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JF-17 Thunder - Information Pool


Jan 18, 2009
Welcome to the JFT INFO POOL thread!

This thread provides permalinks of good quality posts regarding jf17 scattered over the forum--

New members , kindly read this thread first , as this will update you and save bandwith used up by questions put forth by new members.

I have posted perma links here from the jft main threads aswell as several other related threads

This thread must be regularly updated by senior members - IT CANT BE DONE ALONE BY A SINGLE PERSON !

This thread is a NON-SPAMMING thread --Please keep the questions and discussions away from this thread

thanking you

quoting sir muradk..
I am sure friends that most of you are worried that PAF might not be capable of standing against IAF, I asure you that there are a lot of things which our civilians don't know or in simple words they don't want you to know.
In the Cold war both countries used to show off there weapons to scare or tell the other side ( SEE WE HAVE THEM SO DON"T SCREW WITH US ). Now the tactic, strategy the whole Art of war has chanced 2 words Deceptions and denial are now the weapons which are very effective we don't want to show what we have and what it is capable off. Yes we do have a big problem CASH but still we somehow manage to get it and don't ask how. So stop worrying we are strong.
Pakistan's Mirage 2000 Saga | Page 7

quoting sir muradk..
Old 04-19-2009, 03:00 PM
Thunder was not built to take on the LCA, Vice Versa they both have different Characteristics, Predominently thunder is very superior in Maneuverability. In my flying experience and what I have seen and read about LCA it can hardly stand infront of an F-16 either block now with our MLUs they don't come close to what the Falcon has in its envelopes by the time the LCA comes in full production the thunder will be way ahead.
A few months ago there was a supersonic boom in Kamra and some ediot from news said that it was a F-7 doing testing yeh sure testing on a fighter which came into the skies in 1958. Thunder was doing ACM with an F-16 and it went into a dive and broke the barrier and the pilot was instructed not to. I read the Initial report the F-16 pilot was quite surprised to see its maneuverability, The total dog fight was 4 min 23 sec long I would say that both were matched evenly.
JF-17 Thunder Multirole Fighter [Thread 2] | Page 42

JF-17 is currently China's only advanced fighter developed in open. Many people use it to understand China's fighter development direction. The DSI change that started in June of 2004 caused many surprises, so did the Leading edge extension in September. Since 2006, JF-17 has been viewed even more when President Musharraf visited. CCTV showed brand new JF-17 04 with a previously unseen modern glass cockpit. This cockpit represent ourcountry's avionics level has reached world class. JF-17 showed 1 HUD and 2 MFD in the cockpit in previous displays. There were analog controls in the middle. The look was similar to F-16a/b. In 2004, zhuhai airshow showed a cockpit with 1 HUD and 3 MFDs. All the analog meters on the cockpit got replaced by digital control. Cockpit underwent a total digital information redesign. However, the model does not give people the good feeling that a real thing would.

Everyone knows that JF-17 is a China/Pakistan combined venture. JF-17's main aim is to equip PAF.In south Asian crisis, Pakistan receive American embargo. It not only failed to receive 79 F-16s it order, but also could not get spare parts to F-16. As a result, it had to order 80 F-7PG and some squadrons even got F-16s replaced by F-7PG. This is rarely seen in military aviation. JF-17's development is extremely urgent. Pakistan believes that JF-17's capability and price should be lower than F-16C/D, but capability should be higher than F-16A/B. Due to the anti-terrorism planning, PAF's importance got changed. America not only agreed to sell F-16, but also some advanced F-16s that it could not get before. Due to this pressure, JF-17's requirement got increased. It needs to be more advanced than F-16, that's why you see the whole change in 04.

The new cockpit's electronic system showed JF-17's modified capability. The new cockpit is very compact and functional position is positioned well and shows very mature system. 1 HUD is the main fighter display. This HUD has 24 degree in sight. It can add infrared signal? and supply flying, navigation, liftoff and landing info, it can also display target details and shooting detail. It can also communicate, navigate using the GUI There is a camera located above the HUD. It records HUD and external sights. HUD is the most important instrument in flight. Integrated informational level is dependent on this. Russia added some nice looking displays for su-30, but their display information is simple and information is spread. So, it did not really integrate the information. The JF-17 HUD uses a lot of digital processing and information integration information. For example, radar information, fight command info. HUD's controller has the ability to change display. Controller can also control all of the plane's dipslay. 3 MFDs are below the HUD. It is multi-colour LCD display. The dimension of the MFD is 20.3cmx30.6cm (note: this works out to be 8 x 12 inch, but a more realistic estimation is 6.25x8.25). The area is 4 times the previous area. The display brightness and contrast can be automatically adjusted. It also allows handle control. Each MFD displays important function. Display info can be changed. The control on the side acts as parameter design. Very often, left side shows weapon situation and numbers. Right side displays radar and combat info. The center shows some less important info, because it requires the pilot to lower his/her head. Like navigational info and map and so so. All the MFD can change to other info like radar, cockpit camera? and infrared picture and such. cockpit also allows night navigation and pilots can use night goggles to fly.

04 uses a hotas controller? pilot can keep hands on controller and still control the fighter's sensor mode, weapon and display. This greatly reduces a pilots movement and makes operation much easier. The controller does not affect the position in combat? Basically, allows pilots to keep the hand on the controller in combat. The earlier western 4th generation fighters like F-16A/B only had limited functions on the controller. JF-17 hotas uses advanced western design like F-16C/d, F-18C/D and Mirage2K5's newest model for design.

Also, the system has different controls dependent on the hand size, length and finger size and length of the user. Basically, uses customizable controller. Allows a lot of activities done with limited energy. 04 uses all digital integrated electronic display. all computers/electronics uses 2 STD-MTL-1553B databus combined, curren info shared repository and shared data repository. According to demand, it also divides into weapons w/commands, radar, EW, communication, electronic control, payload control, FBW and so on. This avionics system's core lies in 2 advanced weapons controlling computer. these two computers do something... Each computer controls 1 double thick 1553B databus?

This computer uses new structure system. It uses main controller rights to receive and process each system's info. At the same time, receive pilot's command. Uses command to control other systems. It's current world's most advanced input computer and main line integration web. Very few new fighters has this kind of complex and high speed system like typhoon, rafale and F-16 E/F. This system uses battle flight software package to exercise control and allows using development of more detailed software package to improve fighter capability and work load. Weapon controlling computer directly connects to MFD's structure. It uses information from each system to display on the 1 HUD and 3MFDs. Radar system is another important part of JF-17. It's also a major commercial battle area. Pakistan used a lot of Grifo radar in the past on F-7s. JF-17 also was about to use this. Italy also pitted Grifo-S2000 (should be S7) in competition. China also provided a radar for customers. Domestic radar has good support for China's weapon systems and missiles. The current multimode PD radar has BVR capability, WVR capability and attack land and sea mode and other modes. Also has look down and shoot down capability even under disruptive environments below.

You can Track 10 targets from 40 scanned targets and handle 2 concurrent BVR engagement. The range vs 3 m^2 targets is larger than 75KM and look down
is larger than 45 KM. It is larger than 135 KM vs sea targets. 04's GPS navigation system replaced the traditional navigation system, greatly improved precision and reduced preparation time. Talks about GPs capability after this and how American military controls it. It also has other wireless navigation but not as precise as GPS.

JF-17's EW suite is very complex. It combines radar warning receiver and missile proximity receiver to form surveillence system and combined with ECM work. JF-17 uses uses something to diagnose RWR. It can receive a lot of information like fighter radar, missile seeker, A2S guidance radar and provides within 1.5 degree news. RAR has about 100+ radar info repository. It uses measured info to compare. detect the threatening origin and correct (radar type or fighter type?) and warning level. This repository can improve to 300. It can allow reprogramming, receive wartime newly discovered radar signal. 04's improved tail (backside" contains a missile proximity receiver. There will probably be two more put on the fighter for 360 degree coverage. It uses infrared and purple dual band imagine device. It has a purple red window? It can sense missile's rocket engine spoke from 20 KM in. It can correctly predict missile's location, trail and such. It can even estimate engagement time. It can be expanded to a fighter/missile recognition system. It can also provide some infrared imaging, communicate with RWR and hopefully can develop passive signal detection technology.

04's EW suite also has a ECM pod. It and the ECM on the tail provide joint work. ECM current uses traidtional infrared something? modern missile's countermeasure to this is getting stronger each day. To let this simple and cheap ECM achieve high efficiency shows system's level, RWR, MPR and such. This system is only equipped by rafale and F-22. F-18E/F and F-16E/F needs upgrade to have this. 04 should also have ECM inside of fighter. It uses modern ECM technology and uses precise tracking system. Can achieve the affect of large ECM machine with small equipment. This ECM is most modern active guided AAM. It can also counter gither radar lock and scan. It's mainly for PAF's enemy IAF's R-77 missiles.

To acommodate modern web of combat. 04 is equipped with 2 ECM vs radar tower and something else. It can receive datalink info from ground or AWACS.

Other equippments include big air computer? and advanced digital processing signal and such. The electronic system stores everything, all the bugs and such. It can use computer to process this. Reduces ground maintenance.

It uses western standard MIL-STD-1760 to allow for integration of western weapons and can also get hooked on with Russian weapons. It will probably uses PL-9C, SD-10, PL-11, AIM-9L/M and AIM-7F. It also good use LGBs and possible A2G missile integration.

