• Monday, July 13, 2020

Immune cell which kills most cancers discovered by accident by British scientists in major breakthro

Discussion in 'World Affairs' started by FedererExpress, Jan 21, 2020.

  1. FedererExpress

    FedererExpress FULL MEMBER

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    Immune cell which kills most cancers discovered by accident by British scientists in major breakthrough
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    The immune cells make a beeline for most cancers CREDIT:ALAMY
    20 JANUARY 2020 • 4:00PM

    Anew type of immune cell which kills most cancers has been discovered by accident by British scientists, in a finding which could herald a major breakthrough in treatment.

    Researchers at Cardiff University were analysing blood from a bank in Wales, looking for immune cells that could fight bacteria, when they found an entirely new type of T-cell.

    That new immune cell carries a never-before-seen receptor which acts like a grappling hook, latching on to most human cancers, while ignoring healthy cells.

    In laboratory studies, immune cells equipped with the new receptor were shown to kill lung, skin, blood, colon, breast, bone, prostate, ovarian, kidney and cervical cancer.

    Professor Andrew Sewell, lead author on the study and an expert in T-cells from Cardiff University’s School of Medicine, said it was “highly unusual” to find a cell that had broad cancer-fighting therapies, and raised the prospect of a universal therapy.

    “This was a serendipitous finding, nobody knew this cell existed,” Prof Sewell told The Telegraph.

    “Our finding raises the prospect of a ‘one-size-fits-all’ cancer treatment, a single type of T-cell that could be capable of destroying many different types of cancers across the population. Previously nobody believed this could be possible.”

    Asked if it meant that someone in Wales was walking around completely immune to cancer, Prof Sewell said: “Possibly. This immune cell could be quite rare, or it could be that lots of people have this receptor but for some reason it is not activated. We just don't know yet.”

    Therapies which engineer immune cells to fight specific types of cancer already exist, but they are currently only useful for some forms of leukaemia, and do not work for solid tumours, which account for most cancers.

    Those treatments - known as CAR-T and TCR-T therapies - involve taking immune cells from a patient which are then altered so they can lock onto molecules which sit on the surface of cancer cells.

    The cells are then grown in huge numbers and injected back into the patient’s bloodstream.

    CAR-T therapy is now given for certain forms of leukaemia but does not work for solid tumours, the vast majority of cancers. TCR-T therapies can work in some other cancers but they need to lock onto molecules called HLA, which vary widely in the population.

    In contrast, the new cell attaches to a molecule on cancer cells called MR1, which does not vary in humans.

    It means that not only would the treatment work for most cancers, but it could be shared between people, raising the possibility that banks of the special immune cells could be created for instant ‘off-the-shelf’ treatment in future.

    When researchers injected the new immune cells into mice bearing human cancer and with a human immune system, they found ‘encouraging’ cancer-clearing results.

    And they showed that T-cells of skin cancer patients, which were modified to express the new receptor, could destroy not only the patient’s own cancer cells, but also other patients’ cancer cells in the laboratory.

    Prof Sewell said the ‘right people’ are now interested in developing the potential new therapy and said progress could now move ‘quite fast’. The team says human trials on terminally ill patients could begin as early as November if the new treatment passes further laboratory safety testing.

    Professor Oliver Ottmann, Cardiff University’s Head of Haematology, whose department delivers CAR-T therapy, said: “This new type of T-cell therapy has enormous potential to overcome current limitations of CAR-T, which has been struggling to identify suitable and safe targets for more than a few cancer types.”

    Professor Awen Gallimore, of the University’s division of infection and immunity and cancer immunology lead for the Wales Cancer Research Centre, added: “If this transformative new finding holds up, it will lay the foundation for a ‘universal’ T-cell medicine, mitigating against the tremendous costs associated with the identification, generation and manufacture of personalised T-cells.

    “This is truly exciting and potentially a great step forward for the accessibility of cancer immunotherapy.”

