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Iranian Air Defense Systems

skyshadow

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It is really surprising that is developed such complex Staten which even countries like China, India, France and UK are finding it hard. Only is and Russia has comparable system.

I find this a bit suspicious as Iran didn't have any previous teach record of development it's own seekers and AESA radar needed for such powerful missile

we we planned for this for so long we worked on it for 10 years and we got some help from Russia and China but we worked really hard for this, one thing you need to know is that Iranian will not stand still so some one can mock them Russians did this to us they said no way you can do this and they did not give us any of radars that we wanted and payed we needed them at that time, so we worked around the clock to build this, yes this technology jump is unlivable for us too but Iran has a lot of engineers.
 

AmirPatriot

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Not bistatic but multi-aspect yes. The would need to operate in the same band to be able to set up a kind of bi-static system but their benefit is that they operate in two different bands simultaneously in real-time.
A bi-static effect happens with the likely SAGG guided Sayyad-4, like it theoretically happens with the S-300 and Patriot.
The Bavar can hover use multi-aspect effect agaist stealth targets: For that the radars need to be placed at distance. The VLO platform will try to put its lowest RCS aspect toward the closest threat emitter and by doing so it can't control the RCS level reflected to the second threat emitter. However if the X-band engagement radar is the second emitter, it may successfully evade it because U.S stealth peaks in effectiveness at X-band. A complex situation... to point the lowest RCS, the location/direction of the threat emitter must be known, but the Bavar radars should have very low side lobes and LPI techniques applied.



Bi-static networks are always fragile. Bi-static effect of an illuminating radar and SARH seeker is very robust.
So you best avoid bi-static networks at the core of your kill chain.
You better avoid assets that require runways in the days of the end of the INF threat and the advent of hypersonic weapons.
AEW would certainly help, best against low flying targets. However if you manage to do it without AEW assets than you are on the robust side.



That criticism is obsolete, I was too conservative/pessimistic back then. In fact the Bavar will operate like this against stealth: Target detected --> SAM launched towards it --> SAM continuously updated via missile up-link --> radar starts to track target in the last seconds --> SARH seeker tries to find a lock and if the target is very stealthy, this X-band lock will only happen in the last 5km, or in other words lat 2-3 seconds. There will be a threshold at which VLO techniques will not be sufficient, especially at distances like below 5km.
A HAWK locks its seeker at 40km with much lower power and aperture levels... a S-200 at 240km... now imagine the Bavar not achieving a lock at 3-5km against the stealth targets and at such close ranges there is a exponential increase in signal strength.
So no, at those close ranges, not even a -50dB VLO system will remain invisible, especially if the bi-static effect kicks in too.
The art here is to first detect the VLO target and somehow guide the SAM towards it. Here Irans art is the use of a separate S-band "engagement" radar that steals away -20dB from the VLO assets stealth budget due to its wavelength. Those 20dB reduction is enough to detect the VLO target at SAM relevant ranges of 200km. The VLO asset still has -5-10dB RCS reduction due to RAM/RAS and 20-30dB reduction due to shaping techniques (plus another 1-10dB due to ECM if available). So it is not useless at all, otherwise the Bavar track to kill it at 400-500km.
Iran could have gone a wrong path too here: Fear stealth performance as much to believe -20dB benefit are not enough and a high degradation of shaping stealth techniques is required --> go for a VHF-band engagement radar to achieve 30-40dB reduction. Luckily testing and physics showed them that 20db reduction is sufficient for the kill-chain and S-band is the right path that brings many other benefits too.

Your idea of bistatic networked AEW would certainly also work well especially against the CM and terrain masking threats, but needs large efforts and is venerable. It is however good in a offensive airpower concept, operating above enemy airspace.

I still want to see a Iranian fighter or bomber RQ-170 that uses stealth techniques: Stealth offers a huge benefit in X-band and higher and if deployed in the right conditions brings a useful advantage. Russians use it for frontal X-band RCS reduction of the Su-57 to improve it's air-to-air performance.



By that 20dB S-band radars offer against stealth: Give the Mersad a Hafez, the S-200 a Najm-804, the 3rd Khordad a Najm-802B.



Hopefully SAGG and I hope not for an active seeker for its normal Sayyad-4 SAM: System economy is of great importance, relying on ARH seekers is the easy way to create a LRSAM. Your system get expensive and you loose bistatic and SAGG benefits. Notching, beaming and self defense barrage jamming becomes possible.
ARH seeker is good for a very long range missile, 250km and above if used for high value targets in low numbers.