JF-17 Thunder Multirole Fighter [Thread 2] | Page 47

JF-17 Thunder fighter's origins & evolution video
Last edited by a moderator:


Jan 18, 2009
post cleared for a more detailed intro

General overview

Aerodynamic Configuration

* Bifurcated side air inlet with incorporation of latest BUMP intake technology for improved performance
* Leading edge maneuvering flaps
* Trailing edge flaps
* Twin Ventral Fins

Landing Gear

* Nose gear with steering
* Main gear with paddle controlled hydraulic brakes and nti-skid braking system

Comfortable Cockpit Escape and Egress System

* NVG compatible cockpit conforming to US MIL Standard, suitable for 3% to 98% percentile range of pilots.
* Single Piece Stretch Acrylic Transparent Canopy providing a good all around Field of View
* Ejection Seat
o Latest Martin Baker high performance ejection seat
o Canopy severance system for additional safety
o French oxygen regulation system
o Passive Leg Restraint System

Environment Control System and Oxygen System

* Effective control of cockpit pressure and temperature
* Effective temperature and humidity control of cockpit and avionics for optimum performance
* Efficient Anti G system for Pilot
* Oxygen supply duration three hours

Flight Control System

* Composite Flight Control System comprising conventional controls with stability augmentation in roll and yaw axis and fly by wire in pitch axis
* Quad-redundancy in Fly By Wire System
* Autopilot with Altitude hold and Attitude hold modes

Fuel System

* Total internal fuel 5130 lb (3000 liters)
* Single point pressure refueling system
* External Fuel
o One center line drop tank 800 liters
o Two under wing drop tanks 800/1100 liters

Avionics Suite

The avionics suite makes the JF-17 an effective weapon platform. The glass cockpit and hands on throttle and stick (HOTAS) controls reduce pilot workload. Accurate navigation and weapon aiming information on the head up display help the pilot achieve his mission effectively. The multifunction displays provide information on engine, fuel, hydraulics, electrical, flight control and environmental control system on a need-to-know basis along with basic flight and tactical information. The capability has been built around highly modern state-of-the-art avionics equipment. The salient avionics equipment is as follows:

* Dual redundant mission computers
* Dual redundant 1553 Mux bus architecture
* Multimode Pulse Doppler Radar capable of tracking multiple targets with prioritized firing
* Ring laser gyro inertial navigation system tied with GPS
* Smart head up display with up front control panel. HUD minimum total Field of View is 25 degrees
* Color video recording camera and video recorder (for SMFCDs)
* Three smart multi function color displays
* Air Data Computer
* R/Altimeter
* IFF Interrogator/Transponder
* BVR/Communication Data link

The PAC JF-17 Thunder, also known as the Chengdu FC-1 Fierce Dragon (simplified chinese 枭龙, traditional chinese 梟龍, pinyin:"Xiāo Lóng") [Note: Some analysts refer to the J-10 Vigorous Dragon (F-10 Vanguard) as the "Fierce Dragon".] in China, is a 4th generation single-seat multi-role fighter aircraft jointly developed by China and Pakistan. The "JF" and "FC" designations stand for "Joint Fighter" and "Fighter China" respectively. The first two aircraft were delivered to the Pakistan Air Force on 2007-03-12. Anon. (12 March,2007) [http://www.geo.tv/geonews/details.asp?id=3323&param=1 Two JF-17s Delivered to Pakistan] . "GEO News".] The JF-17/FC-1 is designed to be a cost-effective plane which can meet the tactical and strategic needs of air forces of developing countries. On January 22 2008, Pakistan started serial production of the aircraft at the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra. [ [Defence Security Report JF-17 production commences - Jane's Air Forces News ] ] [ [Pakistan Launches Production Of JF-17 Thunder Fighter Jets Urdu ] ] [ [DAWN.COM | Archive | Your Source of News on the World Wide Web Sub-assembly of Thunder aircraft begins at Kamra -DAWN - Top Stories; January 23, 2008 ] ] .


The JF-17 is being built by China's Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation (CAC) and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC). Fact|date=March 2008

The project is expected to cost about US$500 million, divided equally between China and Pakistan, while each individual aircraft is expected to have a fly-away cost of US$8-15 million. The JF-17 Thunder initial development project was completed in a period of four years. Anon. (2003) [FC-1 / JF-17 Thunder JF-17 Thunder/FC-1] . "Global Security".] However, later improvements to the project has taken up more time. Pakistan has announced that it will procure 150, but this may easily go up to 300. The JF-17 will replace Pakistan's MiG-21-derived Chengdu F-7, Nanchang A-5 (Q-5) and Mirage III/V currently in service. Azerbaijan and Zimbabwe have each placed orders as well. 9 other countries which have expressed interest in purchasing the JF-17 are Bangladesh, Burma (Myanmar), Egypt, Iran, Lebanon, MalaysiaIqbal, Anwar. (Feb, 2005) [army Malaysia looks to Pakistan as source of armaments] . "Pakistan Military Consortium".] , Morocco, Nigeria and Sri Lanka, plus Algeria, which has reversed the decision of opting the latest MiG-29UBS.

In 1986, China signed an agreement with Grumman to develop an upgrade for the J-7 known as the "Saber II", the replacement of the abandoned "Super 7" upgrade of J-7. The program was cancelled in 1990, primarily due to worsening relations with the U.S. following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. However, CAC kept the program alive by providing low-level funding from its own resources.

After U.S. sanctions were imposed on Pakistan in 1990, Pakistan also became interested in the project.

The first prototype was rolled out on May 31 2003, conducted its first taxi trials on July 1, and made its first flight on August 25 of the same year. Prototype 03 made its first flight in April 2004. On April 28, 2006, Prototype 04 made its first flight with fully operational avionics.

The first JF-17 prototype aircraft (called FC-1) was rolled out in May 2003. It made its first flight in August 2003. Later on, two more prototype aircraft were added for basic structure, flight qualities, performance and engine flight testing while two prototype aircraft were involved in comprehensive avionics flight testing. The basic flight testing was completed in 2007 which also marked the arrival of JF-17 Thunder aircraft in Pakistan where it was formally presented to the nation as a Pakistan Day gift on 23 March 2007. A Test and Evaluation Flight was established at PAC Kamra which carried out the detailed operational evaluation of the aircraft as well as the training of ground and air crew. The JF-17 aircraft has been formally inducted in Pakistan Air Force by replacing A-5 aircraft of No 26 Squadron. The aircraft has already participated in Farnborough Airshow in UK and Zhuhai Airshow in China in 2010.

Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) holds the exclusive rights of 58% of JF-17 airframe co-production work. A comprehensive infrastructure comprising state of the art machines and required skilled human resource has very quickly been developed at the Complex.

The final assembly and flight testing of the aircraft was the first JF-17 co-production activity to start at PAC. The first PAC produced aircraft was handed over to Pakistan Air Force in November 2009. Since then, aircraft are being produced regularly to meet the required schedule. The co-production of sub assemblies and structural parts has also commenced and is sequentially attaining the sustained production status. Besides upgrading the production system, PAC has also upgraded its quality, technology and archive management systems to meet the production and management standards of a 3rd generation fighter aircraft.


Looking at the status of the development's work, the fourth prototype version of the JF-17 Thunder combat jet has successfully completed its first operational flight in Chengdu, China, on Wednesday, 2006-03-10. Anon. (11 May, 2006) [Zulfiqar resigns, levels allegations against MQM and Malik - PakTribune 4th Prototype JF-17 Thunder aircraft successfully completed inaugural flight JF-17 Thunder] . "Pak Tribune".] The 4th prototype of the JF-17 Thunder combat jet is configured as a multi-role fighter-bomber and is capable of carrying multiple air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons. The fighter jet is equipped with advanced electronics and weapons systems. Pakistan received the first consignment of 2 aircraft on 2007-03-23, while the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex in Kamra will start manufacturing the JF-17 in 2008. China will start official production in June 2007.

The fourth prototype version is said to be redesigned with F-35 style Divertless Supersonic Intakes (DSIs) being the most notable feature; according to Lockheed Martin, DSIs are more stealthy than other conventional air intakes as well as DSIs also divert turbulent boundary-layer airflow away from the engine inlet Anon. (12 May, 2006) [http://www.defence.pk/jf-17_thunder.html JF-17 Thunder] . "Pakistan Defence - JF-17 Multirole Aircraft".] Anon. (30 Dec, 2006)

Many advanced aerodynamic solutions of the modern contemporary fighters are embodied in FC-1/JF-17, i.e. moderate aspect ratio wing design, large strake wing sections, cambered twist wing profile, full span all moving automatic Leading Edge Flaps (LEF). These Characteristics provide FC-1/JF-17 excellent sub-transonic maneuverability and Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) capability.

At the Sixth Zhuhai Airshow in China, a Unit Training Device (UTD) appearing identical to the earlier mockup of the JF-17 was publicly displayed, and the manufacturer of the aircraft, along with other manufacturers of airborne weaponry, provided more detailed information on the projects:

The software of JF-17 totaled more than one million lines of instructions, incorporating the concept of open architecture. Instead of using the common Ada, the programming language of JF-17 software is written in C++ instead. The reason for using C++ instead of Ada was due to practice of the commercial off-the-shelf to better utilize the large number of civilian software programmers available. The avionics of JF-17 prototypes was based on Motorola 88000 microprocessor originally, but can be changed to other types of the same class. The 4th prototype includes advanced avionics features such as:


* Electronic Flight Instrument System with cockpit displays that are compatible with western systems such as those built by Rockwell Collins and Honeywell.
**HUD is a state-of-the-art system developed by Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC).
**All HUD and head-down displays are compatible with the standard electro-optical targeting pod that is carried externally.
**Many images/information can be displayed at the same time.
**The control panel consists of only 3 multi-function displays.
***All information is processed and displayed on them.
***Each screen's functions can be redefined individually, and are exchangeable.
***Brightness and contrast can be adjusted automatically or manually, and can be made compatible with night vision goggles.
***In mid-2007, Chinese state-run television station CCTV-7 aired the latest information on the EFIS of JF-17 with most conventional analogue dial indicators eliminated:
****It was shown that the EFIS of JF-17 consists of three large rectangular shaped color MFDs that appeared to be LCD. The MFD in the middle is in a lower position than the two on the side. Unlike most MFD with width greater than height, all MFDs on JF-17 appear to be rotated 90 degrees, i.e. with height much greater than width. A digital moving map display in Chinese is shown on the MFD to the right. However, other languages are also available, but it can be concluded for sure that English is definitely the dominant language.
****There is a monochrome up-front control panel (UFCP) directly under the HUD, above the MFD in the middle. Control buttons are arranged to the left and the right sides of the UFCP, while there are three lines of display similar to that of civilian hand-held scientific calculators in the center, providing information such as dates in English. It appears that the displays of UFCP can only display information in English.