    Commenting on the study, Daniel Davis, Professor of Immunology at the University of Manchester, said it was an exciting discovery which opened the door to cellular therapies being used for more people.

    “We are in the midst of a medical revolution harnessing the power of the immune system to tackle cancer. But not everyone responds to the current therapies and there can be harmful side-effects.

    “The team have convincingly shown that, in a lab dish, this type of immune cell reacts against a range of different cancer cells.

    "We still need to understand exactly how it recognises and kills cancer cells, while not responding to normal healthy cells."

    The research was published in the journal Nature Immunology.

    https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science...ncers-discovered-accident-british-scientists/
     
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  2. Hamartia Antidote

    Hamartia Antidote ELITE MEMBER

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    Good going Brits!!! Instant Nobel Prize if it works.
     
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  3. T|/|T

    T|/|T SENIOR MEMBER

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    We can have cure for cancer that kill scores of ppl and all u think of is nobel prize? Like saving all those human lives is not a big prize?
     
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  4. UKBengali

    UKBengali ELITE MEMBER

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    Found by accident as all great discoveries like Penicillin!

    If this works, millions of lives will be saved every year.
     
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  5. Nefarious

    Nefarious FULL MEMBER

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    Well done to all involved!
     
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  6. Philosopher

    Philosopher SENIOR MEMBER

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    Great news! It just goes to show how much we actually don't know. Discoveries that would otherwise be a thing of the sci-fi movies are always around the corner in the real world. And they're almost always serendipitous!
     
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  7. Turingsage

    Turingsage FULL MEMBER

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    Actually that is not true. Overwhelming number of discoveries are made through hard dedicated research. Its the serendipitous ones that get heavily reported because they are serendipitous.
    After all if these dedicated individuals were not working hard for decades trying to solve the cancer riddles there would be no "serendipitous" discovery.
     
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  8. Philosopher

    Philosopher SENIOR MEMBER

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    I did not say in my comment most discoveries in general are serendipitous, although they may be. My comment was focused more towards these "scientists are baffled" type of findings.
     
  9. Dr. Abdul Basit

    Dr. Abdul Basit FULL MEMBER

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    Hope it's 100% successful.... Yes Noble prize would be next but a harsh reality is that patent ownership will render it inaccessible to the deprived globally like most other therapies.
     
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  10. kuge

    kuge FULL MEMBER

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    bad news to drug hegemonies...
     
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  11. 8888888888888

    8888888888888 FULL MEMBER

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    This is a theory that the cure was found many years ago but they kept it as a secret.
     
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  12. KungFuLee

    KungFuLee FULL MEMBER

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    How that is a bad news of drug hegemonies?

    If there is no cure, there are no sale for such medicine. Phama (Drug company) benefit from having a cure to a known diseases, I would say good news for any Phama Hegemon that sign with this cure if this works......Anyone who sign with this are bound to earn billions of dollars.......
     
  13. FedererExpress

    FedererExpress FULL MEMBER

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    Come on folks, we all know the corrupt big Pharma will never put out a real cure for cancer. The cancer industry is a multilayered trillion dollar industry. The chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgeons will be out of jobs and their industry destroyed. Cure for cancer have been figured out long ago but never released to the masses. We always hear about a new cure for cancer but nothing ever comes from it. The medical industry only transfers cancer patients from one sector to another to make money. Curing the patient don’t make as much money. There is a cure for cancer. It has been in existence for a long time I believe. Just that they won’t release it for the mass public. How many elites have died from cancer?
     
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  14. PeaceGen

    PeaceGen SENIOR MEMBER

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    I just hope this does find it's way to the masses, and quickly.
    Fixes all my smoking related future problems, you see :)
     
  15. Rusty

    Rusty ELITE MEMBER

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    while this is exciting, just keep your hopes at a moderate level.
    most "amazing discoveries" in medicine do not usually pan out. And even if they do, it could be 10-15 years before it makes it to the market, after all the trials are complete.
     
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