• Sunday, May 19, 2019

Iran's Culture & Heritage

Discussion in 'Iranian Defence Forum' started by Ziggurat “TepeSialk“, Jan 11, 2016.

  1. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    People

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    Iran is a diverse country consisting of people of many religions and ethnic backgrounds cemented by the Persian culture. The majority of the population speaks the Persian language, which is also the official language of the country, as well as other Iranian languages or dialects which are spoken in some part of Iran such as Azeri dialect, Kurdish and Arabic language.Religion in Iran is dominated by the Twelver Shia branch of Islam, which is the official state religion and to which about 90% to 95% of Iranians belong. About 4% to 8% of Iranians belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, mainly Kurds and Irans Balochi Sunni. Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians are also non-Muslim religious minorities who are living in Iran.


    Culture

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    The Culture of Iran is a mix of ancient pre-Islamic culture and Islamic culture. Iranian culture has long been a predominant culture of the Middle East and Central Asia, with Persian considered the language of intellectuals during much of the 2nd millennium, and the language of religion and the populace before that.

    The Sassanian era was an important and influential historical period in Iran as Iranian culture influenced China, India and Roman civilization considerably, and so influenced as far as Western Europe and Africa. This influence played a prominent role in the formation of both Asiatic and European medieval art. This influence carried forward to the Islamic world. Much of what later became known as Islamic learning, such as philology, literature, jurisprudence, philosophy, medicine, architecture and the sciences were based on some of the practices taken from the Sassanid Persians to the broader Muslim world.
    The Iranian New Year (Nowruz) is an ancient tradition celebrated on 21 March to mark the beginning of spring in Iran. It is also celebrated in Afghanistan, Republic of Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and previously also in Georgia and Armenia. It is also celebrated by the Iraqi and Anatolian Kurds. Nowruz was registered on the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity and described as the Persian New Year by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 2009.Read more



    Nomads in Iran

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    Aryan tribes migrated into the Iranian plateau in the 2d millennium BC. There are over 1.5 million nomads in Iran today. Many of these tribes such as the Kurds, Bakhtiyaris (Bactrians), Lurs, Guilaks, and the Baluchs are descendants of the original invaders who came from Central Asia to settle in the Iranian Plateau.Most of the tribes of Central Iran are pure Aryan, while others such as the Arabs of Khuzestan and Khorassan, the Qashqai, the Turkmen, Shahsevan and Afshar tribes of Azarbaijan had ancestors who passed through Iran.By 1920 nomadic pastoral tribes were over a quarter of Irans population. Their number declined sharply as a result forced settlement in the 1920s and 1930s. Continued pressure as well as the lure of the cities and settled life has resulted in a further sharp decline since the 1960s.
    The largest tribal groups are the Kurds, who live in the province of Kurdestan in the northern Zagros region, the Lurs and the Bakhtiari, who live in the southern Zagros region, the Qashqai in Fars, the Turkoman in the northeast, and the Baluch in the southeast.There are over one hundred different nomadic tribes today, each with its own dialect, style of dress and housing, and its own chief or leader.The Bakhtiari tribe, which numbered more than 1 million in 1997, inhabits an area of approximately 67,000 Km (25,000 Mi) that straddles the central Zagros Mountains. They speak a dialect of Persian called Luri, are Shiite Muslims, and about one third of the tribe is nomadic. Their migration is among the most spectacular known among nomadic pastoralists anywhere.The Qashqai are a Turkish-speaking tribe of pastoral nomads in southern Iran. They migrate between winter pastures near the Persian Gulf and summer pastures on the Iranian Plateau. The Qashqai have shown greater cohesion than most Iranian tribes.They numbered an estimated 790,000 in 1997.The Baluch, whose name means wanderers retain a semi-nomadic way of life today. They habitate the far south-east part of Iran, the Mokran region, and far West Pakistan, which is a desert region. The Baluch share a common identity based on Baluchi-an Iranian language-and adherence to Sunni Islam. They are famous for camel races and rugs.Many of the Ghashgha in Fars province are still nomadic.
    The Lur are considered the most intact tribe, retaining their virility, robustness and tall stature. Mostly farmers and shepherds living in the Luristan area.
    Guilaks are among the most original tribes of Iran who speak a pure Persian dialect.Afshars are pastoral nomads residing in the Azarbaijan and Hamadan region in the summers and the Caspian coast in the winter. The Shahsevans live in the northeastern Azarbaijan.The Khamseh (Arabic for five together) is a federation of five tribes of pastoral nomads in the province of Fars in southern Iran. The five tribes, numbering more than 75,000, are the Persian-speaking Arab and Basseri and the Turkish-speaking Ainalu, Baharlu, and Nafar. With their sheep and other livestock, the Khamseh nomads migrate semiannually across the Zagros Mountains between the low-lying valleys and plains close to the coast of the Persian Gulf and the high, summer pastures on the Iranian Plateau.Read more


    History

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    The First inhabitants of Iran were a race of people living in western Asia. When the Aryans arrived, they gradually started mingling with the old native Asians. Aryans were a branch of the people today known as the Indo-Europeans, and are believed to be the ancestors of the people of present India, Iran, and most of Western Europe.Recent discoveries indicate that, centuries before the rise of earliest civilizations in Mesopotamia, Iran was inhabited by human. But the written history of Iran dates back to 3200 BC. It begins with the early Achaemenids, The dynasty whose under the first Iranian world empire blossomed.Cyrus the Great was the founder of the empire and he is the first to establish the charter of human rights. In this period Iran stretched from the Aegean coast of Asia Minor to Afghanistan, as well as south to Egypt. After Achaemenids, we witness about dozen successive dynasties reigning over the country, Dynasties such as Parthian, Sassanid, Samanid, Tahirid, Ghaznavid, Safavid, Zand, Afsharid, Qajar and Pahlavi. In 641 Arabs conquered Iran and launched a new vicissitudinous era. Persians, who were the followers of Zoroaster, gradually turned to Islam. Since Qajar dynasty on, due to the inefficiency of the rulers, Iran intensely begins to decline and gets smaller and smaller.


