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India on the Eve of British Conquest

May 7, 2012
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In 1764 India was ripe for the picking.

The Mughal Empire, which had ruled much of the region for the past two centuries, had shattered. The various smaller states that arose in its place were relatively weak, both militarily and economically. Recent advances in artillery and infantry techniques had given Europeans a significant edge on the battlefield, as had been demonstrated only a few years earlier when the French dealt a number of crushing defeats to the Nawab of Carnatic.

The British East India Company observed all this with a curious eye, and after evicting the French from the region, had a mind to take a more active role in the subcontinent (having previously been largely restricted to trade concessions).

The spark for outright conquest came from India, when the Jagat Seth bankers of Bengal, being fed up with the cruelty of the Nawab, invited (and financed) the British invasion. Their reasoning, not unfounded, being that the British were the least-worst option for providing a stable, business-friendly environment.

In response to British incursion came a triple alliance, described as the, “last gasp” of the Mughals, which included the Nawab of Bengal, Nawab of Awadh, and Mughal remnants under Shah Alam. The conflict that followed was a close-run affair, but the British ultimately emerged victorious and annexed the Bengal region (then the richest province in India).

Over the next 100 years the British East India Company would conquer the remaining states across India, often doing so by exploiting rivalries between adversarial Indian rulers. While local polities quickly closed the military gap and acquitted themselves well on the battlefield (the Mysore Sultans and Sikh Empire earning particular praise from the British), the economic gap only widened, and ultimately, guaranteed the Company’s success.

British rule would last until 1947, only being seriously threatened in the 1857 rebellion, during which North-Indians attempted to oust the British and reinstall the Mughals under, “Emperor” Bahdur Shah Zafur (who was only a ceremonial figurehead at this point).

Link to full post w/ additional reading/sources.
Where is India. I even used my spectacles and I can't see it?
 

Bilal9

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Some parts of the map may be incorrect, but the OP must be given credit for dispelling the myth that Muslims ruled the majority of the subcontinent until the British. The map does correctly show that the Marathas controlled the majority of the subcontinent until the second Anglo-Maratha war, with the main Muslim powers being the Durranis of the Northwest and the Nizam of hyderabad. Important to note though that the Nizam himself was paying tribute to the marathas.

@Joe Shearer @Nilgiri


The Marathas ruled Odisha until the British. In north India, the Mughals became tributaries/puppets of the Marathas.
If it floats your Hindutva boat - then why not? :-)
 

Bilal9

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What is the meaning of this phrase?
The phrase 'Borgi elo deshey' refers to Maratha thugs.

'Borgi' is a nickname for Maratha dacoits, raiders and plunderers.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bargi

'Elo deshey' means 'arrived in the country'.

Up to the early fifties, 'Borgi elo deshey' used to be used as a nursery rhyme for young children to scare them to sleep. Interestingly, the nursery song talks about the inability to pay taxes to the Borgis (Marathas) which at the time meant death.

 

SIPRA

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The phrase 'Borgi elo deshey' refers to Maratha thugs.

'Borgi' is a nickname for Maratha dacoits, raiders and plunderers.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bargi

'Elo deshey' means 'arrived in the country'.

Up to the early fifties, 'Borgi elo deshey' used to be used as a nursery rhyme for young children to scare them to sleep. Interestingly, the nursery song talks about the inability to pay taxes to the Borgis (Marathas) which at the time meant death.
Thanks. A very good description.
 

Bilal9

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We must appreciate that the Hindutva boat floats very well, because it is powered by a very efficient high-energy liquid fuel.:lol::lol::lol:
How dare you make fun of Gau Mutra, which is climbing higher and higher evermore in the holy estimation of science? :-)

Now Sanghis have started refining it, which in concentrated form can be substituted for nuclear fission material! Pakistan's end-of-days is near. Repent now!

https://www.deccanherald.com/content/475779/cow-urine-refinery-inaugurated-jalore.html
 

SIPRA

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How dare you make fun of Gau Mutra, which is climbing higher and higher evermore in the holy estimation of science?

Now Sanghis have started refining it, which in concentrated form can be substituted for nuclear fission material! Pakistan's end-of-days is near. Repent now!
We don't need to worry; because if this great scientific breakthrough happens, both we and Bangladesh can also get benefit of it; since we also have a lot of cows. Bangladesh would be a nuclear power in no time. Only cows would need to be bred at a very high rate.:lol:
 
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Talwar e Pakistan

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Would have been great if afghan and pak durani lands were one..
I was reading 18th century British books of the Indus Region and they lightly referred to a proposed pact between the Sindhis, Baloch, Pashtuns and Sikhs against the British, brought forward by the Sindhis. Though only the Baloch responded to a limited extent and they did send troops for the defense of Sindh against the British invasion. The Sikhs and Pashtuns had their own issues and did not trust each other.