*HOTAS control.
*Intelligent avionics.
**Avionics system is all-digital and fully integrated.
**Distributed structure with open architecture.
***Two independent but exchangeable (can back up each other) STD-MTL-1553B data buses connect all equipment, plus two powerful control computers (that can also back up each other).
***Each computer controls one data bus.
***The current MIL-STD-1553B data bus can be readily replaced by MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus, on customer request.
*The seat is inclined more than the normal 13/14 degrees.Fact|date=November 2007


Several radars have been tested onboard prototypes of JF-17, which includes:

;Chinese Nanjing KLJ-7 radar: Many radars on the JF-17 have been tested, and many were selected for the first batch of JF-17s/FC-1s. However, recently, it has been disclosed by PAF Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Mahmood Ahmed that the supplied JF-17s to Pakistan have KLJ-7 radars. [ [JF-17 Arrived in Pakistan - MILAVIA Military Aviation News MILAVIA News - JF-17 Arrived in Pakistan ] ] [ [JF-17 Thunder Multi-role Fighter Aircraft JF-17.com : Your Best Resource for JF-17/FC-1 ] ] ;Israeli Elta EL/M-2032 radar: Two delivered to China before the sales stopped under U.S. pressure. At least one was installed on the first Chinese prototypes for testing and evaluation. There are unconfirmed reports that at least one unit was lost when a prototype crashed.;Russian Phazotron Super Komar radar: This is a development of the Komar (Mosquito) radar Russian offered to upgrade Q-5s and J-7s. The Komar itself is a development of the Phazotron Kopyo (Spear) radar offered for the MiG-21-93/98, with newer electronics to drastically reduce the weight by more than a third, from the original 125 kg of Kopyo to 80 kg. With the exception of the sector of scan increased to +/-60° from the original +/-40° of Kopyo, all the rest of the performance parameters of the Komar remained the same as those of the Kopyo. The Super Komar radar has improved capabilities over the Komar in that instead of being able to simultaneously track 8 targets and engage 2 of the tracked like the Komar and Kopyo, it can simultaneously track 10 targets and engage 4 of the tracked. It is reported, however, despite successful tests, that the radar was eventually rejected by both China and Pakistan, because the 60/40 km tracking/engagement range of the Super Komar radar was simply too short, and this was the reason why no more follow-up orders were placed.;Italian FIAR Grifo-S7 radar: Unlike the Russian Super Komar, the Italian radar lacks the capability of multi-target tracking and engagement via semi-active radar homing air-to-air missiles. However, it does have multi-target tracking capability (up to 8) and single-target engagement capability via semi-active radar homing air-to-air missiles and when using active radar homing air-to-air missiles, two targets can be simultaneously engaged. The radar weighs 110 kg and a slotted planar array antenna. This Italian radar has a higher MTBF than the Russian radar, up to more than 220 hours. Furthermore, the ISO-9002-certified radar and electronics manufacturing facility at Kamra of the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex already had vast experience in license assembly / production of earlier Italian FIAR Grifo series radars for the F-7MP/P/PG, and the Italian radar would have an advantage over its competitors should assembly / production licenses be granted like it had been done earlier. This Italian radar emerged as the winner in the competition against the British Blue Hawk and the French RC-400 radars, and it was reported that at least several units would equip the very first JF-17s in Pakistani service.;British GEC-Marconi Blue Hawk radar: This radar is developed from GEC-Marconi's Blue Vixen radar on board the BAE Sea Harrier, with an MTBF of over 200 hours. The radar lacks the compatibility with semi-active radar homing air-to-air missiles, and this was one of the reason it was rejected by Pakistan, but this capability can be incorporated up on customer's request. The radar weighs 104 kg and incorporates a slotted planar array. This British radar remains a potential candidate on export versions of the JF-17, should potential customers require a cheaper alternative to the Italian Grifo-S7 radar.;French Thomson-CSF RC-400 radar: This radar is developed from Thomson-CSF's RDY radar on board the Dassault Mirage 2000, with reduced peak power and maximum range due to decreased size and weight. Like the British GEC-Marconi Blue Hawk radar, this French radar was also rejected by Pakistan for lacking the compatibility with semi-active radar homing air-to-air missiles, but Thomson-CSF had claimed that such capability could be readily incorporated upon customer's request. Another reason for Pakistani rejection of the radar was that, instead of being built to the MIL-STD-1553 standard, the French radar was built to the French DIGIBUS one instead, so extra work must be done for compatibility with MIL-STD-1553, thus increasing the cost. However, for potential customers who had been accustomed with French equipment, this French radar is a logical choice, because although the initial cost for installation is higher, the overall operational cost would be lower when the radar is compatible with all other French equipment in the inventory. For this reason, the RC-400 also remains a potential candidate for export versions of the JF-17 for possible future customers equipped with French systems.

KLJ-7 Airborne Radar
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex Kamra - elec_KLJ7.html
Technical Specifications
The KLJ-7 is an X-band airborne fire-control radar (FCR) uses a mechanically-steered slotted array antenna. The KLJ-7 has multiple modes, both beyond-visual-range (BVR) and close-in air-to-air modes, ground surveillance modes and a robust anti-jamming capability. The radar can reportedly manage up to 40 targets, monitor up to 10 of them in track-while-scan (TWS) mode and simultaneously fire on two BVR targets.
* Frequency : X-band
* A mechanically-steered slotted array antenna
* 14 Operational Modes
* Range more than 100 km
* Total targets tracked: 10 in TWS (Track-While-Scan) mode
* Reliability:
o MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure): 220 hours
o MTTR (Mean Time To Recovery): 0.5 hours
* Weight less than 120 kg
* Composition
o Antenna Unit
o Receiver Unit
o Transmitter Unit
o Processor Unit
o Power Supply Unit
o Auxiliary Transmitter Unit

Head-up display (HUD)

When Chinese Su-30MKK and Indian Su-30MKI were deployed in the humid subtropical and tropical zones, both had experienced significant fogging problems for the Russian SILS-30 HUDs, which was originally designed for arid environment in arctic/subarctic zones, thus a great deal of effort was spent to solve this issue so that the holographic HUD of Chinese origin on JF-17 could be deployed in any environments like its western counterparts. Alternatively, western HUDs can be incorporated directly into the aircraft with little effort due to the modular design and the adoptation of MIL-STD-1553B. The Chinese designed HUD for J-10 has inherited Russian/Soviet tradition of doubling as a radarscope, enabling the pilot to keep his eyes focused at infinity while working with his radar at the same time, a feature originally reverse engineered from MiG-23s obtained from Egypt.Fact|date=August 2008 The Chinese further expanded this function to include the projection of monochrome images from electrical optical pods JF-17 carried, though the colored images from these electrical optical pods would still have to be displayed on the head down displays.

However, many domestic Chinese sources have claimed that based on the feedback of the Chinese, Pakistani and other foreign pilots invited to evaluate the system, the result of such attempt to combine the best of Russian/Soviet and western practices is mixed at the best. While pilots accustomed to Soviet fighters including MiG-23 and MiG-29 welcomed the move, many others were rather not impressed at all, feeling that it was nothing other than merely pasting a transparent map on the HUD, because there was no three-dimensional presentation that would accurately cue a pilot's eyes to look for a target as it appears in a particular direction/angle, so the overall true effectiveness was still rather questionable. Such claimed are supported by the official acknowledgement of the manufacturer when Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation publicly announced at 6th Zhuhai Airshow held at the end of 2006 that this function did not come as a standard feature. Furthermore, the unit training device (UTD) presented at the same airshow also lacked this feature. As of early 2008, this function of HUD doubling as a radarscope is marketed by the Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation as an extra feature if the customer is willing to pay extra, rather than as a standard feature that comes with the aircraft. However, incorporating this feature might be helpful to attract customers who operates Soviet fighter with the same feature, such as MiG-23 and MiG-29.

Electro-optical systems

JF-17 is full compatible with the Chinese indigenously developed electro-optical (optronics) system originally developed for J-10 by Sichuan Changhong Electric Appliance Corporation. ( [博客营销,企业博客营销,微博营销,社会化营销,社会化媒体营销,社会化电å*å•†åŠ¡è¥é”€å¹³å°:企博网 四川长虹电器股份有限公司] ) The domestic Chinese optronics system is more advanced than the Russian Izdeliye series which lacked the infrared imaging (ImIR) capability. The Chinese system is named as Type Hongguang-I Electro-optical radar (虹光-Ⅰ型光电雷达), with Hongguang meaning Rainbow Light, and it is a third generation optronics with ImIR capability and utilizes HgCdTe focal array, and received its certification on March 3, 2005 and subsequently entered service. A year later, the system was revealed to Chinese pubilc at the Conference on (Making) Sichuan Province a Strong Industrial Province ( [?????_?_??_ 四川工业强省工作会] ). During the conference that lasted from March 26 to March 31, 2006, many cadres attending the conference including the Sichuan provincial (communist) party secretary Zhang Xuezhong (张学忠) were shown and operated an actual system demonstrated at the conference. Type Hongguang-I Electro-optical radar is also designed to be compatible with H-6, JH-7, J-8, J-11 and other large aircraft. Based on the limited information released, Hongguang-I optronics has a maximum range up to 75 km, longer than the Izdeliye OLS-27 (36Sh) optronics with 50 km on Su-27, but shorter than the Izdeliye OLS-30 (52Sh) optronics on Su-30.

In comparison to Russian Izdeliye family of optronics such as OLS-27 (36Sh) on Su-27 and OLS-30 (52Sh) on Su-30 that weigh over 200 kg, the Chinese system is much more lighter and compact, but still not enough to be fitted into the nose of the aircraft when the current available radars are installed. As a result, only the podded version can be carried by earlier production models of JF-17. Many domestic Chinese sources have claimed that this is the reason why the radar selection of JF-17 has not yet been finalized, due to the need for a more compact and lighter one while maintaining the same capability at the same time in order to install the domestic optronics system internally like similar systems on F-14, MiG-29 and Su-27.

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Jan 18, 2009

Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS)

Though the exact type of helmet mounted sights for the JF-17 has yet to be determined, it is known that the HMS will be standard. The JF-17 is compatible with a wide range of HMSes, and its HMS will be at least equal or better than the HMS offered for the Chengdu J-7E/F-7PG (J-7), which first appeared in 2002 at air shows and various defense / electronics exhibitions, such as CIDEX held in China. According to staffmembers from the developing firms and their advertisements at these exhibitions, the HMS offered for the J-7 is already better than the latest Russian HMS available on the export market, in that the Chinese HMS is specifically designed to improve the performance of the Russian system, and it outperforms its Russian counterparts including the ASP-AVD-21, Shchel series and Sura series in various fields:Fact|date=April 2008

*In comparison to the original standard Russian ASP-PVD-21 HMS on board the MiG-29 Fulcrum and the Flanker family, the field of view of the Chinese HMS for the J-7 is +/-90°, which is far greater than the mere +/-8° of the Russian ASP-PVD-21 HMS.
*In comparison to the latest Russian HMS available with +/-60° of field of view, the Chinese HMS for the J-7 still enjoys much greater field of view at +/-90°.
*The elevation of the latest Russian HMS designed to replace the original ASP-PVD-21 HMS on board the MiG-29 and the Flanker family is only +/-40°, while in contrast, the Chinese HMS for the J-7 is already +/-45°.
*The Chinese HMS for the J-7 already had a higher reliability than the Russian HMS.
*The Chinese HMS for the J-7 is easier and much cheaper to manufacture than its Russian counterparts.