    Handicrafts

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    Recent archaeological excavations have shed new light on the earliest arts of the Iranian plateau. These newly discovered prehistoric sites date back to at least 5000 BC, and handsome decorated pottery, some of which is eggshell thin, has been found in great quantities at sites dated 3000 BC and later.
    Persian art and architecture reflects a 5,000-year-old cultural tradition shaped by the diverse cultures that have flourished on the vast Iranian plateau occupied by modern Iran and Afghanistan.Read more


    Architecture

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    Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills). As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft, and architecture is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft.Architecture is integrate part of history, economy, social issue, culture and tradition of each society.Read more


    Definition of Traditional Architecture in Iran


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    The architecture in Iran dates back to 5000 BCE to the present with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Syria to North India and the borders of China, from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses, and garden pavilions to some of the most majestic structures the world has ever seen.Most important properties of traditional Architecture of Iran include: harmony with the nature and environment and take benefit from natural facilities of the location, harmony with the traditions of all provinces,Iranian architecture portray detail of life, beliefs, moral, ethic code and some other. The essence of traditional Architecture of Iran consists of math and theosophy. As, in ancient Iranian books architecture is named as alhaseb and almohandess.Motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven. This theme, shared by virtually all Asia and persisting even into modern times, not only has given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional characters as well. The traditional architecture of the Iranian lands throughout the ages can be categorized into the six following classes or styles.


    Music

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    About the music of the Elamites not much is known; however, we know of a ruler of Susa who had musician at his temple gate about 2600 BC. There are also the bas-relief which shows musicians playing harps and tambourine. It is possible that there was not a lot of difference between Babylonian-Assyrian music and Iran at that time and the Persian names of tabire (drum) and karranay (trumpet) may be derived from names of the Akkadian tabbalu and qarnu.After the conquest of Alexander the Great when Hellenistic culture found expression in Persia, one might suppose that Greek derived the name of salpinx (trumpet) from Iranians. During Parthian period ( beginning 2nd century BC) when Aramaic became the official language, the word shaipur (trumpet) which is Semitic may be taken from Aramaic word.
    Sassanian dynasty cherished music as shown on rock carvings of Taq-i Bustan which are two types of harp, trumpet and drums. Also, lute (ud), guitar (rubab) and pandore (tanbura) can be seen from other arts. One can name Barbad, Shirin, and Azada as famous musicians of this era. We also know that specific modes of music were used at certain hours of the day, week, and month, each for a particular purpose as a part of governmental procedure. After the Arab conquest, Arabic music became known in Iran. At the same time, Persian music influenced Arabic music. In the 10th century, Persian musicians became favorite at Arab court and the Persian lute was a favored instrument.
    In the 9th century, the Khorasanian scale was introduced. The musicians played on Persian tanbur which became as popular as lute. The nay (flute), chang (harp), rabab (viol), and the nay-i siyah (reedpipe) were also common instruments at the time. Persian theorists were leaders in Arabian musical theory, for example, Al-Razi and Al-Sarakhsi. Ibn Sina mentions twelve principal modes of music:Rahawi, Husain, Rast, Busalik, Zangula, Ushshaq, Hijaz, Iraq, Ispahan, Nava, Buzurg, and Mukhalif (zirafgand). We know little about their formation. Four of modes mentioned above have Arabic names which may indicate Arabian origin. Ispahan was named as one of the ancient modes of Persia. There are also six secondary modes (avazat).
    During Ghuri rulers and Khwarizmi (12th -13 th century) music grew. Two notable theorists of this era were Fakhr al-Din al Razi and nasir al-Din al Tusi. Another Persian theorist was Qutb al Din al-Shirazi who was famous for Pearl of Crown (Durrat al-taj). In the Treasure-House of Gift (Kanz al -Tahaf) an important work in 1350, ud (lute), rubab (guitar), mughni ( archlute), chang (harp), nuzha, qanun (psaltery), ghishak (spiked viol), pisha (fife) and nay-i siyah (reedpipe) are completely described. In other places, dutar ( two strings) and sitar (three strings) exquisite of poet Hafez are mentioned.
    During Timuri Dynasty, Abdal-Qadir ibn Ghaibi lived who wrote The compiler of Melodies (Jami al-alhan) which is cherished in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. By the 14th and 15th century, twenty four branch modes (shuba) and forty eight derived modes (gusha) began, respectively. By the 17th century, there were twenty four of rhythmic modes (usul).
    Under Safavid Dynasty, chartar (four strings) and sheshtar (six strings) musical instruments were invented. Ud (lute) and kamancha (spiked viol) were the most favorite instruments with addition of nay (flute) and daira (tambourine) as can be seen in a painting of Shah Safi court. Surnay (shawm), naqqarat (kettledrums), karna (long trumpet), duhul (side drum), and kus (kettledrum) were for military uses. Persian theory especially in nomenclature influenced Indian, Arabian, Turkish and Turkomanian music. Even China through Turkomans was affected by Persian instruments.
    By the 19th century, ud (lute), rubab (guitar), qanun (psaltery) were not in use but santur (dulcimer) was still used. During the second half of the 19th century, three viols rumuz, madilan, and tarab angiz were introduced.
    About the mid century, European influence found its way into Persia, mostly in military bands. In the early 20th century, Ali Naqi khan Vaziri a teacher, a composer and instrumentalist played an important role in reviving and advancing the native music of Persia. Vaziri gives the notation of most popular modes (avaz); Mahur, humayun, Bayat-i Ispahan, chahargah, shur, segah, nava, and bayat-i kurd. Pish dar amad is an introduction which prepares the listener for dastgah (melodic modes) which are the pieces to come. Today as in every generation young musicians are looking for ways to express themselves.
     
