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Indian Space Capabilities

GreenLightning

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Not soon most likely after 20 year from today, if Pakistan will able improve its economy in massive scale, get out of your wishful thinking bro @GreenLightning
Soon is a relative term. We are putting our first astronaut in space in 2022, I don't want to debate on how we will go about doing that but, the process itself will trigger the revival of our space program.
 

Ultima Thule

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Soon is a relative term. We are putting our first astronaut in space in 2022, I don't want to debate on how we will go about doing that but, the process itself will trigger the revival of our space program.
most likely after 2035, If our economy goes in right direction,first astronaut, on which rocket Chinese may be on Russian rocket, Space frontier is most difficult arena to research & development of Rockets and other related fields need lots of money, Sending astronauts by other countries rockets is easy job, there is lots of astronauts/cosmonauts from the third world countries already went to space, even Indonesia send its astronaut to ISS @GreenLightning
 

GreenLightning

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most likely after 2035, If our economy goes in right direction,first astronaut, on which rocket Chinese may be on Russian rocket, Space frontier is most difficult arena to research & development of Rockets and other related fields need lots of money, Sending astronauts by other countries rockets is easy job, there is lots of astronauts/cosmonauts from the third world countries already went to space, even Indonesia send its astronaut to ISS @GreenLightning
It depends on what our goal is, but 2035 seems a bit too off if we're talking about sending satellites and humans into space, with the progression in space travel technology that we're looking at, it will gradually get much much more cheaper to put a person into orbit. Looking beyond that, landing on the moon for example, will take time.
 

Ultima Thule

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It depends on what our goal is, but 2035 seems a bit too off if we're talking about sending satellites and humans into space, with the progression in space travel technology that we're looking at, it will gradually get much much more cheaper to put a person into orbit. Looking beyond that, landing on the moon for example, will take time.
Firs you need to develop education and industrial base for space exploration, first we could launch satellites from our own LV (LAUNCH VEHICLE) which take time to built at least 5 year, second launch of person from our own launch vehicle takes more time 5 year or more to develop these complex techs and last moon landing more coplex then rest of the 2, first we need to concentrate on education/ industries which supports our space program @GreenLightning
 

GreenLightning

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Firs you need to develop education and industrial base for space exploration, first we could launch satellites from our own LV (LAUNCH VEHICLE) which take time to built at least 5 year, second launch of person from our own launch vehicle takes more time 5 year or more to develop these complex techs and last moon landing more coplex then rest of the 2, first we need to concentrate on education/ industries which supports our space program @GreenLightning
Exactly
 
Aug 10, 2017
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IRS-P3

IRS-P3 was launched by PSLV-D3 on March 21, 1996 from SHAR Centre, Sriharikota, India. IRS-P3 carries two remote sensing payloads - Wide Field Sensor (WiFS) similar to that of IRS-1C, with an additional Short Wave Infrared Band (SWIR) and a Modular Opto-electronic Scanner (MOS). It also carries an X-ray astronomy payload and a C-band transponder for radar calibration.

Mission completed during January 2006 after serving 9 years and 10 months.



Mission : Remote sensing of earth's natural resources. Study of X-ray Astronomy. Periodic calibration of PSLV tracking radar located at tracking stations.
Weight : 920 kg
onboard power : 817 Watts
Communication : S-band
Stabilization : Three axis body stabilized
RCS : Combinations of bladder type and surface tension type mass expulsion monopropellant hydrazine system
Payload : WideField Sensor (WiFS), Modular Opto - electronic Scanner (MOS), Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE), C-band transponder(CBT)
Launch date : March 21, 1996
Launch site : SHAR Centre, Sriharikota, India
Launch vehicle : PSLV-D3
Orbit : 817 km. Circular polar sun-synchronous with equatorial crossing at 10.30 am (descending node)
Inclination : 98.68o
Repetivity : WiFS : 5 days
Mission completed during : January 2006


__________________________


IRS-P3 (Indian Remote-Sensing Satellite-P3)