Although the Chinese HMS for the J-7 has already enjoyed numerous advantages over the latest Russian HMS developed later, it still might not be the final type of HMS selected for the JF-17, because even as the Chinese HMS for the J-7 was first revealed in 2002, the Chinese manufacturers such as the 613th Institute had already started the development of newer HMS designed to replace the HMS for the J-7. Three major Chinese manufacturers, XBOE, the 613th Institute, and Luoyang Optoelectro Technology Development Center have already developed a variety of HMS systems with improvements including the adaptation of common attachments and power sources so that all night vision goggles and HMS are interchangeable, without the need to replace the entire system. The weight would be further reduced from the 200-gram weight of the Chinese HMS for the J-7, while the performance is further increased (mainly in the increase of elevation angles). While claims by various sources that the more advanced Chinese HMS on board the Chengdu J-10 developed from the HMS on board the J-7 would be selected for the JF-17 cannot be confirmed, the aircraft is certainly compatible with the more advanced Chinese HMS on board the J-10.Fact|date=April 2008

Electronic warfare

It has all the standard electronic warfare systems, such as radar warning receiver, missile approach warning system, etc.

*The computer can store more than 500 existing radar signals for identification, which is around 5 times of that F-7MP/P, and actually already stores more than 250 known radar signal patterns.
*360-degree field of view for the missile approach warning system with both infrared & ultraviolet spectrum detection.
**Very sensitive to the "afterburn" of missiles.
**The detection range is 60+ km.
**One detection sensor is in the tail and two at the front.
**Moreover, it can provide a certain capacity of tracking and positioning of approaching missiles.
*BM/KG300G Self protection jamming pod.
*KZ900 Electronic reconnaissance pod.
*Blue Sky navigation pod: Low altitude navigational and attack pod
*FILAT Forward-looking Infrared Laser Attack Targeting pod
*Other targeting pods

The MAWS(Missile Approach Warning System) scans in the IR, UV and visual spectrum, being able to detect incoming missiles from 20 km away.

1、UHF/VHF Communication antenna
2、Shortwave antenna
3、The omnidirectional synthesis radar warning locates /Self-defense electronic countermeasure

1、Digital electrostatic type atmosphere data pickoff
2、Incidence vane
3、AIFF Advanced friend-or-foe identification antenna


The JF-17 has two communication radios; one of them has the capacity for data link to exchange data from either a ground control center or an AWACS/AEW.

The modular design of solid state avionics has enabled the data link for the air-to-ground precision guided munitions to be carried internally, thus eliminating the need to carry external data link pods that are common for current Russian and Vietnam War era American systems, but this only applies to the radar or GPS guided air-to-surface missiles, because for television, infrared, or laser guided munitions, the aircraft lacks built-in electro-optics targeting and weapon control systems, so an external electro-optic targeting pod must be carried such as the Chinese built Blue Sky.


The current engine in the JF-17, the Russian RD-93, is now completely smoke-free. Truly impressive is that considering all its misgivings, the acceleration and quick response it can achieve is well within expectations. According to most test pilots, the engine's response is virtually instantaneous. Here is a comparison between the RD-93 and the Chinese WS-13:

:"Source: [Grande Strategy RD-93 / WS-13] "

Engine maintenance

Instead of being required to be sent back to the main overhaul factories in the rear for engine replacements, the aircraft engine can be readily replaced at the forward airbases in field conditions within two hours (one hour forty-five minutes has been achieved), providing the necessary maintenance equipment is all in place.

The Russian RD-93, despite "engineered" controversy by the Indian media, is slated to power at least the initial batches of the JF-17. The RD-93 is to be equiped with advanced crystal blade technology and a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC). Other than improving the engine performance, the DEEC results in carefree handling under a wide range of conditions and at virtually all relevant altitudes.

The JF-17 has been designed from day one for ease of operations and maintainability. One such feature is that of a single point pressure refueling sys*tem. This significantly reduces the turn around time, meaning more sorties can be generated, while maintenance intensive Indian aircraft remain grounded. This is furthered by the modular mainte*nance design of the aircraft. The level of the serviceability and ease of general maintenance is further illustrated by how panels and components are installed at man's height and a full computer-controlled fault diagnosis and analysis system can be relied upon.

Fuel system

*Total internal fuel: 5,130 lb [http://www.pac.org.pk/amfsite-final/jf17specifications.html JF-17 Specifications] ]
*Single point pressure refueling system
*External Fuel:
**One (1) centerline droptank, 800 liters
**Two (2) under wing droptanks, 800/1,100 liters

Ground maintenance equipment

In comparison to Russian ground maintenance equipment for the Flanker family such as the Sukhoi Su-30, the Chinese claim that its indigenously-developed ground maintenance equipment for the JF-17 offers significant advantages to the current Russian one on the market, and the PLAAF has already begun to replace Russian ground maintenance equipment for the Flanker family for the following reasons:

*Like its Western counterparts, the Chinese ground maintenance equipment is not limited to serve a single type of aircraft; instead, it is designed to service a wide range of aircraft, including both civilian and military. In comparison, most Russian ground maintenance equipment for the Flanker family are purposely built and can only serve the aircraft in that family.
*The Chinese ground maintenance equipment utilizes solid state electronics, and has better reliability.
*Chinese equipment is based on the commercial off-the-shelf products that greatly reduce the logistic problems due to its commonality with similar commercial equipment available, while meeting the military standards in same time.
*Due to the adaptation of the commercial off-the-shelf products, Chinese equipment is cheaper to purchase, and, more importantly, cheaper to operate than the specially designed Russian ones, which have unit prices from at least $0.5 million to more than $1.0 million United States dollars.
*Chinese equipment adopts the multi-tasks workstation principle of similar American systems, and thus much fewer equipment is needed like the American ones. In comparison, most Russian ground maintenance equipment offered for export for the Flanker family is single-tasked, thus forcing the buyers to spend more money on purchasing every type in order to meet the complete maintenance requirements.
*Due to its similar design that follows Western systems, Chinese equipment is compact and can be deployed by air, like its Western counterparts. In contrast, Russian equipment for Flanker family is bulky and can only be transported on land, since it cannot fit inside cargo airplanes.
*Chinese equipment is versatile like similar Western systems, in that it can either be truck-mounted to increase mobility, or trailer-mounted to reduce cost. In contrast, the current Russian ground maintenance equipment on the market for the Flanker family only comes in truck-mounted form (as of 2006).
*Instead of being built by a single production complex associated with the aircraft manufacturer like the ground maintenance equipment of the [Flanker family, the complete set of the Chinese ground maintenance equipment is developed by different manufacturers of similar equipment used for commercial airplanes, so that buyers would have wider choice of suppliers, and would not have to pay higher prices, because they would not to be locked into the deal forced upon them by the aircraft manufacturer. The purchasers of Chinese equipment therefore are open to purchase Western components should they choose to, when there are better deals to be found.
*More importantly, since most of the Chinese equipment is for civilian use, there is far less likelihood of being embargoed like the Russian equipment for the Flanker family, which is purely for military use.
*The civilian usage of the multi-tasked Chinese equipment also means that the equipment can be better utilized for civilian aircraft, and thus reducing the cost of operation like similar Western systems. In contrast, not only is the Russian counterpart limited to military aircraft, it is also only limited to a single family of military aircraft, because many of the single-tasked Russian ground maintenance equipment purposely built for Flanker family can only be used for Flankers.
*Like similar Western systems of modular design, the Chinese ground maintenance equipment also has the option of modular design, so that when newer subsystems become available, they can be readily incorporated into the system by replacing the older ones on the racks.


Jan 18, 2009


The aircraft is fitted with modern Stores Management System incorporating accurate weapon delivery modes and solutions involving minimum pilot workload. The aircraft is capable of carrying some of the most modern as well as conventional weapons, including:

All weapon systems are designed to be compatible with both Western systems (ie. supporting MIL-STD-1760 data bus), Chinese systems and Pakistani systems as well. A total of 3,629 kg (8,000 lb) of ordnance can be loaded on the JF-17 Thunder. [Pakistan Aeronautical Complex.... Pakistan Aeronautical Complex ] ]


One internal GSh-23-2 twin-barrel 23-mm [ [MILAVIA Aircraft - Chengdu FC-1/JF-17 Thunder Specifications MILAVIA Aircraft - Chengdu FC-1/JF-17 Thunder Specifications ] ] cannon has been installed on JF-17, which can be replaced with a 30-mm single-barrel cannon.

Air-to-air weaponry

The JF-17 is primarily an export-oriented fighter, thus it can be built according a customer's specifications and use a variety of Chinese and Western weapon systems.

These include air-to-air Beyond Visual Range missiles (BVRs).

;Non-Chinese weapons:
*R-Darter BVR-AAM (proposed at IDEAS 2006, Karachi, Pakistan)
*A-Darter WVR-AAM (also proposed at IDEAS 2006)
*T-Darter BVR-AAM (also proposed at IDEAS 2006)
*IRIS-T WVR-AAM (also proposed at IDEAS 2006)
*AIM-9L/P Sidewinder WVR-AAM
*AIM-7F Sparrow BVR-AAM
*Magic-II - R550 Magic [ [Matra Magic-II Matra Magic-II ] ]
*BLU-107 Durandal

;Chinese weapons:
*PL-9 Chinese copy of Python-3 for within visual range combat
*SD-10 BVRAAM, a Beyond Visual Range missile

Air-to-ground weaponry

In addition to unguided bombs and rockets, the aircraft is adopted to deploy a wide range of precision guided munitions, including:

;Non-Chinese weapons:
*GBU-10 Paveway II
*GBU-12 Paveway II
*Mark 82 bomb
*Mark 84 bomb
*DPGM (Precision Guided Bomb) - Denel (South Africa)
*Raptor-I precision-guided long-range glide bomb (60 km) - Denel (South Africa)
*Raptor-II precision-guided long-range glide bomb (120 km) - Denel (South Africa)
*Rockeye - CBU-100 Cluster Bomb
*Anti-ship missile such as Exocet and Harpoon missile.
*Russian KAB series laser guided bombs; these Russian bombs cannot be directly mounted on weapon pylons like Western or Chinese munitions, instead, added special adapter rails are needed for JF-17s when using them

;Indigenous Pakistani weapons:
*H-2 Air to Ground Munition(60 km)
*H-4 Air to Ground Munition(120 km)
*Ra'ad Stand-off cruise mssile (350 km)
*HAFR-2 Anti-Runway bomb

;Chinese weapons:
*FT (Fei Teng) series of GPS guided bombs
*LT (Lei Ting) of laser guided bombs
*LS (Lei Shi) series of GPS glide bombs
*C-101 Supersonic Anti-ship missile
*FL-7 Supersonic Anti-ship missile
*C-701 Air-to-surface missile
*TL-10 Anti-ship missile for boats with displacement up to 500 tons
*TL-6 Anti-ship missile for boats/ships with displacement up to 1,000 tons
*C-704 Anti-ship missile for ships with displacement up to 3,000-4,000 tons
*C-801/802 Anti-ship missile for ships with displacement greater than 4,000 tons

All precision guided munitions listed above are either GPS or radar guided, and when the television or laser guided munitions are deployed, addition electro-optical targeting pods such as the Chinese-built Blue Sky pod must be carried externally in order to provide guidance and targeting information.