    Last edited: Jan 11, 2016
  2. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    International Registered Monuments
    Perspolis


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    Founded by Darius I in 518 B.C., Persepolis was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It was built on an immense half-artificial, half-natural terrace, where the king of kings created an impressive palace complex.Read more


    Thread: Ancient Iranian Civilizations since 12000 years ago


    Chogha Zanbil

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    The ruins of the holy city of the Kingdom of Elam, surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at Tchogha Zanbil. Founded c. 1250 B.C., the city remained unfinished after it was invaded by Ashurbanipal.Read more



    Meidan Emam SQ(Naqsh-e-Jahan Square)


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    Built by Shah Abbas I the Great at the beginning of the 17th century, and bordered on all sides by monumental buildings linked by a series of two-storeyed arcades, the site is known for the Royal Mosque, the Mosque of Sheykh Lotfollah, the magnificent Portico of Qaysariyyeh and the 15th-century Timurid palace.Read more


    Takht-e Soleyman

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    The archaeological site of Takht-e Soleyman, in north-western Iran, is situated in a valley set in a volcanic mountain region. The site includes the principal Zoroastrian sanctuary partly rebuilt in the Ilkhanid period (13th century) as well as a temple of the Sasanian.


    Bam and its Cultural Landscape

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    Bam is situated in a desert environment on the southern edge of the Iranian high plateau. The origins of Bam can be traced back to the Achaemenid period (6th to 4th centuries BC).Read more


    Pasargadae

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    Pasargadae was the first dynastic capital of the Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus II the Great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BCIts palaces, gardens and the mausoleum of Cyrus are outstanding.Read more


    Soltaniyeh

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    The mausoleum of Oljaytu was constructed in 1302-12 in the city of Soltaniyeh, the capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, which was founded by the Mongols. Situated in the province of Zanjan.Read more


    Bisotun

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    Bisotun is located along the ancient trade route linking the Iranian high plateau with Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Ilkhanid periods.Read more


    Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran

    The Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran, in the north-west of the country, consists of three monastic ensembles of the Armenian Christian faith: St Thaddeus and St Stepanos and the Chapel of Dzordzor.

    Irans Culture & Heritage
     
    Last edited: Jan 11, 2016
  3. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Iranian Food(Persian Cuisine-Persian Cooking)

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    The cuisine refers to the traditional and modern styles of cooking related to Iran. The Iranian culinary style is unique to Iran, though has historically both influenced and been influenced by Iran's neighboring regions at various stages throughout the history. Specifically, these have been mutual culinary influences to and from Mesopotamian cuisine, Anatolian cuisine, and especially the Central Asian cuisine. The cuisine includes a wide variety of food families ranging from rice served with roasted meat (chelow kebab), different kinds of Persian-style Kebabs, namely Barg, Koubideh, Shishleek, Soltani, Chenjeh; various types of stews served with rice (Khoresht), namely Ghormeh Sabzi, Gheimeh, Fesenjan; different types of thick soup (Ash) including ash-e reshte, ash-e anar, ash-e dough; a special type of vegetable souffle, namely kuku; a wide variety of rice served with other food items, named in Persian “polo” for example Loobia Polo (Rice with green beans), Albaloo polo (Rice with Black Cherry), Rice with Vegetables (Sabzi Polo), Rice with Barberries (Zereshk Polo), etc. and a diverse variety of Salads, Pastries, and soft drinks specific to different parts of Iran.


    Iranian Caviar

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    Perhaps one of the most prized and delicious products that come from Iran is the Iranian caviar. Caviar can be very expensive due to its rare and delicate nature. Iranian caviar is the roe or eggs from female sturgeon fish caught in the pristine environment along the Caspian Sea. About 90% of Caviar production of the world comes from the Caspian Sea, and it is thought the southern fish, caught along the Iranian coastline produce the best caviar in the world. Caviar is particularly delicate, and difficult to process and handle. The manual labor that goes into packaging the product naturally adds to the cost of the product.Read more



    Ghormeh Sabzi

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    This dish is one of Persian authentic stew
    Khoresh-e Ghormeh Sabzi is one of the most delicious and popular dishes among Iranians. I’ve never met anyone who didn’t like ghormeh sabzi. The combination of flavorful and aromatic herbs, slow cooked lamb cubes, fork-tender beans and dried lemons make the khoresh very tasty and nutritious.
    The history of ghormeh sabzi goes back at least 500 to 1000 years(according to wikipedia) .I recall from my childhood , people would name it the king of stews .The traditional recipe forms with stew meat sauteed with onion, red beans(but I prefer kidney or Roman beans),fried herbs (persian leek,parsley,fenugreek and a little bit spinach).,dried lime(limo amani),spices(Turmeric,pepper) .The dish is then served with polo. Read more