IRS-P3 is an ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) experimental EO (Earth Observation) mission, a follow-up mission to IRS-P2, considered to be preoperational and serving in parallel for technology evaluation and scientific methodology studies. A portion of the payload is provided by DLR (German Aerospace Center) in the framework of a cooperative agreement between ISRO and DLR. In addition, DLR provides data reception support (Neustrelitz) and launch phase support. The objectives of the mission are:

• Technological test of the PSLV launch vehicle

• Scientific remote sensing applications and algorithm development based on joint interpretation of MOS and WiFS data

• Preoperational test of data processing and algorithm concepts

• Radioastronomy experiments using the X-ray payload

Spacecraft:

The IRS-P3 spacecraft structure is of IRS-P2 heritage. The bus design consists of four vertical panels and two horizontal decks supported on a central load-bearing cylinder of 930 mm diameter and 1188 mm height. The payload is accommodated on the outer side of the upper deck, it is oriented in flight direction. The onboard power generation is achieved by a pair of deployable, sun-tracking, uncanted solar panels (9.636 m2), which generates a power of 873 W. Two NiCd batteries (21 Ah/24 Ah) cater to the eclipse and peak load demands.

The S/C is three-axis stabilized. The AOCS employs Earth sensors, sun sensors and dynamically tuned gyros as attitude sensors; actuation is provided by reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and an RCS (Reaction Control System). An Earth pointing accuracy of better than 0.20º in all axes and better than 0.05º in all axes for stellar pointing (X-ray observation mode) is provided. In addition to these attitude sensors, AOCS also employs a star sensor in control loop in order to maintain the attitude during stellar pointing mode. The star sensor is an area array CCD imager of 288 x 384 pixels (FOV of 6º x 8º). It works as a star tracker with respect to a set of optical stars, identified a priori in conjunction with the X-ray package. The star sensor is mounted on positive roll axis and co-aligned with the X-ray payload's optical axis. When the spacecraft is inertially oriented and locked to a specified X-ray source, the star sensor works in a static mode. Therefore, the star sensor always locks to a specific scene about the roll axis. 1) 2)

Total S/C mass = 922 kg, a hydrazine propulsion system (84 kg of fuel sufficient for three years) with 16 thrusters is used for orbit maintenance.

Launch: A launch of IRS-P3 took place on March 21, 1996 on an ISRO PSLV-D3 (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle-Developmental flight 3) launcher from SHAR (Sriharikota Range), India, a launch site on India's east coast, representing the second successful test launch of PSLV. 3)

Orbit: Sun-synchronous circular orbit, altitude = 817 km, inclination = 98.7º, repeat cycle = 24 days, period = 101.35 min, local equatorial crossing at 10:30 hours on a descending node.

RF communications: The TT&C-system is operating in S-band with PCM/FSK/FM/PM modulation. The telemetry system uses PCM/PSK modulation in S-band (2203 MHz). The payload data is transmitted in S-band (2280 MHz) with BPSK modulation at a data rate of 5.2 Mbit/s. The spacecraft features in addition a C-band transponder (CBT) which acts as a dynamic target for calibrating PCMC (Precision Coherent Monopulse C-band) radars, supporting the Indian launches.

MOS instrument science data are being received at the following ground stations:: Hyderabad (ISRO, India), Neustrelitz (DLR, Germany), Maspalomas (ESA, Spain - since 1998), Wallops Island (NASA, USA - since April 1999).

Mission status:

Mission operations of the spacecraft at ISRO were terminated in the fall of 2004. The operational life of the spacecraft represented more than twice the design life of 3 years.

• In the fall of 2003, IRS-P3 encountered increasing energy problems (insufficient electrical power) and also orbit maintenance problems (the equatorial crossing time moved into the early morning hours between 8 and 9 AM).

• The contracts for MOS data reception (DLR, ESA, and NASA) were terminated for the end of 2003, this meant also the near end for MOS instrument operations.

• There were only sporadic MOS data receptions in 2004 (for instance, ESA had its last MOS data reception in March of 2004). DLR declared the final end of MOS operations as of May 31, 2004. ISRO continued operations of the IRS-P3 spacecraft until the fall of 2004. 4)


http://archive.is/V69Fl/6eb772463fea577965ef12061339aeb48244fd12.jpg ; https://archive.is/V69Fl/bd23946713e16a75469c3d990cd608301adf4537/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200624...0-b48b21191bf2&groupId=163813&t=1338992697541
1. The IRS-P3 spacecraft during pre-launch tests.