JF-17 Thunder

Air-Air Configurations:

Air-Ground Configurations:

Old Specifications

Pakistan Aeronautical Complex

Physical Parameters
Length 49 ft
Height 15.5 ft
Wingspan 31 ft
Empty Weight 14,520 lb

Performance Parameters

Maximum Take Off Weight
27,300 lb

Max Mach No

Maximum Speed
700 Knots IAS

Service Ceiling
55,500 ft

Thrust to Weight Ratio

Maximum Engine Thrust
19,000 lb

G Limit

Ferry Range
1,880 NM


No of Stations

Total Load Capacity CCapacitycapability
8000 lb



Research Partner
May 16, 2006
The Rumble of Thunder by Usman Ansari

The JF-17 Thunder: A hefty punch at an affordable price. by Usman Ansari

Air Forces Monthly: Pakistan's Thunder by Alan Warnes

I will not post the AFM article, but I can bullet down key points that seem quite relevant nowadays:

1. Then ACM Tanvir Ahmad said KLJ-7 was "much better" than the APG-66 on F-16s.

2. Western radar is being considered for Batch II (aka Block-II) JF-17s, but given how high performance PD radars give off strong signals to modern RWR, so PAF is also "looking for an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar."

3. For JF-17, BVRAAM options remain open.
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Jan 18, 2009

FC-1 fighter avionics and cockpit design is not only a world-class cabin environment, but also the world's advanced level of all-digital avionics system.

Electronic warfare systems: electronic warfare system is exported to Pakistan, China's FC-1 "Fierce Dragon" fighter of the highlights. According to Pakistan's initial request, electronic warfare systems only by radar warning, missile approach warning missile launch control and chaff management system structure, we finally see the FC-1 fighter not only greatly improve the performance of these three devices, also the addition of active electronic jamming aircraft.

Modern fighter aircraft radar warning device is a very important self-defense tool, which tells the pilot the enemy's movements and plans. The modern battlefield is a highly complex battlefield of electromagnetic radiation, due to the popularity of the radar, the future will be filled with a large variety of sky radar waves. Traditional radar warning device generally corresponds to the special fire control radars, these radars are concentrated in the I / G band, once the target and the radar will continue to radiation at high frequency aircraft, high-precision tracking, and use the track to obtain weapons and set the parameters set and launch control.

After 90 years, a fighter in the air every second will be at least a million of the electromagnetic pulse radiation, the radiation if they are reported to the pilot, then he will no doubt be coming to the mass of information flooding. Advanced radar warning system will accept the classification of radio waves sweep, and for high data rate sampling, using a computer to compare the sampling and analysis of the signal to find out the fire control radar signature. Since the introduction of modern radar frequency agility technology, the radar signal scattered by a certain mathematical laws in a very narrow band, which for the radar warning device to receive and filter the signal a great deal of trouble.
To respond to this means of electronic countermeasures, advanced radar warning device will receive through receiving circuit for coherent waves, the use of different locations receive the same wave of different phase, determine the approximate direction of the radio source, and this direction to accumulate all the waves, and computer storage of the known characteristics of radar signals for comparison.
By analyzing the frequency and pulse characteristics, radar warning device can not only know the direction of the source of the threat, but also to determine the characteristics of the threat by the general function of the radar used by the pulse intensity can determine the degree of threat, such as whether it is locked.

More advanced radar warning device can also be electronic intelligence collection and computer storage than the signal library, identify the most threatening of the device models, and then infer the types of threats.
FC-1 fighter on the use of radar warning device with such advanced features, to cover 360. All airspace, you can save in memory 100 to 500 different types of radar signature, also allows re-programming of war, you can collect the latest information quickly into the electronic combat, able to respond well to emerging new threats.

Missile approach warning in the last decade the development of new equipment. Early devices like the lens with a large field of view about the direction the rear of the aircraft 180 degrees to 220 degrees of airspace surveillance, the use of the missile launch will have a lot of mutations in ultraviolet and infrared signals, thereby providing the enemy missile threat warning.
On the battlefield is often a large number of fireworks, sunlight reflected from the reflection on the nature of high clouds, and are likely to face the sun's reflection so that the system nervous.

Commonly used digital signal processing to deal with this false alarm, the main principle is based missiles, rocket engines will continue to work for some time, and this signal will appear as a continuous trajectory, instantaneous light flashes and a long time will be continuous and stable filter, to gain a real missile threat.

Xiaolong fighters made with integrated optical distributed aperture imaging system, which has not even third-generation fighter in the Western half of the third-generation fighters equipped with advanced missile approach warning system with an integrated optical distributed aperture imaging system.
Sound is a bit familiar, yes, that and the U.S. F-35 is somewhat similar with that EODAS.

Integrated optical distributed aperture imaging system using imaging system instead of the previous point source scan system, imaging device they use InSb or platinum silicide.

The former has a very good response speed and sensitivity, but expensive; the latter has a higher resolution and angle of detail resolution, low cost, disadvantage is that detection range than the former, the two high-performance components require liquid nitrogen cooling . F-35 using the 128 × 128 InSb CCD is not only responsible for the missile closing in alarm, but also incidentally complete 360.

Video surveillance, is not a simple alarm devices. Cheaper thermoelectric cooling system will choose the lead sulfide components, this device is cheap, the radiation of the missile's rocket engine 1 to 3 micron band is extraordinarily sensitive.
This band of infrared radiation are generally caused by heat, only the flame, the missile tail and vents will produce smoke, have a good filter out the role of natural radiation; and its imaging system can also be very good to deal with false alarms.
Such systems are often not responsible for monitoring the surrounding environment, some systems used in the design of the optical grating prism aperture infrared signals to infrared sensors and night vision white light signals to a blue silicon CCD, the formation of television video signal, the two complement each other but also to achieve ideal performance.

FC—1的导弹逼进告警系统采用分布式综合光学孔径成像系统,使用4个光学孔径完成对水平360度、垂直±40度的覆盖,(F一35多一个专用前视和一个专门的下视光学孔径)。 Pressing in the FC-1 missile warning system with an integrated optical distributed aperture imaging systems, optical aperture using four complete 360-degree horizontal and vertical ± 40 degrees of coverage, (F-35 one more forward looking and dedicated under a special as the optical aperture).
The system has not even third-generation fighter in the Western half of the third-generation fighters equipped with the French "Rafale" has a similar system, using the very imaging system, 3 aperture scanning device, technical level handicap.

Missile approach warning system and radar warning systems usually cross-linked, radar warning system will take the initiative to focus the direction of high-precision observation, that if there are signs of missile launches, the missile will immediately inform the pilot of the exact location, or even track the missile trajectory , calculated by the optical angle triangle determine the approximate distance of the missile.
Imaging system, alarm system can alert the dangerous position while the video signal superimposed on the monitor in multi-display, will help pilots determine.
Further development of its software, you can also achieve the goal of all threats to the automatic video display, to avoid false positives due to lack of artificial intelligence and Missing, but also to largely avoid the enemy's attack. From the Vietnam War to the Gulf War, most of the attacking side are the result of air in the opponent without the knowledge of vision from the pilot's blind succeed. With this system, the traditional blind spot will no longer exist.

It is unclear FC-1 development of the system, using its large LCD cockpit view, it is clear there will be more video display, you can put the video into several different areas focused on a display display. The system can greatly enhance the aircraft's survivability and melee capabilities, which is very important for the future air combat.

Chaff / IR decoy device is put in the standard of modern fighter aircraft electronic jamming equipment. This from the Korean War began large-scale use of electronic decoy is simple, but 40 years later is still valid. To counter the chaff / IR decoy, almost all modern radar and missiles have been a variety of improvements, but no single method is completely effective. But 40 years of targeted research and development progress, after all, it can greatly weaken the chaff / IR decoy effectiveness, not with today's fighters have fired a large number of flares on a simple escape missile attack.
And decoy delivery time becomes critical - vote early, anti-jamming missiles can easily be identified and excluded from the circuit; cast late, the missile had a chance to be cheated on a headlong into the airplane, and the missile strikes direction and the best time to launch flares also vary.
Therefore, the system does not interfere with the advanced instrument is equipped with advanced flares, but also under the radar warning systems and missile warning system for forecasting of time pressing in the most appropriate opportunity to determine the best and the combination of the pilot's evasive action, in order to play the greatest interference effect.

The current level of technology is concerned, no can not interfere with the missile, but the specific performance, maneuvering and totally disrupting chemicals put in the time. FC-1 avionics this integrated approach can be combined with high-precision approach radar warning and warning information, positioning, automatic control decoy delivery systems, means sufficient to be able to interfere with the performance of this play to the limit.

Chaff is a passive interference play, after all, means, once the missile launch over, the remaining issue is the hit rate. No matter how the aircraft can only reduce the hit rate but not completely eliminate it. Self-defense electronic jamming aircraft is a proactive means of its two main goals against: one fighter radar or ground missile system fire control radar, the other is now the growing threat of advanced active radar guided air to air / surface to air missiles.

Self-defense electronic jamming aircraft fired missiles at each other can effectively defeat the attempt by means of modern electronic technology, a functional complex jammer size and weight have been reduced more than 10 years ago, ten times, and prices are low a lot, Heavy fighters can no longer use.
FC-1 fighter to the top of jammer installed in the vertical tail, forward and backward with two antennas that can cover 360 degrees of airspace.

General electronic interference mainly echo forward, angle deception, narrow-band blocking and other means aimed at interference with aircraft or missile systems, radar, let not the correct target location information, thus undermining the targeting and guidance.

This is a face of the future of design, India has been Pakistan's main adversary equipped with a large number of R-77 advanced medium range air to air missiles, such weapons to Pakistan Air Force is a serious threat.

Self-defense electronic jamming aircraft design of the aircraft radar and missile seeker made such special optimization, can effectively interfere with the current fire control radars and missiles, and has re-programming capability, you can accept the new software system upgrade.