    Zereshk Polo

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    Iran is known for many of its exports …… oil, saffron, rugs, and of course Persian cats. But one commodity that many in the West may not know of is zereshk. Iran is the biggest producer of zereshk in the world. Zereshk are dried barbarries – small delicious tart berries that have been cultivated in Iran for over 200 years. They are used in jams, dried fruit leathers and candies. But one of the most popular dishes that features zereshk is Zereshk Polo.Zereshk polo is one of the easiest and yet most elegant Persian dishes to prepare. This traditional rice dish has the perfect balance of tart and sweet. Zershk Polo is delicious on it’s own, but I find that it goes exceptionally well withSaffron and Lemon Roasted Chicken.


    Kashk-e Bademjan

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    Fortunately, Persian cuisine is an eggplant lovers paradise. If I had to pick my favourite Persian eggplant dish it would be a tight race, but I think Kashk-e Bademjan would have to be the winner. Creamy and garlic-y with caramelized onion and tender, fried eggplant, this dip is ridiculously delicious. It has ruined many Persian restaurant lunches for me as I can not resist ordering it and eat so much that I have no room left for Kabab!For those of you who don’t know, kashk is whey – the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained in the cheese-making process. In North America, most people’s familiarity with whey is in the form of whey protein for protein shakes. In the Middle East, whey (or kashk as we call it in Farsi), is used a great deal in cooking. It provides a wonderful flavour and a creamy consistency to a lot of dishes. Kashk and eggplant are a wonderful complement to each other. The following is the Kashk-e Bademjan recipe my mother taught me, which I believe is superior to any restaurant version I’ve had


    Khorest-e Ghaimeh

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    For those of you unfamiliar with Khorest, it is a Persian stew and one of the pillars of Iranian cuisine. I have to admit that I always found the idea of cooking Khorest very intimidating. It seemed complicated and time-consuming and best left up to the experts….. namely my mother. But once she began to teach me, I learnt that, while Khorests do take a long time to simmer (as do most stews), many of them are incredibly simple to prepare and are the perfect make ahead dinner.Khorest-e Ghaimeh was always one of my favourite stews growing up and one of the absolute easiest Khorests to prepare. It is a savoury mix of tender beef, yellow split peas flavoured with rich tomato and tangy dried persian limes and then topped with fried potatoes. What child wouldn’t love a stew that is essentially topped with french fries!There is much debate in my family about how the potatoes should be served. My mother and I like to serve them on top of the Khorest as a garnish so they remain crispy. My father, on the other hand, says that the “correct” way is to incorporate the fried potatoes into the stew so they absorb the delicious flavours. You be the judge.


    Mirza Ghassemi

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    Mirza Ghassemi is a delicious blend of creamy baked eggplant, tomatoes, lots of garlic and egg. There is something poetic about the combination of eggplant and tomato……Italians have Caponata, the French have Ratatouille, the Lebanese have Menazzaleh and we Iranians have Mirza Ghassemi.Mirza Ghassemi is a Northern Iranian dish from the Gilan province. The first time I remember tasting it was in my student days at a restaurant in Montreal. As an eggplant and garlic lover I was instantly in love! I had never cooked an Iranian dish in my entire life but I called home immediately and demanded a recipe from my mother. My roommate and I attempted to re-create the dish and were surprised at how simple it was. It became a regular part of our cooking repertoire and hopefully it will become part of yours as well.


    Persian Rice and Golden Potato Crust (Ta-dig)

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    To Persians, making rice is an art form. There is a great deal of care and detail involved in making the perfect fluffy and delicate rice we are famous for. The crown jewel of Persian rice is the Ta-dig. The delicious, crunchy golden crust that forms at the bottom of the pot during the cooking process.Ta-dig is beloved by Iranians and it often disappears as soon as it hits the dining table. When I first started dating my husband, who is Canadian, my younger brother tried to convince him that non-Iranians were not allowed to eat the ta-dig in a desperate attempt to keep it all for himself.Ta-dig comes in many forms. Some make it with simple saffron rice, others add lavash bread, yogurt, tomatoes, scallions or leeks…..the possibilities are endless. But my absolute favourite is ta-dig made with thinly sliced potatoes. The potatoes form a crispy crust that almost tastes like a cross between a french fry and a potato chip……can you think of anything better than that?

     
  4. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Iranian Kabab: A Complete Guide

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    By: dreamofIran

    Iran is the land of Kababs but Iranian cuisine is much more diverse, complicated and difficult to be made than that. Located in the Middle East, Iranian cuisine has both influenced and been influenced by its Western and Eastern neighbors. Perhaps, the modern Iranian style of cooking includes a wide variety of foods, a combination of Mesopotamian, Anatolian, Central Asian, Russian, Armenian and the ancient Iranian recipes, finely blended together as one of the most delicious cuisines in the world.In Iran, fresh herbs, pomegranates, dried plums and prunes, raisins, apricots and saffron are generously consumed in the process of cooking, giving the food a delicate and moderate flavor which is not too spicy, too sour, too sweet or too salty.

    Chelow Kabab which is relatively simpler than the other recipes, is considered Iran’s national dish and served throughout Iran today, though was traditionally associated with the northern part of the country. Chelow Kabab is steamed, saffroned Iranian rice and kabab, of which there are several distinct varieties.