__________________________

History of On-orbit Satellite Fragmentations, 15th Edition - NTRS

4 July 2018

Orbital Debris Program Office

Since the 14th edition (information cut-off date of 1 August 2007, published in June 2008) there have been 41 identified on-orbit breakups and 18 anomalous events (new or discerned), for a historical total of 242 fragmentations and 78 anomalous events.

Satellite breakups

IRS B3
Int'l Code: 1996-017A
NORAD ID: 23827

SATELLITE DATA

TYPE: Payload
OWNER:India
LAUNCH DATE:21 March 1996
DRY MASS (KG):838
MAIN BODY:Cubical box; 1.6 m x 1.6 m by 1.2 m high
MAJOR APPENDAGES:Solar panels
ATTITUDE CONTROL:three-axis stabilized; reaction wheels, torque rods, and monopropellant reaction control system

EVENT DATA

KNOWN EVENTS: 1
FIRST DATE: October 2000
APOGEE 821.9 km
PERIGEE 820.3 km
PERIOD 101.3 min
INCLINATION 98.6 deg

COMMENTS

A single relatively high area-to-mass ratio object has been cataloged. “Event Data” epoch is 30 October 2000. Unless other evidence is uncovered, this event will be classified as an anomalous event. The payload was operational at the of separation and was decommissioned in January 2006.

__________________________


The latest attempt to catch the most elusive Iranian Noor-1 satellite and its mysterious 3rd stage QASED R/B (Arash 24 solid motor) was unsuccessful due to the proximity of the dawn, but the frame has easily captured along the Chinese Shijian-16, a much brighter Indian space zombie, or what is now left of the wreckage of the late IRS P3 Remote sensing satellite, with a large RCS of 2.718 m2.

Very high noise level of the camera sensor caused by the current record heatwave (38C degrees in the arctic this week or 17C degrees above the average June level).

Two Line Element Set (TLE):

IRS B3
1 23827U 96017A 20175.58883364 -.00000010 00000-0 15577-4 0 9996
2 23827 98.8463 124.5706 0004536 92.7198 267.4498 14.22619133259144

http://archive.vn/ClLQv/1e5a1e39a4c6bd1f3979e9996deed7f1c43d6136.jpg ; https://archive.vn/ClLQv/b0ffe4846fa81e892393ff5447a3a136fe0cc868/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200624185544/https://i.imgur.com/uSuoNHw.jpg
2. IRS P3 predicted pass: Magnitude ~4.9 (v), Altitude ~820 km, Distance ~967 km, Size ~2 m x 3.5 m, Angular size ~00.7''.

IRS P3 pass caught on camera last night, and calibrated via astrometry.net:


http://archive.vn/BKjHN/8ad0114a50382eae5a4d12175359cffb4901a289.jpg ; https://archive.vn/BKjHN/42cc2ea205ec3cf8da0f4840e184f447e67dcc40/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200624185818/https://i.imgur.com/CDflM5E.jpg ; http://nova.astrometry.net/annotated_full/4336737 ; http://nova.astrometry.net/user_images/3771175#annotated
3. IRS P3 pass as captured on camera.






TAGS:
BGUSAT, Kwangmyongsong-4, GOSAT-2, Yaogan 25A/25B/25C, FIA-Radar 5, KWANGMYONGSONG R/B, IRS P3
 
Aug 10, 2017
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The most devastating space related disaster of all time

The Nedelin Disaster

A rush job ended with nearly 100 lives lost when a fully-fueled rocket ignited on the launchpad during testing.

October 22, 2010

There's some justice in the fact that the worst rocket accident in history, which happened 50 years ago this week, is remembered by the name of the man who caused it.