6 targets means that the radar must create more than 13 Separate beams: 6 for the missiles, 6 for the targets and the rest for searching. The greatest aspect and biggest breakthrough about the S-400 aside the 350+km SAM component is its capability to attack 12 targets simultaneously. However a less robust que engagement (AEGIS concept) is also possible: You track only the missiles, and begin to track the targets only in the last seconds and then the next ones already on TWS.

Fantastic post PeeD. You explained it very clearly.

I just have to ask a couple more things (sorry if it's already been asked), because all our arguments are based on this

1. How do you know the engagement radars are X-band and S-band?

2. If I may repeat what you said for the purpose of fully understanding it - the S-band radar engages the target and guides the missile towards it using its -20dB advantage. But since S-band radar may not be accurate enough to guarantee the kill, the X-band radar is used once the missile is in the terminal phase (last 5-10 km) since the missile's SAGG receiver is able to pick up the target in this range (hopefully a little bit longer... 3 seconds is very little time especially when you don't have TVC and the target may be manoeuvring!). That all correct?
 

PeeD

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1. How do you know the engagement radars are X-band and S-band?

S-band AESAs are Irans specialty, it worked had in the last 11 years to achieve it. But we know that the illumination radar is X-band due to its smaller size primary, plus it is needed for such a all-round system. 2 S-bands makes no sense, two X-band also not, a L- and S-band is nonsense too.

2. If I may repeat what you said for the purpose of fully understanding it - the S-band radar engages the target and guides the missile towards it using its -20dB advantage. But since S-band radar may not be accurate enough to guarantee the kill, the X-band radar is used once the missile is in the terminal phase (last 5-10 km) since the missile's SAGG receiver is able to pick up the target in this range (hopefully a little bit longer... 3 seconds is very little time especially when you don't have TVC and the target may be manoeuvring!). That all correct?

That's the mode against stealth targets yes. It is basically what the AEGIS system does too (Ship based dual band SAM, although not in the more complex sense of the Bavar).
3 seconds is much time at those speeds, no worries, S-band AESAs are accurate enough up until then.
TVC is long dead at those ranges.
Actually up to the P series the S-300 only used its TVC in the first seconds to align against CM and terrain masking threats, especially to reduce minimal engagement range. Against anything beyond 20-30km, TVC would be already non-functional.
Some believe that from the PM series onward, hoping for a dual pulse like booster, there is enough thrust left to have TVC up to 40km to assist ABM maneuverability at 25-35km altitude. However it is possible that the TVC system is already dead at the upper ABM envelope. It is certainly dead at the 200km (PM) and 250km, 380km (S-400).
It was a strict Soviet requirement back then to counter CM's at close ranges (or crossing, that requires lowest reaction times) as the S-300 has only this single missile option. Cost wise its... not good.

Similarly cold launch: A main reason was to avoid forrest fires. For Iran it makes sense due to simplified silo basing capability.
 

DoubleYouSee

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we we planned for this for so long we worked on it for 10 years and we got some help from Russia and China but we worked really hard for this, one thing you need to know is that Iranian will not stand still so some one can mock them Russians did this to us they said no way you can do this and they did not give us any of radars that we wanted and payed we needed them at that time, so we worked around the clock to build this, yes this technology jump is unlivable for us too but Iran has a lot of engineers.
11 years to be exact
 

skyshadow

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well here we go again he conformed that Bavar 373 missile can reach up to 65 km in altitude which is long range he said.



He added: "The Bavar 373 system is capable of defending the interior of the country from low levels up to a height of about 65 kilometers, which is considered a high altitude; its range is about 300 kilometers; it has the ability to detect, identify and prioritize 100 targets and engage 6 targets simultaneously at the same time.


https://www.khabaronline.ir/news/12...ین-سامانه-پدافندی-ساخت-ایران-باور۳۷۳-به-روزتر
 

Mr Iran Eye

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A lot of speculation about Bavar 373 here loll

It is not easy to know everything because in addition Iran has an integrated defense and works in synergy with their many radar and other integrated system. Admit that Iran is overflowing in announcing new radar. 11 years of work on Bavar 373 so he must be full of high tech surprise. They presented us with radars that we have difficulty knowing their true roles in this integrated defense. And how much new radar we have not seen yet?
The interplay of this powerful embedding defense is going to be a nightmare for the enemy. Iran has always mentioned that they keep certain secrets of war that will be revealed in wartime.