    Kabab Koobideh: Koobideh is the Iran’s signature Kebab and the most famous of them all. It is made from ground lamb, beef or chicken mixed with chopped onions. Koobideh refers to the style that meat was prepared, originally placed on a flat stone (precisely a black flat stone) and was smashed by wooden mallet.

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    Kabab Koobideh

    Joojeh Kabab: Joujeh Kabab is barbecued chicken with olive oil, tomatoes and saffron.

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    Joojeh Kabab

    Kabab Barg: Barg is in fact barbecued lamb, chicken or beef kebab dish. The main ingredients of Kabab-e Barg are fillets of beef tenderloin, lamb shank, onions, safron, olive oil and mild spices.

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    Kabab Barg

    Shishlik or Shish Kebab: Shishlik meaning skewered meat is originally made of lamb and popular in many countries. In Iran, it is grilled meat with bones, previously marinated in onion, olive oil and saffron.

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    Shishlik served at Shandiz restaurant | Mashhad

    Kabab Torsh: Kabab torsh is a traditional kebab from Gilan province in Iran. It is made with beef – usually sirloin or tenderloin – marinated in a paste made of crushed walnuts, pomegranate juice or paste, chopped parsley, olive oil, and crushed garlic.

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    Kabab Torsh

    Kabab Sultani: The combination of one Kabab Barg and one Kabab Koobideh is typically called soltānī, meaning King’s (meal).

    Kabab Bolghari: Kabab bakhtiari is a combination of jujeh kabab and kabab barg in a decussate form.

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    Kabab Bakhtiari
     
  5. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Kabab Chenjeh: Chenjeh is pure meat and very similar to western steaks. However, unlike most of Iranian Kebabs, onion is not used in prepration. Chenjeh is usually made from the meat of newly slaughtered sheep, when it’s still soft and fresh.

    Mahi Kabab: Mahi Kabab or barbecued fish is popular in both northern and southern Iran, particularly in Caspian sea and Persian Gulf regions. However white fish (Caspian Kutum) from the Caspian Sea is among the preferred type for the dish.

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    Mahi Kabab

    Recipe for Kabab Koobideh: (4 servings)
    Ingredients:


    1 kilograms ground meat (lamb or beef or a mix of both and grind finely 2,3 times)

    1 large onion (grated)

    2 large egg yolk (beaten)

    4 medium tomatoes

    1 teaspoon baking soda

    1 teaspoon salt

    3 spoonful boiled saffron

    1/2 teaspoon black pepper

    1 tablespoon sumac

    PREPARATIONS:

    1- Soak 1/2 Tsp saffron in a class of hot water, cover the glass with a lid and leave it to give out its color. You will need 3 spoonful of the result for Kabab Koobideh and can keep the leftover in the fridge for long time.

    2- Grate the onions and drain the excessive juice.

    DIRECTION:

    1. Mix meat, onion, eggs, baking soda, 3 spoonful of boiled saffron, salt and paper well with your hands in a large bowl until the mixture becomes well blended. The result should be sticky like dough. Leave it aside for 2 hours.

    2. Take a handful of meat and place it on the long, thick metal skewers, press the meat around oval and shape evenly flat. +

    3. If the meat is sticky, leave a bowl of water next to you to drip in your hand while placing the meat to prevent the stickiness.

    4. Thread whole tomatoes on another skewer.

    5. Barbeque each side for about five minutes, turning frequently. If skewers are not available or barbequing is not possible, kabab-e koobideh can be shaped into long, thin portions on aluminum foil and grilled at high temperature in the oven. The oven should be pre-heated and kabab-e koobideh should be placed as high as possible near the source of the heat.

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    Kabab Koobideh on Fire

    Serve with hot Polow (Chelow) or on Iranian bread. If serving with rice, may be topped by butter and some sumac. If kabab-e koobideh was made in an oven, the juice from the kabab can be poured on rice or bread.

    Recipe for Rice (Polow) : (4 Servings)
    4 cups long-grain rice or basmati

    6 tablespoons cooking oil

    1 tablespoon salt

    3 spoonful butter

    1 or 2 spoonful saffron ( You may use the leftovers from the Kabab Koobideh recipe)

    DIRECTION:

    The preparation of Iranian polow (chelow) is a delicious non-sticky rice, normally served with kababs or any of the main Persian dishes.

    Wash rice twice and soak in salted warm water for 2-3 hours, then drain the water. Pour water in a large pan until it is half-full and bring it to a boil.

    Add rice and a spoonful of salt and continue boiling until rice slightly softens. (The rice should become soft but slightly chewy. Experience makes perfect. ) Pour rice into a drain and wash it with slightly warm water.

    Pour 3 spoonfuls of cooking oil into the pan and add rice. Pour 3 spoonfuls of butter and 1 spoonful of saffron over rice. Cover the pan and cook over low heat for about half an hour. If cooking time is increased, a delicious crispy layer of rice (called ta-dig) will form at the bottom of the pan. But be careful, not to burn it.

    Enjoy your meal while reading a history of Chelo-Kabab!