Marshal Mitrofan Nedelin was an ambitious military leader who rose to command the Soviet Union's Strategic Missile Forces during the Cold War. In the autumn of 1960, his main focus was developing the new R-16 intercontinental ballistic missile, which was meant to be an answer to the American Atlas. According to Soviet rocket designer Boris Chertok in his landmark history Rockets and People, work on the R-16 was proceeding ahead of schedule, with a target date of July 1961 for the first launch, when Nedelin upped the ante: He would launch by November 7, in time for the 43rd anniversary of the Soviet revolution.

Nedelin's desire for glory cost him his life, and the lives of nearly 100 others. Rushing the schedule led exhausted workers to take all kinds of short cuts and risks, including continuing to work on the missile after it was fully fueled on the launch pad at Baikonur, with some 250 people milling around within close range.

On the evening of October 24, a cascading series of errors, including a mistaken switch setting, led to a rocketeer's worst nightmare: the R-16's second stage fired on the pad, still attached to the first stage underneath it, which immediately exploded.

Chertok describes the scene:
Propellant components splashing out of the tanks soaked the testers standing nearby. Fire instantly devoured them. Poisonous vapors killed them. Of course, the quality of the film frames is not up to today's standards but when viewed in slow motion you can see how the missile and erector burned and how the frantic people trapped on the service platforms jumped straight into the fire and were instantly consumed. The enormous temperature at a significant distance from the epicenter of the fire burned peoples' clothing, and many of those fleeing who got bogged down in molten asphalt burned up completely.

There was an investigation, but no witch-hunt or official blame. Soviet authorities decided that being on the scene of the accident was punishment enough for the engineers and technicians who survived. Families of the victims were told to keep quiet, and the first detailed accounts of the accident were not published until the late 1980s.

As for Marshal Nedelin, he was near the base of the missile at the time of the explosion, and perished in the blast. Writes Chertok: "The majority of the dead were unrecognizable. ... Nedelin was identified by the 'Gold Star' medal that had survived."

A new documentary on the Nedelin disaster will air on Russian TV this weekend:


https://www.airspacemag.com/daily-planet/the-nedelin-disaster-146124579/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dqT90VmYgEU


But, this is nothing compared to the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, that was even worse if one consider that military or civilian casualties covered by state secrecy inflict lesser national humiliation and loss of international prestige, compared to the death of one's first ever astronaut televised live worldwide!

The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster was a fatal disaster in the United States space program that occurred on 1st February 2003, when the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) disintegrated as it reentered the atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. The disaster was the second fatal accident in the Space Shuttle program, after the 1986 breakup of Challenger soon after liftoff.

Ilan Ramon

Ilan Ramon, a colonel in the Israeli Air Force was the first Israeli astronaut, and was killed in the re-entry accident with all the six other crew members.

With Ilan Ramon's death, Israel is to this day, the only nation in the world to have lost its first ever astronaut during a maiden spaceflight.


https://archive.is/0WUZC/93e8c8bbf76711aa4f5214f007382893bfcc483d.jpg ; https://archive.is/0WUZC/7caab1bfa4fed8cdaf1ed6f5b0e6b5460a2dee4f/scr.png ; https://web.archive.org/web/20201128054552/https://israelforever.org/images/faded_Star_of_David.jpg ; https://web.archive.org/web/20210131173017/https://israelforever.org/interact/blog/defining_moments/ ; https://archive.ph/UodQ6
1. The tattered remains of an Israeli Air Force flag which Ramon carried into space, found among the debris in Texas.


The Columbia Disaster Was Worse Than You Thought
1,190,789 views •Apr 27, 2020
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXiZ3RHR3bg


Conclusion, if India's first astronaut can't make it back alive to Earth, it won't beat the Israeli record!

Source:

Recap of the top 11 space accidents

11.
🇮🇳 On 24 February 2004, at Satish Dhawan Space Centre in India, after curing process of an experimental solid propellant segment weighing 14.5 tonnes, during removal of bottom plate from casting assembly, propellant within segment caught fire resulting in death of four engineers and two assistants. Three workers escaped the inferno with burn injuries. Cast Cure facility building suffered extensive damage.

10. 🇺🇸 On 28 January 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster caused by a launch booster failure, resulting in vehicle disintegration was the most devastating death toll to date for a manned spaceflight with 7 astronauts.