Dragon FC-1 fighters put infrared jamming decoys communications and tactical data link: FC-1 fighter communication systems rely mainly on two Italian Marconi company's digital encryption airborne remote UHF band radio interference, mainly for air and ground voice calls.

AM FM Radio uses digital coding confidential communications, high frequency-hopping spread-spectrum anti-jamming capability, and jump, in which a radio station in America with 16 data link remote data transmission standard UHF FM data link can transmit information and tactical command tactical information sharing.

Two radio voice call up each other, and connected to a computer through 1553B and tasks, the standard command system can be integrated into the tactical tactical information display integrated information, or automatically marked on the map in the tactical navigation column. 当 When a bus fault, communication systems can be controlled by hand to maintain the radio control box and ground voice links.
FC-1, after the formal service, SIA may adopt a dual-power data link for remote communication system, respectively, using the antenna on the back and abdomen of the antenna.

If Pakistan's procurement of Sweden, "Alice eyes" early warning aircraft, then the product will be used in Italy; if the procurement of China's early warning aircraft, then China may use the communication system, the choice of what kind, they will be integrated into a standard Joint Tactical Information Distribution System.

If the FC-1 through automated communication systems to achieve tactical information sharing, the fighter's combat capabilities and information technology capabilities will be greatly enhanced.
To the aircraft avionics system architecture now is complete with this condition, which may be the next focus of software development.

Management of external stores and weapons management systems linked to FC-1 fighter design is a very delicate point of the product, its all in accordance with Western standards of MIL-STD a 1760 design and implementation, able to mount all the external stores to meet this standard, but also in the same location and Russian weapons designed to adapt to non-standard mount point.
Each point is the use of standardized weapons hanging interface unit, the plug can be individually monitored weapons state, the implementation of the pilot's weapons operation, monitoring project conditions, monitoring weapons delivery program, sending weapons and delivery instructions, put the emergency plan, two-way transmission of information such as arms control .
Interface unit and a computer connected to a separate plug-in management, and weapons through the 1553B data bus to accept the task management computer control.
Computer through the task status and parameters of weapons handling, weapons and external stores of information will be displayed on the HUD and multifunction displays.

With the external stores management system, the pilot's choice and use of assault weapons have become faster and more convenient and more reliable.
Early F-16 fighter is no such system, the first set of external stores management system is based on a large number of Israel's war experience to build out, and quickly spread to all U.S. buyers and fleet them.
The system enables the pilot plug rational use of aircraft weapons, automatic coordination of external range of issues involved, the pilot can use the energy from the plug-in of weapons and choice of techniques hesitation on the liberation.
Flexible adaptive launch pilot program manually choose to run than the rack, thinking, after running a series of consequences and the changes to the aircraft a lot easier and faster.

Especially when the types of sophisticated weapons to mount a number of highly targeted execution tasks or tasks strong randomness, the role of the system will be more apparent.
FC-1 system is the most unique place, that is, the system can also be a weapon system to achieve the Eastern and Western weapons, like task management, which greatly enriched the FC-1 scope and choice of weapons face.

FC-1 flight control system uses a unique aircraft flight control system.
This well-designed system has high performance, low-price characteristics of both the use of telex and advanced flight control system control, relaxed setting Jing aircraft, improve mobility, but also to retain the traditional part of the hydraulic lines and systems as a secondary to be part of the manipulation and security, backup, fully meet the FC-1 fighter this unique positioning performance needs.

FC-1 uses a streamlined hybrid fly-by system. In order to achieve high lift, high-agility aircraft in the vertical with a full authority digital plus two four redundant redundant analogue fly-by-system, control the most critical flap motor performance, all-moving horizontal tail; cross the use of digital two redundant access control augmentation limited to mechanical backup control system, control the rudder and ailerons.

FC-1 design concept of aerodynamic control surfaces rather elaborate, did not use the popular flaperons three generations of machine design, but to separate them, thus the function is independent aileron and simplified.

For a large number of applications the use of relaxed static stability and telex system-wide third-generation fighter aircraft, its so-called relaxed static longitudinal stability mainly refers to the set degree Jing, Jing all the fighters are given the horizontal.

Therefore, the full three-axis four redundant fly-system, lateral and directional part of the telex system does not get much from the benefits, on the contrary have to pay more than three control surfaces of the channels and more than 35% of software work.

Xiaolong FC-1 fighters and installation of domestic electronic warfare jamming system

FC-1 fighter because of positioning in the low-cost, high performance, high-performance must be used to relax the layout of the static stability, which requires a full-authority fly-by-system, its price often exceeding several million dollars.
Chinese proverb: good steel should be used wisely.

FC-l know that the chief architect of fighter control system characteristics, so boldly telex system most in need of vertical control surfaces and control augmentation can only meet the requirements of the horizontal control surfaces open to independent, then their use completely all the way different control systems.

In fact, FC-1 horizontal control surface can also be seen in a 2-redundant fly-by system under the control of manipulation. Under normal circumstances, aircraft acquisition and flight control rods instruction INS attitude parameters, atmospheric parameters such as the computer's air, the flight control computer is digitally integrated, three-axis control rate driven by vertical and horizontal electric servo motion server, to achieve three-axis control augmentation.

Lateral mechanical control system through the traditional rod and rocker arm, to achieve the aileron and rudder control; control augmentation fly-through and mechanical systems coupled composite arm to achieve, control augmentation manipulation by computer-controlled electric steering gear to go into the control channel.

Leading edge mobile flap is free, the computer automatically under the control of the speed and angle of attack corresponding symmetrical deflection, only in the stall force can be manually restored.

FC-1 control system reliability is very high, four-redundant fly-by two-way system already has the ability to fail-safe, if the four have problems, you can also downgrade to analog fax control. Return the system to meet the plane landed and most common implementation of flight operations; lateral control augmentation is the same, itself has two fail-safe structure, coupled with the mechanical system is dual redundant, and control augmentation failure You can also downgrade using the same flight and return to meet the normal landing.
FC-1 complex reliability design in everyday use is unlikely to have its uses, but still a lot considering the operational conditions the capacity of injury characteristics of the plane, so only the design of such a complex and robust and reliable system.

As the FC-1 is actually under the control of a flight control computer for automatic control flight, so with the terrain tracking radar and inertial navigation systems geographic information systems, automatic terrain following flight with low altitude capability.
The past, pilots rely on low altitude flight technology is good, courageous in the event of complex terrain conditions and requirements to enter the lower height, that is, a human can not be completed.
FC-1 flight control software can be formed by the autopilot, auto-complete under the conditions of safety in low altitude flight, ground attack capability for expansion and lay a good foundation.

The actual experience of test pilots from the point of view, this combination of flight control simplifies the control system was a great success, the pilots have praised its ability to control motor, a smooth flight capacity and good handling feeling.

FC-1, F-16 joystick did not like the use of force coupling, instead of using a double displacement and force feedback coupling, telex systems and mechanical systems of control is almost exactly the same feeling, the feeling of a more direct force feedback, feel more control close to the traditional fighter, but there are more lightweight and simple.

FC-1 flight control system is a masterpiece of engineering, the perfect embodiment of a combination of performance and price in the process, to achieve both high performance and inexpensive established design goals.

From a performance point of view, the system and F-16 three-axis four redundant fly-system performance identical, but the price is, the system is only half of the F-16 system is really a great initiative, worldwide have not seen that within the carefully designed and selected design.

Advanced electronic identification system as early as the Vietnam War in the 1960s, the United States recognized the BVR air combat identification friend or foe depending on the level of respect.

But early enough to solve the problem of electronic technology, response type identification friend or foe can only recognize less than 30% of the target, coupled with the low reliability of early electronic devices, "Sparrow" missile shot down one's own application started shooting down enemy aircraft than more than the number of machines.

After that war the U.S. Air Force issued a rule: that all targets in the air without a reliable identification and recognition does not allow attack.

This led to a large number of aircraft needed to fly the United States can visually identify the target distance in order to attack, lost the meaning of BVR combat.

This rule has also been observed by other countries in the world, a direct result of the "Sparrow" era sadly ended.

After 80 years, with advanced computer technology, identification friend or foe technology is also beginning to be developed rapidly, which also benefited from the standardization of the entire aviation industry.
Advanced IFF system still uses response-type, but this simple one-answer style and the early signal in different ways for their respective channels for civilian, military channel and transmit a large number of special packaging electronic channel signal, which even the enemy transponder signal and coding inquiries.

Response based on objective response signal analysis, can identify civilian aircraft, one's own aircraft and enemy aircraft, and a small amount of non-recognition of aircraft and other categories.
In recognizable aircraft, the recognition system based on computer identification code ID of the repository database accurately identify the aircraft type, even accurately to which a specific aircraft.
Can not identify the target of it by the other transponder response signals the first of its type identified as the enemy, friendly or unknown target machine can also be distributed through the theater tactical information, learn from the early-warning radar at the target of enemy property, and standard listed, but the target record or identification issued by the inquiry signal, to customize its features and stored.

Advanced IFF system identification methods are diverse, but also from the side to extract radar radar target echo signal characteristic frequency, the non-cooperative identification. Fourth-generation combat-intensive applications integrated electronic warfare system can also trigger or enemy electronic jamming enemy radar signals received through the analysis of characteristics to identify the specific model, and then infer the target model and type.

Advanced IFF system on the one hand depend on their level of electronic processing technology, it also depends on electronic intelligence gathering and analysis levels

After the use of advanced identification friend or foe system, basic air combat over the horizon can be guaranteed.
U.S. F-16 through the upgrade installation AN / APX a 113 system and AIM-120 missile systems supporting access to a BVR combat capability, the system's performance in the second Gulf War and the Bosnian war to be reflected, is AIM-120 missiles to achieve the main guarantor of record.

Specifically perform the task of the air fighter F-15C because no improvement in this area, so a lot of aerial victories by the U.S. Air Force does not like the F-16 available.

To know the Air Force in the Gulf War was that the F-16 pilots died last resort is not allowed to actively participate in non-air combat, which from the side can also explain the importance of this system.

FC-1 fighters have also installed a similar system of advanced identification friend or foe, but the system is not clear what type of product.
The system and the United States AN / APX one of four knife-like 113 different antennas, only three, estimated scope of work and performance will be slightly less.
In accordance with normal operating mode of the system, it can choose to perform air traffic by the pilot to identify, target reports, military identification and military security identification.

Air traffic identification is the most important task of the Air Force to intercept the type, not set on the former fighters identified civilian control channel, a large number of civilian aircraft identification very difficult, and often need to send fighter jets to intercept and visual observation.
This will not only bring to disturb civilian targets, but also easy because the pilot and commander of the tension occurred mistakenly hit, whether the Soviet Union shot down Korean Boeing 747 shot down by Iran or the United States A300, which are allowed in the international and political trouble.