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    A dish of Kabab Koobideh with rice and veggies
     
  6. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Iranian Art:

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    Iranian art, as one of the richest world artistic heritage, dates back to thousands years ago portraying natural and historical events from among which the paintings on cave walls could be mentioned. Moreover, the bas-reliefs in Persepolis as well as the matchless tile-work from the Islamic era add to the richness of Iranian art. Art in Iran covers a vast scope of fields an epitome of which is the Iranian carpet enjoying world fame. Below comes an introduction to the uniqe ones. Persian art and architecture reflects a 5,000-year-old cultural tradition shaped by the diverse cultures that have flourished on the vast Iranian plateau. Throughout its development, Persian artistic achievement has normally been imperial in nature, with impressive majestic monuments or associated with royal patronage in book illustration. Countless painters, weavers, potters, calligraphers, metalworkers, stone masons etc. have produced some of the most beautiful works ever created, and contributed to the Persian artistic heritage that is known throughout the world.



    Enamel (Mina Kari)

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    Decoration and painting on metals are from among the handicrafts Iranians have excelled at. The evidence refers to the fact that enamel has its roots in Iran in distant past and then opened its way to other countries. Enamel is the art of painting on and decoration of the surface of a metal through melting shining metal colors. Nowadays, the metal which is used for enamel is copper but in the past, gold and silver were used as well. In today’s Iran, Isfahan is the center for enamel works and distinguished masters are actively involved in it.
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    Painting and Miniature

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    Oriental historian Basil Gray believes "Iran has offered a particularly unique [sic] art to the world which is excellent in its kind". Caves in Iran's Lorestan province exhibit painted imagery of animals and hunting scenes. Some such as those in Fars Province and Sialk are at least 5,000 years old.Painting in Iran is thought to have reached a climax during the Tamerlane era when outstanding masters such as Kamaleddin Behzad gave birth to a new style of painting. Paintings of the Qajar period, are a combination of European influences and Safavid miniature schools of painting such as those introduced by Reza Abbasi. Masters such as Kamal-ol-molk, further pushed forward the European influence in Iran. It was during the Qajar era when "Coffee House painting" emerged. Subjects of this style were often religious in nature depicting scenes from Shia epics and the like.The themes of Persian miniature are mostly related to the Persian mythology and poetry. Western artists discovered the Persian miniature in the beginning of the 20th century. Persian miniatures uses pure geometry and vivid palette. The allure of Persian miniature painting lies in its absorbing complexities and in the surprising way it speaks to large questions about the nature of art and the perception of its masterpieces. The most important function of miniature was illustration. It gave a visual image to the literary plot, making it more enjoyable, and easier to understand. Miniature developed into a marriage of artistic and poetic languages and obtained a deep and sincere accordance with poetry.Read more


    The Persian Rug (Iranian Rug)

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    Since the distant past, Iranians have been the pioneers in the art of weaving elegant carpets. Dating back to the 5th-century BC, the peerless Pazyryk Carpet was found in the graveyard belonging to one the kings of the Scythian. The patterns on the carpet are reminiscent of the bas-relief of the Achaemenid dynasty and many researchers believe that the current carpet is the same as the ones in the Achaemenid palace, weaving-style wise. What makes Iranian carpet distinct from the others is the elegancy in weaving, variety in drawing and pattern, and natural dying.
    The Persian Carpet(Rug) is an essential part of Persian art and culture. Carpet-weaving is undoubtedly one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to the Ancient Persia (c.500 BC). The art of carpet weaving in Iran has its roots in the culture and customs of its people and their instinctive feelings. Weavers mix elegant patterns with a myriad of colors. The Iranian carpet is similar to the Persian garden: full of florae, birds, and beasts.The colors are usually made from wild flowers, and are rich in colors such as burgundy, navy blue, and accents of ivory. The proto-fabric is often washed in tea to soften the texture, giving it a unique quality. Depending on where the rug is made, patterns and designs vary. And some rugs, such as Gabbeh, and Gelim have a variations in their textures and number of knots as well.The exceptional craftsmanship in weaving these carpets and silken textile thus caught the attention of the likes of Xuanzang, Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, and Jean Chardin.In the words of Arthur Pope: "All around the world, Iranian carpets are the symbol of poetical luxury."Read more


    Pottery and Ceramics

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    Pottery is one of the most ancient types of Iranian art and after paintings in caves, it is the oldest type of human art. In Iran, the excavations in a place called “Ganj Darreh”, i.e. Treasure Valley, in Kermanshah province, has reached to the oldest pottery dating back to 8000 BC.
    Pottery stands witness to the civilization process and each nation has had specific patterns, signs, symbols, and decorations for their pottery. During the year 5000 BC, geometric patterns appeared on the pottery and after that the potter’s wheel gave way to creating more stylish ones and thanks to the furnaces, more colors were given to them. The first type of glazed pottery was made during the Elamites discovered from the excavations in Tchogha Zanbil. Pottery has undergone a lot of changes and during different ages, various colors and patterns have been applied to it. Museums are replete with unique samples from pre- and Islamic era.Iranian Pottery production presents a continuous history from the beginning of the Iranian history until the present day.Prominent archeologist Roman Ghirshman believes "the taste and talent of this people [Iranians] can be seen through the designs of their earthen wares".Of the thousands of archeological sites and historic ruins of Iran, almost every single one can be found to have been filled, at some point, with earthenware of exceptional quality. Thousands of unique vessels alone were found in Sialk and Jiroft sites.The occupation of the potter ("kuzeh gar") has a special place in Persian literature.
     