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Mr Iran Eye

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NEWS !


Iran's Bavar 373 strategic air defense system can simultaneously track 300 targets more than 300 km away and lock on them at a distance of 250 km. Bavar 373 missiles (Sayyad-4) are capable to destroy targets as far as 200 km away.
 

TruthHurtz

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Some observations and ideas:

1- It is not clear why since the introduction of S-200VE system to Iran, the maximum engagement altitude (service ceiling) for all Iranian made AD systems has been limited to 27 km? Is it only a misleading information for media? Or 27 km is a threshold above which a different technology will be required? Or really there is no demand for an AD system to be designed for higher elevations? Just as a reminder, SR-71 could climb up to 26 ~ 27 km easily; while MiG-25 and A-12 could climb even beyond 27 but for a very short period of time. So, 27 km was a good top-off set point for Vega system.
Any consideration for anti BM missions?

2- S-200 VE still rocks with its magnificent +240 km engagement range! Apparently, Russia has recently delivered Dubna version to Syria (S-200M with +300 km engagement range). Is Bavar-373 also capable of guiding S-200 VE missiles, similar to Tombstone?

3- Almost in all S-300 test videos available on internet, the system is tested for double- fire killing probability; which has not been the case for Iranian AD systems, where always a single missile is fired against a no-maneuvering target. I am not sure if Karrar is a good simulated target for advanced AD systems, or not?

4- To me Zafar 8824 is nothing but a renovated Babr-400 which itself was a renovation of the very old versions of MAZ-537 Iran purchased 100 of them during the Shah era. It is completely different and inferior to MAZ-7910 used by older versions of S-300. Unlike its magnificent semitrailer load, Iranian versions are very limited to heavy flatbed off-road loads especially after Iran messed up with its engine / transmission (Iveco). So, maybe that is the reason they had to use Zoljenah for heavier 48N6E-like missiles. Russian TELs have been also switched from flatbed loaded MAZ-7910 to semitrailer loads for newer and heavier canisters.

And the most important thing:

5- How is a Bavar-373 complex itself protected against air attacks? I do not see any short range AD system in Iran’s doctrine to protect its new long range AD systems such as 15- Khordad or Bavar-373. Even older Iranian S-200 systems are vulnerable to air attacks by cruise missiles and gliding bombs.

These MAZ trucks would be ancient now, completely unsuitable for carrying a long range air defence system given that they used to be tank carriers. The only remaining similarities are the wheels, which are considerably smaller in pics of Zafar. The platform is more than likely based on the Maz-543, but Iran didn't import considerable numbers of these. It wouldn't be that hard to copy a truck platform.
 

Draco.IMF

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11 years to be exact

guys, Iran worked on air defence systems since the 90's, at least
and documents leaked (communication between Clinton and Jelzin) show that Iran had access to S-300 since the 90's....

On 5/20/97 Clinton again flags concerns about Russian cooperation w/ Iran on missiles for Yeltsin who doesn’t deny some Russians are doing so.

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NEWS !


Iran's Bavar 373 strategic air defense system can simultaneously track 300 targets more than 300 km away and lock on them at a distance of 250 km. Bavar 373 missiles (Sayyad-4) are capable to destroy targets as far as 200 km away.

source?
 
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Myself

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guys, Iran worked on air defence systems since the 90's, at least
and documents leaked (communication between Clinton and Jelzin) show that Iran had access to S-300 since the 90's....

On 5/20/97 Clinton again flags concerns about Russian cooperation w/ Iran on missiles for Yeltsin who doesn’t deny some Russians are doing so.

Dl4n1MbU0AE-zjN.jpg:large

Great document, and I really appreciate for sharing it. Now we know the source of those S-300PT units. Yet, Tomb Stone Radar was not available with PT versions! Mystery continues and may continue for more years.
So, we can now connect many of the dots:
1- Iran has possessed early versions of SA-10A/S-300PT (most probably PT-1 or PT-1A according to SOC) for a long time. They were obtained directly from Russia. Additional complexes may have been obtained from Belarus, Georgia, Croatia, or any other resources. Iran showed components of this system only once during the army parade because PT versions are stationary units. North Korea may have obtained a sample unit directly or indirectly from Iran for reverse engineering, resulted in mobile NK-06 system. NK-06 clearly uses Flap Lid, not Tomb Stone. But, it resembles a modified S-300PS version.