The author here references that had this pact gone through, it would have brought disastrous consequences for the British.


Yet you are able to speak the Hindustani language which I too understand. An Indian language.
Yes, a language not native to Pakistan and only spoken by 8% of the population as their mother-tongue.

The only part of India ruled by Mughals for 1000 years was modern-day Pakistan
North India is the region longest ruled by the Mughals, not modern-day Pakistan.

the name India also broadly describes what is now called the Subcontinent.
India is not an indigenous name, it is solely a geographic term invented by foreigners. You can thank Herodotus for why the entirety of South Asia is referred to as India, he popularized the term as he stated that all lands East of Persia was 'Indika', this is because he had little knowledge of the region. In his maps, you will see that his 'India' is in fact the Indus Region, modern-day India did not exist in his map.


Once South Asia was further explored by Greeks, they had tried differentiate modern-day India with the Indus Region by using a separate term for North India known as ' Gangaridai ' named after the Ganges. But by then, the term 'India' had already stuck.

Think of the ancient region called Gandhara which sits now in Peshawar.
Gandhara stretched from Eastern Afghanistan to Northern Punjab, what about it?
 

Foxtrot Delta

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I was reading 18th century British books of the Indus Region and they lightly referred to a proposed pact between the Sindhis, Baloch, Pashtuns and Sikhs against the British, brought forward by the Sindhis. Though only the Baloch responded to a limited extent and they did send troops for the defense of Sindh against the British invasion. The Sikhs and Pashtuns had their own issues and did not trust each other.

The author here references that had this pact gone through, it would have brought disastrous consequences for the British.



Yes, a language not native to Pakistan and only spoken by 8% of the population as their mother-tongue.


North India is the region longest ruled by the Mughals, not modern-day Pakistan.


India is not an indigenous name, it is solely a geographic term invented by foreigners. You can thank Herodotus for why the entirety of South Asia is referred to as India, he popularized the term as he stated that all lands East of Persia was 'Indika', this is because he had little knowledge of the region. In his maps, you will see that his 'India' is in fact the Indus Region, modern-day India did not exist in his map.


Once South Asia was further explored by Greeks, they had tried differentiate modern-day India with the Indus Region by using a separate term for North India known as ' Gangaridai ' named after the Ganges. But by then, the term 'India' had already stuck.


Gandhara stretched from Eastern Afghanistan to Northern Punjab, what about it?
Word india is used by English men for land of the indians. Indians being promitive barbaric people. As seen red indians of America ... Indians of australia. White indians of newzeland. Black indians of west indies . Brown indians of east india bengal region..

All names by english men
 

-blitzkrieg-

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English, Urdu, Punjabi and which else ??



What is Lahori ??

And well, Urdu / Hindustani was a contribution of the Mughals, no doubt

Other than that, there was food, probably music, and a syncretic culture ( Akbar and his Hindu wife comes to mind ).

So yes, I change my earlier view to now say that the Mughals did contribute to something in India. But still, Tipu Sultan was different.



You don't seem to know that I am a Muslim.



I agree.

I was only responding to blitzkreig's notion that he does not have anything to do with India's history.





I think you are right.

The later language called Urdu was a mixture of Khariboli, Farsi, Arabic and Turkic. At least that is what I think. Correct me if I am wrong.



:enjoy:

Urdu's journey started the day Ghaznavid soldiers got in touch with locals of Punjab.Khariboli was spoken there as well .Linguistic roots of Urdu are traceable to dialects of Ghaznavid Panjab or Lahore(capital of Ghaznavids) and it got completed in Delhi where it became a proper literary language.
People only know about Amir Khusrow .There were poets in the Ghaznavid courts, poets like Abul Farj Runi and Masud Saad Salman who were tasked to persianize the local culture.It was the cultural policy adopted in Lahore that gave way to have a new language that helps them connect.

Dear, Hindu is not necessarily a religion only, One can be culturally Hindu as well.
 
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jamahir

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Lahore is where the journey of Urdu began.And that journey ended in Delhi and Lucknow.
Urdu also ended up in the Deccan and it developed its unique style there. Even there, there are three main styles : Hyderabadi, Bangalore / Mysore and Maharashtrian.

Here's a funny Bangalori sample.

Gandhara stretched from Eastern Afghanistan to Northern Punjab, what about it?
The Gandhara kingdom was Hindu, yes ??

I just wanted to point out to some PDF Pakistanis that however much they try to disassociate themselves from Present India, they are attached to it one way or another.
 
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