  7. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Calligraphy of Iran

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    Says writer Will Durant: "Ancient Iranians with an alphabet of 36 letters, used skins and pen to write, Instead of ear-then tablets". Such was the creativity spent on the art of writing. The significance of the art of calligraphy in works of pottery, metallic vessels, and historic buildings is such that they are deemed lacking without the adorning decorative calligraphy. It is believed to be one of the most eye catching and fascinating manifestations of Persian culture.Illuminations, and especially the Holy Quran and works such as the Shahnameh, Divan Hafez, Golestan, Bostan et al are recognized as highly invaluable because of their delicate calligraphy alone. Vast quantities of these are scattered and preserved in museums and private collections worldwide, such as the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg and Washington's Freer Gallery of Art among many others. Shekasteh, Nasta'liq, Naskh and Mohaqqaq are some of the styles of Persian Calligraphy.Read more



    Literature of Iran

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    Persian literatureis by far the most stalwart expression of the Iranian genius. While there are interesting works in prose, it is poetry where the Iranian literature shines at its most. Flourishing over a period of more than a millennium, it was esteemed and imitated well beyond the confines of the Iranian homeland. The literature of Turkey and India developed under its influence. Persian poets such as Sa'di, Hafiz, Rumi and Omar Khayyam are well known in the world and have influenced the literature of many countries.


    Tile work

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    The Tile work is a unique feature of the blue mosques of Isfahan. In the old days, Kashan(kash + an which literally means "land of tiles") and Tabriz were the two famous centers of Iranian mosaic and tile industry.Read more


    Architecture

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    The architecture of Iran is one with an exceedingly ancient tradition and heritage. As Arthur Pope put it, "the meaningful Impact of Persian architecture is versatile. Not overwhelming but dignified, magnificent and impressive".
    The main building types of classical Iranian architecture are the mosque and the palace. The architecture makes use of abundant symbolic geometry, using pure forms such as the circle and square. Plans are based on often symmetrical layouts featuring rectangular courtyards and halls. The post-Islamic architecture of Iran draws ideas from its pre-Islamic predecessor, and has geometrical and repetitive forms, as well as surfaces that are richly decorated with glazed tiles, carved stucco, patterned brickwork, floral motifs, and calligraphy.


    Metalworks (Qalam-zani)

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    Metalworkhas been used for millennia. It may be utilized for ornamental, domestic or practical purposes. In ancient times primarily copper and bronze were used. The royalty and very rich used gold and silver. Most common modern items are tea sets, bowls, trays, vases, and jewelry.
    Metal engraving is the art of creating engravings on metal objects with special styluses and the hitting of hammers. The objects used for such a purpose were mostly gold and silver but, nowadays, copper and brass are used instead. The art roots in pre-Achaemenid era and during the first millennium BC, metal engraving was of great importance. Nowadays, invaluable engraving works such as the Golden Goblets of Marlik. Matchless works belonging to Achaemenid and Sasanid era have been excavated as well. The unique features of engraving works in form of reliefs on gold and silver of the Sasanid era are the winged animals, head of lion and dragon, different types of flowers and birds, the dancers, music instruments, and fighting and hunting ceremonies. During the next eras, no significant change was seen in the relief types and the patterns are mainly in form of the arabesque, flowers, birds, animals, Isfahan, etc.; however, in the Islamic era the cuneiform was replaced by Islamic scripts and calligraphy. Isfahan has always been the center for metal engraving art.Read more


    Relief and sculpture

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    Relief carvinghas a history dating back thousands of years. Elamite relief are still to be found in Iran with Persepolis being a mecca of relief creations of antiquity.


    Khatam-kari (Inlay)

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    Inlay is the art of decorating the surface of wood with small pieces of metal and bone which are put together in triangular patterns creating well-formed geometric decorations. There is not much evidence from the past on the origin of the inlay works as the main constituents of them are glue and wood which disappear by time. However, in some holy shrines, where the inlay works are well protected, samples are seen which date back to 200 or 300 years ago and Iran is now the center for inlay works across the globe. Although India, Syria, Iraq, and Palestine have masters in doing inlay works, they are not as elegant as the works in Iran are, in other words, the art is Iran specific.
    From among the eminent inlay works, the gateway to Charbagh Soltani School in art market, of the Safavid era, and the shrine of Sheikh Safieddin in Ardabil are of notice.Inlay is the art of decorating the surface of wood with small pieces of metal and bone which are put together in triangular patterns creating well-formed geometric decorations. There is not much evidence from the past on the origin of the inlay works as the main constituents of them are glue and wood which disappear by time. However, in some holy shrines, where the inlay works are well protected, samples are seen which date back to 200 or 300 years ago and Iran is now the center for inlay works across the globe. Although India, Syria, Iraq, and Palestine have masters in doing inlay works, they are not as elegant as the works in Iran are, in other words, the art is Iran specific.
    From among the eminent inlay works, the gateway to Charbagh Soltani School in art market, of the Safavid era, and the shrine of Sheikh Safieddin in Ardabil are of notice.Delicate and meticulous parquetry, produced since the Safavid period: at this time, khatam was so popular in the court that princes learned this technique at the same level of music or painting. In the 18th and 19th centuries, katahm declined, before being stimulated under the Reign of Reza Shah, with the creation of craft schools in Tehran, Isfahan, and Chiraz. "Khatam" means "incrustation", and "Khatam-kari", "incrustation work". This craft consists in the production of incrustation patterns (generally star shaped), with thin sticks of wood (ebony, teak, ziziphus, orange, rose),brass (for golden parts), camel bones (white parts). Ivory, gold or silver can also be used for collection objects. Sticks are assembled in triangular beams, themselves assembled and glued in a strict order to create a 70cm diameter cylinder, which section is the main motif: a six-branch star included in a hexagon. These cylinders are cut into shorter cylinders, and then compressed and dried between two wooden plates, before being cut for the last time, in 1mm wide trenches. So this section is ready to be plated and glued on the object to be decorated, before lacquer finishing. The trenches can also be heated to be soften to follow curves of a rounded object. Many objects can be so decorated, such as: boxes, chessboards, cadres, pipes, desks or some musical instruments. Katham can be used on Persian miniature, realizing true work of art.Coming from techniques imported from China and improved by Persian know-how, this craft existed for more than 700 years and is still perennial in Isfahan and Shiraz.Read more
     
  8. dadeechi

    dadeechi BANNED

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    Greats posts my friend.
     