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2- Over time the nature of air threats shifted from regular to the stealth ones, or more complex tactics. Accordingly Iran asked for more advanced versions from Russia namely SA-20/S-300PMU. Russia agreed to sell PMU-1 or -2 complexes, and the preliminary agreement was signed during the Khatami’s presidency sometime around 2001, according to the leaked information. Many officials including Hassan Rohani implicitly or explicitly confirm it:

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3- Low oil prices delayed the financial settlements from Iran side, but an evaluation version of PMU might have been supplied to Iran. This can be the source of the Tomb Stone radar shown during the Army parade.
4- Tensions on Iran Nuclear activities escalades. Oil prices started picking up, and Ahmadinejad deposited the required payments sometime around 2007. PMU-1 was not in production line anymore.
5- Russia put hold on the contract due to political issues between Iran and superpowers.
6- Iran kicked off a project called Bavar-373 based on the available PT technology and/or help from other domestic/foreign sources. The main goal is to boost the range of the missile (this is what they referred to at least 1.5 times more range — of course an approximate to move from 5V55R to 48N6) as well as anti stealth capabilities. Concurrent to Bavar project, great efforts were made to obtain the stealth hunter radars and their technology such as Nebu and Gamma.

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7- JCPOA got signed and Russia finally delivered S-300 PMU-2 units.
8- Iran learned a lot about the weaknesses and strengths of new S-300 systems. This put 2 to 3 years of delay on Bavar project to improve the original design.
9- Iran is still working with Russia on equivalent S-400 systems.

Defence minister disclosed today more detailed information about the system, in the same line with U News:

https://www.farsnews.com/news/13980530001107/جنگنده-کوثر-با-موتور-اوج-تحویل-نهاجا-می‌شود-تولید-۷۷۰-محصول-دفاعی-در

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arashkamangir

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hell yaah it is


Media contents are rolling out:
https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2019/08/21/604138/Iran-defense-industry-day-IRGC-Army-Bavar373


Iranian armed forces mark National Defense Industry Day
Wed Aug 21, 2019 07:47PM [Updated: Wed Aug 21, 2019 07:47PM ]
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Iranian President Hassan Rouhani (2nd L) walks past a Bavar-373 Iranian missile defense system. (File photo)


Iranian armed forces have marked the National Defense Industry Day (August 22) when the country is expected to unveil a wide range of advanced achievements in various fields, including a much-touted air defense system.

The Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) said in a statement on Wednesday that it was well on its way to expand its capabilities beyond the current levels and develop even more sophisticated defenses despite the economic pressure against the country.

"At a time that the leaders of the global hegemony and the enemies of the Islamic Revolution and establishment are with spite and envy pursuing the policy of sanctions despite their inability to take on the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, military organizations and in particular the IRGC focus on the strategy of growing and expanding the country's defenses using" indigenous designs, read the statement.

The IRGC noted that the great strides Iran's defense industry has made over the years in terms of land, maritime and aerospace technologies have turned the Islamic Republic into the undisputed power of the region and put it on the same level as trans-regional powers.

The defense industry and its resilience in the face of foreign pressure also provide great examples for the country's economy and industry, the statement added.

The IRGC's downing of an intruding US spy drone over the Persian Gulf last month and its legal seizure of a British tanker in the Persian Gulf also attested to the Iranian defense industry's strategic role.

The Iranian defense industry's effect could also be traced in various aspects of the regional Islamic resistance movements against proxies and terror groups, it said.

Iranian Navy Commander Rear Admiral Hossein Khanzadi also marked the occasion in a statement, saying that Iran, unlike some other countries in the Middle East region, enjoyed great security thanks to its defense industry.

"We live in a country that enjoys a very high level of security despite all the threats and hostilities by the global arrogance and its regional cronies," Admiral Khanzadi said.

The commander said Iran, because of its access to open waters and its geopolitical situation, played a significant role in global security.

Iran to unveil advanced missile defense system

Deputy Defense Minister Brigadier General Hojjatollah Ghoreishi also said Wednesday that Iran's Army was also slated to unveil the Bavar-373 advanced surface-to-air missile system on Thursday.

The Bavar-373 is a mobile missile defense system designed to intercept and destroy incoming targets flying at altitudes of up to 65 kilometers. The system employs missiles that have a maximum range of 300 kilometers.

General Ghoreishi said the missile is a rival to Russia’s S-300 missile system and brings quite a few substantial upgrades over its Russian equivalent.
 
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