner through them, their heroism and sometimes their sacrifice."

    "...a warrior, and above all a chieftain, can facilitate victory by means of a mysterious unleashing of forces determined by the deliberate sacrifice of his own person, combined with the will not to come out of the fray alive."


    "by the virtue of the sacrifice which these ancient Romans proposed to perform, the gods were called upon to ‘grant strength and victory to the Roman people and effect the enemies of the Roman people, the Quirites, with terror, dismay, and death’ (cf. Livy, 8:9). [5] Proposed by the pontifex, [6] the words of this formula were uttered by the warrior, arrayed in the praetesta, his foot upon a javelin. After that he plunged into the fray, to die."



    @Nilgiri @Psychic @Vergennes @vostok @war&peace

    @Nefer @AUSTERLITZ @Sakra @PAKISTANFOREVER

    @Horus @Śakra
     
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  7. AUSTERLITZ

    AUSTERLITZ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Better tribute to Rome.

     
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  8. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    Nice! This one I had never come across before.
     
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  9. Nilgiri

    Nilgiri ELITE MEMBER

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    It's very much how caste also started out in Hinduism (fairly fluid and inherent individual essence +merit based etc) , but it got solidified over time by birth etc for convenience sake/easier social control etc... they may not have been completely wrong either given what we has been learned about 5HT + neural "hardwiring" over generations.

    How to best manage a society should be an open debate, problem is we are not allowed to even have that debate largely today (at least openly).
     
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  10. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    True haha. I only inserted that disclaimer due to the pavlovian response I knew that term was bound to trigger within certain people here and thus clouding their understanding of Evola's message in its entirety.

    Personally I have learned to differentiate something from the way it was intended to be to the way it has come to be or has been presented as.
     
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  11. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    Nordic Conception of War, Heroism
    & Death on the Battlefield


    The following excerpts are taken from Evola's essay "The Sacrality of War", in Metaphysics of War.

    Here Evola explains the Nordic conception of war, heroism, death on the battlefield, and the concept of the hereafter for the warrior, a form of immortalization.

    "As for the properly Nordic tradition, well-known to all is the part which concerns Valhalla, the seat of celestial immortality, reserved for the ‘free’ divine stock and the heroes fallen on the battlefield."

    "The Lord of this symbolic seat, Odin or Wotan, appears in the Ynglingasaga as the one who, by his symbolic self-sacrifice on the ‘world tree’, showed the heroes how to reach the divine sojourn, where they live eternally as on a bright peak, which remains in perpetual sunlight, above every cloud."

    "...[N]o sacrifice or form of worship was more appreciated by the supreme God, and rich in supra-mundane fruits, than that which is performed by the warrior who fights and falls on the battlefield."

    "...[T]he well-known Valkyries, which choose the souls of the warriors destined for Valhalla, are only the transcendental personification of parts of the warriors themselves..."

    "The spirits of the fallen heroes would add their forces to the phalanx of those who assist the ‘celestial heroes’ in fighting in the ragnarökk, that is to say, the fate of the ‘darkening of the divine’, which... has threatened the world since time immemorial."


    This recurring theme of a "dark age" climaxing with an epic war/battle between the forces of good and evil is also observed in other religions.

    Ragnarok - Lessons from the Norse Apocalypse   The Art of Manliness (1).png
    Ragnarok, Viking apocalypse. Source



    The Crusades


    Following excerpts are from Evola's essay "The Meaning of The Crusades", in Metaphysics of War.

    "...[T]he Middle Ages, as a culture, arose from the synthesis of three elements; firstly, Roman; secondly, Nordic; and thirdly, Christian."

    "...[W]e here refer to the Crusades as understood in their deepest sense, not the sense claimed by historical materialists, according to which they are mere effects of economical and ethnic determinisms, nor the sense claimed by ‘developed’ minds, according to which they are mere phenomena of superstition and religious exaltation – nor, finally, will we even regard them as simply Christian phenomena."

    "...[T]he cultural context of the Crusades contained a wealth of elements able to confer upon them a higher, spiritually symbolic meaning."

    "Transcendent myths resurfaced from the subconscious in the soul of Western chivalry: the conquest of the ‘Holy Land’ located ‘beyond the sea’ was much more closely associated than many people have imagined with the ancient saga according to which ‘in the distant East, where the Sun rises, lies the sacred city where death does not exist, and the fortunate heroes who are able to reach it enjoy celestial serenity and perpetual life’."

    "Sacred war... should be compared to ‘a bath like that in the fire of purgatory, but before death’."

    crusades.png
    Kingdom of Heaven: Source

    "Those who died in the Crusades were compared symbolically by Popes and priests to ‘gold tested three times and refined seven times in the fire’, a purifying ordeal so powerful that it opened the way to the supreme Lord."

    "‘This was not merely a struggle for the kingdoms of the earth, but a struggle for the Kingdom of Heaven: the Crusades were not a thing of men, but rather of God – therefore, they should not be thought of in the same way as other human events.’

    "[T]he greatest contribution in manpower was supplied to the Crusades by knightly orders such as the Templars and the Knights of Saint John, which were made up of men who, like the monk or the Christian ascetic, had learned to despise the vanity of this life"




    The original song with full lyrics, with description from the uploader:

    "Palästinalied (Palestine Song) is a song written by Walther von der Vogelweide, the most celebrated German mediaeval lyric poet. Its subject matter is Palestine and the crusades. It is Walther's only song where not only the text but also the original tune was handed down to modern times. The full song consists of 13 strophes in Middle High German. Modern performers usually use only a few of these strophes."



    @Nilgiri @Sandman @Psychic @war&peace @vostok

    @Nefer @AUSTERLITZ @Vergennes
     
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  12. Nilgiri

    Nilgiri ELITE MEMBER

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    It's very interesting how an inherent character of a people simply flows over time from "cultural" vessel to vessel...from the Nordism to the Templar order etc (the highest belief in the highest essence of courage, chivalry and preserving social order)...some things stay with a people against all odds no matter how much some may delude it is not there and blanket it, smother it and ignore it....hoping for the convenience and dull mediocrity of absolute end equality of some pro-entropy notion of a global-tribe.

    It is time for such resurgence against these forces yet again.
     
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  13. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    Indeed. Despite the conversion to Christianity the pre-Christian pagan ideals carried over. This is why Christianity as practiced in Europe is very different from Christianity, say, practiced in the middle East, Africa or East Asia, and vice versa. According to Evola, this is what's called the "racial soul".
     
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  14. Nefer

    Nefer FULL MEMBER

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    You can also see this in some sense in the differences of development of the 4 popular branches of sunni Islam. And the underlying principles put forward by, Esari, Maturidi, Mutazila.
     
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  15. Desert Fox

    Desert Fox ELITE MEMBER

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    Interesting. Would you be able to elaborate more on this?