9. 🇷🇺 On 12 May 2002, 8 workers repairing the roof of the Baikonur Cosmodrome N-1/Energia vehicle assembly building died when the roof suffered a total structural collapse and crashed 80 meters to the ground. Buran Shuttle was destroyed.

8. 🇷🇺 On 24 October 1963, on the same day as the Nedelin catastrophe, another catastrophe took place. Due to the evaporation of fuel and a short circuit on a R-9 ICBM, a fire took the lives of 7 or 8 people. Since then, 24 October is considered a "Black Day", and Russia has not launched rockets on that day.

7. 🇷🇺 On 26 June 1973, a launch explosion of Kosmos-3M rocket killed 9 people at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, USSR.

6. 🇷🇺 On 18 March 1980, an explosion while fueling up a Vostok-2M rocket killed 48 people at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, USSR.

5. 🇨🇳 On 15 February 1996, a Long March rocket carrying the Intelsat 708 Satellite veered off course immediately after launch, crashing in the nearby village 22 seconds later, destroying 80 houses. According to official Chinese reports there were 6 fatalities and 57 injuries resulting from the incident, but other accounts estimated 100 fatalities.

4. 🇷🇺 The Nedelin Disaster was worse with 300 casualties including top rocket scientists, delaying the development of the R-16 ICBM.

3. 🇮🇷 The Bidganeh arsenal explosion was a large explosion that occurred about 13:30 local time, 12 November 2011 in Iran's Moddares garrison missile base. The facility is also referred to as Shahid Modarres missile base,[1] and the Alghadir missile base.[2] Seventeen members of the Revolutionary Guards were killed in this incident,[3] including Major General Hassan Moqaddam, described as "a key figure in Iran's missile programme".
The consequences have been devastating for Iran the space center being totally levelled beyond repair, with the loss of its Chief designer General Hassan Tehrani Moggadam, delaying severely the development of the Qaem SLV. Indeed, a decade later, as of 2021, this 3.5 meter diameter rocket has still not been flown.

2. 🇧🇷 The Brazilian 22nd August 2003 Alcântara VLS accident during the Brazilian Space Agency's third attempt to launch the VLS-1 rocket, killing 21 people.
The explosion leveled the rocket's launch pad, reducing a 10-story high structure to a pile of twisted metal. But worse, the death of key scientist simply put an end to the Brazilian space effort.

1. 🇺🇸🇮🇱 The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster was a fatal disaster in the United States space program that occurred on 1st February 2003, when the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) disintegrated as it reentered the atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. The disaster was the second fatal accident in the Space Shuttle program, after the 1986 breakup of Challenger soon after liftoff.
This catastrophe totally discredited the space shuttle as a viable space transportation system, ending with its final flight on July 2011.
Leaving the U.S. without any manned space launcher for a decade, until the advent of the SpaceX Crew Dragon on 16 November 2020, but with a much decreased cargo capacity, compared to the space shuttle.

Ilan Ramon, a colonel in the Israeli Air Force was the first Israeli astronaut, and was killed in the re-entry accident with all the six other crew members.
With Ilan Ramon's death, Israel is to this day, the only nation in the world to have lost its first ever astronaut during a maiden spaceflight.


https://archive.vn/9wZvQ/9eacdc743affd740f9ccb6630d1019990983c782.jpg ; https://archive.vn/9wZvQ/be2e271db6c250cacebbb47411afa8e8dcb9b9a0/scr.png ; https://web.archive.org/web/20210404233515/https://i.imgur.com/sUo6A7t.jpg
2. With Ilan Ramon's death, Israel is to this day, the only nation in the world to have lost its first ever astronaut during a maiden spaceflight.




:cool:🚬
 
Aug 10, 2017
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Mangalayaan discovers water on Mars

Mangalayaan forces the U.S. to end one of its 50 years long campaign of disinformation, thus revealing the scope of the lies.

This one is the no water other that on Earth fallacy, that ended only after the Cold War by the end of the 1990s.

As for water on Mars, the disinformation campaign ended only by 2010, under the threat of the truth being revealed by India's MARS ORBITER MISSION (MOM, Mangalayaan).