  9. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Religious places in Iran

    Imam Reza (Eighth Shia imam) (PBUH) shrine in Khurasan (Mashhad):

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  10. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Sayyedah Fatemah Masumeh (PBUH) shrine in Qum:

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  11. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Imam Mahdi (PBUH) mosque in Qum, Jamkaran:

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    Imamzadeh Saleh (PBUH) shrine, Tehran:

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  12. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Imamzadeh Ahmad (PBUH) shrine, Shiraz:

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    Imamzadeh Abdul Azim Hasani (PBUH) shrine, Rey:

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  13. Orakzai

    Orakzai FULL MEMBER

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    iran has a very beautiful culture. best part is they have preserved their heritage very well.
     
  14. Brutas

    Brutas FULL MEMBER

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    Brilliant. An oasis of civilization,art, architecture, culture bordering the dark desert savages.
     
  15. Ziggurat “TepeSialk“

    Ziggurat “TepeSialk“ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Beautiful Mosques of Iran


    Imam Mosque in Isfahan is an excellent example of Iranian Islamic architecture. This everlasting masterpiece is registered, along with the Naghsh-i Jahan Square, as UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its construction began in 1611, and its splendor is mainly due to the beauty of its seven-colour mosaic tiles and calligraphic inscriptions. The distinct feature of any mosque is the minaret, and the Imam mosque has four. Inside, the acoustic properties and reflections at the central point under the dome is an amusing interest for many visitors, as the ingenuity of the architects, when creating the dome, enables the Imam to speak with a subdued voice and still be heard clearly by everyone inside the building. The architecture of the mosque is very complicated with various iwans and courtyards. The mosque is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 20,000 rials banknote.

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    The dome of the Imam mosque in Isfahan

    Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, Isfahan

    The purpose of this mosque was for it to be a private mosque of the royal court, that’s why it does not have any minaret. The entry gateway, like those of the Grand Bazaar and the Imam mosque, was a recessed half-moon. Creation of the calligraphy and tiles, which exceed, in both beauty and quality, anything created beforehand in the Islamic world, was overseen by Master calligrapher Ali Reza Abbasi.

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    Sheikh Lotfullah mosque, Isfahan / Photo credit: Andrew Schneider

    Nasir al-Mulk mosque, Shiraz

    The mosque was built during the Qājār era, and is still in use under protection by Nasir al Mulk’s Endowment Foundation. The mosque extensively uses colored glass in its facade, and displays other traditional elements such as five concaves in its design. The other title of the mosque is Rose Mosque, due to the pink and rose color tileworks used in the structure.

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    Woman is praying at magnificient Nasirul Mulk Mosque, Shiraz / Photo: Javad Gharaey

    Grand mosque, Yazd

    A fine specimen of the Azari style of Iranian architecture, The grand mosque of Yazd is crowned by a pair of minarets, the highest in Iran, and the portal’s facade is decorated from top to bottom in dazzling tile work, predominantly blue in colour. The mosque is a must visit of the ancient city of Yazd and is depicted on the obverse of the Iranian 200 rials banknote.

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    Yazd Grand mosque in a sundown./ Photo: ?

    Sheikh Safi, Ardebil

    Sheikh Safi complex was constructed between the beginning of the 16th century and the end of the 18th century. The mausoleum, a tall, domed circular tower decorated with blue tile and about 17 meters in height. At a right angle to the mosque, there is resting place of Sheikh Safi, an eminent leader of an Islamic Sufi order.

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    Sheikh Safi mosque in Ardabil, Iran / Photo: Lutz Magel

    Goharshad mosque, Mashhad

    Built by the order of Empress Goharshad, the wife of Shah Rukh of the Timurid Dynasty in 1418 CE, Goharshad mosque is a former free standing mosque in Mashhad. The location is beside the Shrine of Imam Reda, 8th Shiite Imam:
    “Its portal continues the Samarkand style of arch within arch, enriched by a succession of bevels and reveals that give it depth and power. The thick, tower-like minarets, merging with the outer corners of the portal screen, extend to the ground and, together with the high foundation revetment of marble, give the ensemble the impression of solidity necessary to support its exuberant color. The entire court facade is faced with enamel brick and mosaic faience of the finest quality.
    The full scale of colors includes a dominant cobalt blue and turquoise, white, a transparent green, yellow, saffron, aubergine and mirrorblack – all tones fluctuating through several shades.
    This is accomplished by the energy of the faience floral patterns and brick geometrical schemes; by the emphatic rhythm of the arcades, open galleries and deep recesses; and especially by the contrast of the ivans.” Says Arthur Pope in his book Persian Architecture: The Triumph of Form and Color.

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    Goharshad mosque in Mashhad / Photo: Arash Emami