Advanced IFF system built-in response target of all civilian control coding, you can target recognition to civil aviation and flight model accuracy, and data links and command centers through the exchange of information or direct contact with air control center for air traffic control identification.
All this does not need to enter the aircraft within line of sight will be a great military flight for air traffic to avoid interference.
Target report is targeted state mandatory target recognition signal intercept a way, it will target all the response signals of the radiation records and comparison, typically used for the qualitative identification of the target to intercept, that is early warning system for the identification of targets not yet identified the nature of models.
identification is the mode used during the war.
We all know that in order to confidentiality, the use of enemy fighters during the war and the frequency codes are different times of peace.
Military identification and military security in a combat identification is the identification of the threat condition, which causes the system to use some unconventional asked trigger conditions to achieve the goal of identifying and determining the purpose of threatening the state, this recognition is often used for pre-attack preparation.

Equipment, advanced IFF system marks the FC-1 fighter will have BVR air combat capability, which is the Pakistan Air Force eager to capacity.

Than is currently the Indian Air Force MiG 29, MiG-2l-93, Su-30MKI used the simple identification of additional R-77 BVR missile attack is more accurate and more effective.

This would have the fighters on both quantity and quality gap between the Pakistan Air Force made in the future against the quality advantage basis.

Other sub-systems: FC-1 avionics system also includes mechanical and electrical management computer, radio altimeter, automatic instrument landing systems, power management system decile system.

Electromechanical flight management computer system for all hydraulic, mechanical and electrical drive control systems such as cross-linked with sensors and computers can accurately monitor the operation and status of these systems, a simple query and analysis of computer failure to complete records required dismantling of many of the previous inspection projects not only improve system reliability and maintainability, but also greatly enhanced the life of the aircraft.
Have a word in the aircraft maintenance industry: machinery and equipment not easily broken, and easy to repair bad. Can be seen daily dismantling project will reduce aircraft life cycle cost to bring much benefit.

Radio altimeter is used aircraft and equipment, mainly for the aircraft to obtain the relative height information. Advanced radio altimeter with a narrow beam, multi-beam, continuous wave, high gain, low-emissivity characteristics of power, on the one hand to provide dozens of times every second up to centimeter-level accuracy, on the other hand also to ensure electromagnetic compatibility and low detectability. This is mainly to avoid being passive electronic detection system to detect, such as the Czech "Vera"-E passive electronic surveillance and positioning system. These passive systems are often very subtle, combat aircraft will bring a great potential threat.

Automatic instrument landing system and the civil aviation three microwave landing system is very similar to the blind, are used in complex weather, do not have the mesh shirt under the conditions of instrument landing blind drop support systems can improve aircraft on the airport's ability to adapt to climatic conditions .

Power management system is one of the aircraft's infrastructure, especially the increasing power consumption of modern fighter aircraft, the equipment power requirements are also different. In the past three generations of machines have a centralized power management system, the generator output power through the power distribution panel, inverter and other direct delivery to each site.
The benefits of centralized management and maintenance is easy to control, easy arrangement of heat, drawback is that different devices require different voltages, current, AC or DC output, etc., when the power increase DnN easy to form a certain degree of mutual interference.

In addition, the focus will be arranged later in the event of failure of all power to the system cause the aircraft to have problems, even the manipulation of which are dependent on the aircraft more difficult to accept the power and reliability requirements of the overlay causes the system weight and volume is increasing rapidly.

FC-1 using the traditional focus on early distribution management, but a loss of power occurs in flight accident.

In the final state of the whole aircraft, in order to enhance power system reliability, or using a fourth-generation fighter aircraft before the use of distributed power management system - the distribution of the scattered layout of equipment, aircraft, only a single power supply, stable AC, using computer-controlled power strips for multiple power management and monitoring, the equipment requirements of the different power settings on the device are each a separate power adapter.

This greatly increased the power distribution system reliability and flexibility, in the event of failure to allow some equipment off the power supply to ensure that the main system power requirements, security is well protected.

The use of digital distributed power supply design also marks the Chinese new generation of fighter aircraft technology is continuing to develop the application of direction, the adoption of the new distribution system completes the FC-l the last early in the design a more backward areas so that the overall avionics level exceeds the level of Western countries, third-generation fighter, the basic and improved after the third-generation fighter the ability to fairly modern.

FC-1 avionics system development reflects the needs of our commercial avionics systems developed under the technical level, but also China's commercial system for advanced avionics systems design and balance a bold attempt. 商业体制比我.们传统所应用的研发体制灵活,可以大量应用成熟的新技术。 Business system than I am. Have traditionally applied research and development system flexibility, the large scale application of sophisticated new technologies.

As the fighter R & D more and more time, the traditional contract-management has been behind the times, FC-1 uses while the design side modification of the delay and despite the specific questions, but ultimately the results are still very optimistic, which gives Our research suggests a new line of work management.

FC-1 fighter aircraft industry, our successful development is to improve a design from the generic one to complete an independent design milestone, which indicates that China has completely mastered the third-generation fighter aircraft research and production technology, especially completely out of the last century, 80-90 years behind in avionics systems the passive situation. 根据预测,在未来战斗机航电市场上中国将占据约20%左右的份额,FC一1功不可没。 According to projections, future combat aircraft in the avionics market, China will account for about 20% of the share, FC-1 contributed. (全文完) (End)
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Research Partner
May 16, 2006
Q and A with Chief Project Director, JF-17 Project, PAF

by Usman Shabbir

Q. Can your provide some details about JF-17’s avionics and weapon suite?

A. JF-17 aircraft will have a modern avionics architecture, which will be supported by two mission computers, ‘Smart Multi Function Coloured Displays’, ‘Smart Heads Up Display’, ICP and HOTAS arrangement. These features will provide an excellent man-machine-interface to the pilot in a complete glass-cockpit environment. In the avionics layout, mechanical sub-systems of the aircraft will also be interfaced to provide automatic monitoring of almost all the aircraft sub-systems. In case of a malfunction in any of the aircraft sub-systems, the onboard computers will provide fault analysis, warning and guidance to the pilot.

The aircraft will have a modern powerful radar, which will have excellent performance in air-to-air, air-to-ground and air-to-sea modes. A ‘tactical data link’ system, which will be integrated with the other air-borne and ground-based sensors, will also be available to provide comprehensive ‘situational awareness’ to the pilot. The aircraft will also be equipped with IRSTS, CLDP, and Helmet Mounted Display to provide all weather operations capability in all types of environments. The navigation system of the aircraft will be based on the Ring LASER gyro which would be coupled with the GPS.

For providing qualitative operational training, the aircraft will also be equipped with ACMI, Solid State Digital Data/ Video Recorder and the DTC, whereas TACAN, ILS etc will also be available for efficient and safe aircraft operations at night and during bad weather conditions. For its self-protection, the aircraft will have an Integrated Counter Measure System, which would automatically operate to ward –off different types of threats by employing CFD and ECM pod. The ICMS will get its update from the RWR, MAWS and other sensors. Two independent high-performance wide-band radios alongwith an independent data link will ensure efficient communication even during intense EW environments. In short, JF-17 aircraft will have a highly modern avionics suite, which will certainly provide the cutting- edge to the aircraft.


Jan 18, 2009

JF-17 Thunder: A Giant Leap

By Wing Commander Abid Ali Khan/Sqn Ldr Ahsan Rafiqui

Pakistan's success in joint design and development of a fighter trainer, Karakoram-8 (K-8), was a stagger*ing achievement. This encouraged our policy makers to undertake a giant step that is, the design and development of a state-of-the-art aircraft. It was realized that an advanced fighter would be required by Pakistan Air Force in near future to narrow the rising gap of its advanced aircraft inventory as com*pared to India. It was also necessary to give the much needed boost to the nation's developing aviation indus*try. The Air Staff proposal of co‑designing, co-developing and co-manufacturing with the Chinese government the JF -17 Thunder was finalized in 1999. The aircraft was to be developed as planned replace*ment of aging fleets of A-5, F-7 and Mirage of Pakistan Air Force. In the development phase, five prototypes (PT) were planned to be manufac*tured for verification of the aircraft's performance through ground tests, flight tests and demonstrations.

JF-17 is jointly designed at Chengdu Aircraft Design & Research Institute (CADI) and the prototypes are being developed and manufactured by Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation (CAC). In order to ensure effective transfer of technology and expertise, Pakistani experts remained associated with all aspects of design, development and manu*facturing in China. Most of the JF-17 aircraft planned to be inducted in PAF will roll out from Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC), Kamra. President of Pakistan laid the foundation stone for establishing the required infrastructure for this unique manufacturing facility at Kamra on May 5, 2005.The joint development of a new generation multi-role fighter aircraft called Super-7/FC-1 (Renamed later as Joint Fighter-17 (JF-17) and code*named as "Thunder") formally started in 1999 to meet the objectives. Based on their mythology of dragons and fairies, the Chinese also call this fighting machine as "Xiao Long" (A small dragon). The first prototype flew its maiden flight in August, 2003, and the second fly worthy pro*totype took off from Chengdu in April, 2004. The joint flight test team has flown a number of verifica*tion sorties on the available prototypes and suggested various changes to enhance the aircraft's flight quali*ties, performance, structural integri*ty and the functionality of different systems. These recommendations have given a new look to the third flyable prototype. This new proto*type is planned to enter the skies in the first half of 2006.

JF-17's designers say that the strength of the Thunder lies in its advanced aerodynamics and state-of-the-art avionics. It is one of the only two current modern time fight*ers incorporated the latest research on intake design. In order to improve the aircraft's performance, study on diverterless supersonic intake has been in progress since 1999. Bump intake design on JF- 17 took almost two years with a number of intake models subjected to high and low speed wind tunnel tests. Analysis show that at high speeds, the bump works with forward-swept inlet cowls to give high performance, high total pressure recovery, low integrated distortion, and, good engine/intake matching. It redirects unwanted boundary layer airflow away from the inlets, essentially doing the job of heavier, more com*plex, and more costly approaches being used for because intake is one of the three major forward scatters of an aircraft (30%-35% contribution to aircraft forward Radar Cross Section (RCS)). In order to fully exploit the potential of the aircraft fly-by-wire system and improve the aircraft per*formance, JF-17 design has a wing fore body strike which is about 9% of the Wing area. This has resulted in better matching of the aerodynamic focus with the Center of Gravity (CG) and better harmonization of the air-to-air and air-to-ground CG vari*ations by taking advantage of the pitch digital fly-by-wire Flight Control Systems (FCS). This has improved not only the controllability but has also enhanced the performance through reduction of the supersonic drag. The salient features of "Thunder or Xia Long" enable it to outfit many competitors in the world. As a light weight, all weather, multi-role aircraft with maximum speed of Mach 1.6 (700 knots), high thrust*-to-weight ratio and hybrid flight con*trols, JF-17 gains comparative agili*ty and maneuverability in all regimes vis-a-vis fighters of the same class. Moreover, a state-of-the-art avionics package comprising modern concept of Man Machine Interface (MMI) with full Hands On Throttle-And-Stick (HOTAS) and glass cockpit make it comparable with even fourth generation fighters. This specific feature enhances its ability in all operational scenarios.