Indeed, instead of following China in its space race, to end up at the second place again and again, India has decided to skip its second Lunar Orbiter Mission and send the same spacecraft instead on a Mars orbit.

India's Chandrayan-1 Lunar orbiter was launched on 22 October 2008, behind China's first lunar orbiter Chang'e-1 launched on 24th October 2007.

China's second lunar orbiter Chang'e-2 was launched on 1st October 2010.

India's Chandrayan-2 Lunar orbiter would have only secured a second place again, but the decision was taken sometimes after October 2010 and the official announcement on 5th August 2012 during the Independence Day address of India to redirect into a Mars orbiter mission.

Mangalayaan was finally launched on 5th November 2013, entering Mars orbital insertion on 23rd September 2014.

Thus instantaneously ending the U.S. and Soviet monopoly of orbital imagery of the red planet, and smashing half-century of disinformation by the 2 former European superpowers:


https://archive.is/ieW1i/20b434359b0b3b03346bc79168106261e2b07a82.jpg ; https://archive.is/ieW1i/6b8f0ceb6a49ea54a4aaec94b87eb1e2d0be66ba/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409185158/https://www.isro.gov.in/sites/default/files/galleries/Pictures%20from%20Mars%20Colour%20Camera%20%28MCC%29%20onboard%20India%E2%80%99s%20Mars%20Orbiter%20Spacecraft/mom.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409185458/https://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/pictures-mars-colour-camera-mcc-onboard-india%E2%80%99s-mars-orbiter ; https://archive.ph/T5uuC
1. Mangalayaan smashing 50 years of European disinformation: Olympus Mons Water ice Clouds.

This ground breaking event for mankind has forced the U.S. to claim in a damage control attempt, the alleged sudden discovery of water on Mars for themselves.

And as the falsification becomes meaningless in face of the truth speakers, the NASA's released images of Mars have been less and less photoshoped with passing time.

Indeed, with the arrival of China's own Mars orbiter, lander and rover Tianwen-1, in March 2021, water clouds can no longer be denied.


https://archive.ph/HGgGP/b256f1face517999989a67e3c475e8c1fa3cf9bc.jpg ; https://archive.ph/HGgGP/f60d28bd3699dfe009b3169911defc561d8803c0/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210304041342/https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-03-04/China-releases-image-of-Mars-captured-by-Tianwen-1-YlGrQYTx96/img/2e42477dfc8e4dda9ad7a80e1efe1c9d/2e42477dfc8e4dda9ad7a80e1efe1c9d.jpeg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210304012304/https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-03-04/China-releases-image-of-Mars-captured-by-Tianwen-1-YlGrQYTx96/index.html ; https://archive.ph/styop
2. With the arrival of China's own Mars orbiter, lander and rover Tianwen-1, in March 2021, water clouds can no longer be denied.

As of 2021, the U.S. NASA is no more frantically photoshoping every single frames, and we can see the water cloud in the picture taken recently by the U.S. Perseverance Mars Rover:


https://archive.ph/5veF3/9ea4e31ae7caaafe51417fb4557564ebb025aa37.jpg ; https://archive.ph/5veF3/4e9ad854a86ded8764a7b74ecb839f002f5ad035/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210407082843/https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020-raw-images/pub/ods/surface/sol/00043/ids/edr/browse/rcam/RRF_0043_0670767855_054EBY_N0031398RHAZ02006_00_0LLJ01_1200.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409191918/https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images/ ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409192139/https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images/RRF_0043_0670767855_054EBY_N0031398RHAZ02006_00_0LLJ ; https://archive.ph/F0n4k ; https://archive.ph/F0n4k/d393eae6fea83d6792cb328a1b2b41c300c637ef/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409191918/https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images/ ; https://archive.ph/eAsHW
3. Clouds visible not erased by the U.S. censorship. NASA's Mars Perseverance rover acquired this image of the area in back of it using its onboard Rear Right Hazard Avoidance Camera. This image was acquired on Apr. 4, 2021 (Sol 43) at the local mean solar time of 15:14:38.




:cool:🚬
 

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