This multi-role, third generation air*craft is designed to be highly maneuverable with fly-by wire flight controls in pitch axis and stability augmentation system in the "Role and Yaw" axis. It will have the capa*bility to perform air defence, inter*diction, airfield strike, precision strike, and escort missions. It will allow long Combat Air Patrol (CAP) time at low level, thus affording large radius of action and thereby exceeding the PAF Air Staff require*ments in surface attack mode.

The aircraft is powered by reliable RD-93 engine, which like any other modern aircraft engine, is equipped with a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC). Besides enhancing the engine performance, this makes engine handling carefree under all conditions and at all altitudes. Low Specific Fuel Consumption (LSFC) turbofan engine and low drag aero*dynamic design ensure its longer endurance and range. Because of its single point pressure refueling sys*tem, the aircraft has overall reduced turn around time. Modular mainte*nance design of the aircraft makes accessibility of the components quick and easy. All maintenance panels and components are installed at man's height for ease of mainte*nance. Computer-controlled fault diagnosis and analysis system not only reduce maintenance cost but also introduces the concept of "maintenance on fault only".

Long range radar and Active aircraft Beyond Visual Range (Active BVR) missile through effective integration with on board avionics provide pilot with a first shot capability. An elec*tro-optical self-protection suite with Missile Approach Warning system (MAWS) enhances its survivability under combat situations. Tactical datalink, with Track-While-Scan (TWS) and Dual Target Track (DTT) modes of the radar provide the pilot, an excellent Situation Awareness (SA) in all conditions. An integrated IFF interrogator along with colored displays provides easy cues for criti*cal decision-making.

JF-17's air combat capability is aug*mented by helmet-mounted display and all-aspect missiles affording high off-boresight launches. With its embedded data link and secure radios, the aircraft is expected to remain viable in future hostile bat*tles, and would prove to be an effec*tive low-cost high performance air defence fighter. It provides an affordable and efficient air-to-air mission capability. On the other hand, due to its advanced aerody*namic design, weapons carriage capability and avionics suite, it can strike the enemy, where it hurts him most in an offensive counter-air campaign. JF-17 thus would not only be lethal but will also be highly survivable.

Long range radar with multi-track and multi-target capabilities make Thunder a good choice for strike escort role. It can target the CAP air*craft while pushing the enemy away from the strike package. Its fire and forget capability reduces time on tar*get and thus ensures better surviv*ability. With the integration of AEW&C, JF-17 will have excellent SA even in enemy area to make crit*ical engagement and exit decisions. Furthermore, under hostile conditions, automated self-protection sys*tem of the aircraft affords high sur*vivability rate.

Large Radius Of Action (ROA) of Thunder and its weapon system capability make it an excellent light surface attack aircraft. Ring Laser Gyro (RLG) based Inertial Navigation System (INS) with embedded Global Positioning System (GPS) provides the capability of precision navigation over the entire ROA. It can carry multitude of external stores including conven*tional general purpose bombs, clus*ter bomb units, anti-runway bombs, anti-ship missiles and precision guided weapons that exist today. JF-*17 provides employment flexibility to suit the tactical conditions. JF-17's payload options make it airfield, pre*cision or maritime strike capable. It can be employed even for interdic*tion, armed reconnaissance, battle*field interdiction and close support roles.

It is designed to ensure effective MMI in all types of missions. Its efficient HOTAS controls and col*ored Smart Multi-Function Displays (SMFDs) provide ease of comprehension and control. The aircraft has a wide 24 degree Field Of View (FOV), Smart Head-Up-Display (SHOD) and Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) provide the requisite menu based controls and displays to the pilot. The symbologies are designed to ensure high SA of the pilot both in air-to-air and surface attack missions. Its Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator for both air-to-air and air-to-surface applications is available to avoid fratricide in hostile conditions. This advanced MMI concept affords com*puter-controlled capability diagnosis and failure monitoring system to reduce the pilot's work-load. Therefore, the performance index of JF-17 is much higher than that of a second or third generation aircraft, both in air-to-air and air-to-surface scenarios. It would therefore not only meet the objectives for which it is being developed but would also truly prove to be a "Giant Leap" for our progressing aviation industry, thus paving the way for future growth in related fields.
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Research Partner
May 16, 2006
Official PAF Documentary - "In Pursuit of Self Reliance"

Presumably the JF-17's HMD/S (this was displayed by PAF in above documentary). As you can see, the mannequin is sitting inside a yellow (prototype/testing) airframe and is equipped with MBU-5/P oxygen mask - i.e. the most commonly used mask in PAF right now. Most importantly, this was officially displayed by PAF...and as you can see, has quite a few similarities with JHMCS and Denel Archer. Whatever the case, this HMD/S will have to be compatible with the HGU-55/P helmet which was recently standardized in PAF.

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Research Partner
May 16, 2006
For those people uninterested in reading entire articles, I'll post some very interesting portions regarding JF-17:

The Rumble of Thunder by Usman Ansari

1. Discusses how PAF was looking for a higher performing engine than the current RD-93 for use on JF-17. Forefront options include the Chinese WS-13 and another Russian engine called "RD-93M". It is possible that RD-93M will be based on the RD-33MK, i.e. higher thrust, FADEC and maybe even TVC. That said, there was word about PAF studying or considering TVC on JF-17.

2. Kamra AMF currently manufactures (NOT assemble) 50% of the airframe, but this will gradually increase to 100%. However, export production will likely be handled by China as PAC Kamra will be busy handling the PAF's requirement.

The JF-17 Thunder: A hefty punch at an affordable price by Usman Ansari

1. PAF likely looking for an advanced AESA radar for JF-17, this could be linked with IRST-pod. JF-17 has an advanced avionics suite, excellent ECM/EW suite (second only to Block-52+ in PAF). Will be able to data-link, HMD/S similar to JHMCS, use BVR AAM, precision-guided munitions, etc (all this is well known by now).

2. PAF is also pursuing a 5th generation WVRAAM. At IDEAS 2006, Diehl BGT offered the IRIS-T.


Jan 18, 2009
This was posted by Crobato, a very senior Chinese member renowned for his expert opinions and analysis. His analysis of an article published by Chinese magazine are as follows:
Some of the highlights on the test pilot article.

"The maneuverability has a profound effect on me. This is one extremely nimble plane". He says when you pull the stick on the J-7, you can only pull it gradually so you can hold the proper angle of attack. The radius of turn is wide and the maneuverability is not good. On the FC-1, if you pull the stick, you can pull all the way in and get a very big instantaneous turn rate. Due to a quad Fly-by-wire, turn rate of this fighter is just remarkable. (something we witnessed in squadron induction ceremony)
Then the Chinese pilot asked PAF pilot how JF-17's maneuverability compares with F-16? PAF pilot said jf-17 maneuvers better. Then, PAF pilot asked Chinese pilot (who flew F-16 in UK before) the same question, he said they are probably similar. Then, he also said that this maneuverability is just for when it is horizontal and that F-16 is still slightly better for vertical (climb rate) due to superior T/W ratio. Then he talked about the cockpit with the 1 HUD and 3 MFDs. He said that it's like the ones on Gripen and F-18. The MFD gives pilots a really easy interface to work with. each one has 20 buttons to select different information. This allows the pilot to keep his head on flying the aircraft. Then he talked about how China's cockpit and MFD is much further ahead than the Russian ones and the Russians were surprised.

He says or agrees that the FC-1 has superior horizontal maneuverability over the F-16A (maneuvering in the horizontal plane). However due to inferior thrust to weight ratio, the F-16 still has the advantage on the vertical plane.
Avionics are very advanced and pilot workload is easier than any Chinese or even Russian plane at the moment. When compared to the Su-27, the FC-1's horizontal maneuverability easily holds its own, but the vertical maneuverability is inferior than the Flanker. Again thrust to weight ratio is the reason. The FC-1 cannot compare to the Su-27's ultra maneuverability aspects. He explains something here, which is interesting for people to learn. On a mechanically controlled plane like the J-7, you cannot pull the stick all the way through. At transonic speeds, on a delta winged aircraft, the delta can only use a small angle of attack. Once you pull past that limit, you will lose speed, and with it, lift, and the nose of the aircraft goes down. On a fly by wire plane such as the jf-17, you cannot have this problem because the FBW computer processes the inputs and carefully controls the angle of attack.
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Jan 18, 2009
----------------------------------space left for updates--------------------------------------

For the avionics and weapons qualification phase of the flight testing, PT-04 was fitted with a 4th generation avionics suite that incorporates sensor fusion, electronic warfare suite, enhanced man-machine interface, Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) for the RD-93 turbofan engine, FBW flight control, day/night precision surface attack capability and multi-mode pulse doppler radar for beyond visual range air-to-air attack capability, making the aircraft a modern multi-role fighter.

The EFIS is made up of three colour multi-function displays (MFD) providing basic flight information, tactical information and information on the engine, fuel, electrical, hydraulics, flight control and environment control systems. The HUD and MFD are "smart", meaning they can be configured by the pilot to show any of the available information.

The JF-17 has a defensive aids system (DAS) made up of various integrated sub-systems. A radar warning receiver (RWR) gives data such as direction and proximity of enemy radars to the pilot and electronic warfare (EW) suite, housed in a fairing at the tip of the tail fin for greater coverage, that interferes with enemy radars. The EW suite is also linked to a missile approach warning (MAW) system to help it defend against radar-guided missiles.

The avionics also include a health and usage monitoring system (HUMS). Automatic test equipment is supplied by Teradyne.

There has been a progression towards centralized control of the multiple complex systems fitted to aircraft, including engine monitoring and management. Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) are integrated with aircraft management computers to give maintainers early warnings of parts that will need replacement.

Computer-controlled fault diagnosis

The fuel system comprises internal fuel tanks located in the wings and fuselage, with capacity for 2330 kg (5,130 lb) of fuel, that are refuelled through a single point pressure refuelling system

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