The ottoman thing is partially true. Usmanis and Mughals had one thing common in them. Hadharami and Ayashi. An interesting case of innovation is how Al-gebra was invented. Without any state help, just a local moulvi doing mathematics. Therefore, I mentioned the mechanism to localize the knowledge. Europeans localized knowledge from Muslim world. Most noticeable thing is THE PAPER which interestingly muslims localized from chinese. In modern day world, India has this bank-loan systems which push Not-so-IIT students into US education systems and when in US those students pay back the loans via silicon valley internships which pay better than european full-time jobs. So, these students get good jobs, and in return create the IT/Software market that exists in India.Speaking of a 100 years ago. It was in part the inefficient and protectionism of the guilds in the Ottoman Empire that shut out innovation and over the course of 200 years led to Ottomans going from being innovative leaders to buying everything from Europeans.
Elites will do what is in their interest, and that is just what they do, it’s human nature. But a state needs to support a culture that serves the best interests of society.
If we are to do research it has to be on how to bring about this culture of service to the collective benefit. This seems to be the dividing line between competitive and incompetence societies.
Another reason is the constant warfare in muslim lands that did not let the culture of innovation develop. Either internal rebellions/rift or external such as mongols and crusaders.
For the elite part, I believe it has failed the society to a miserable level. I would suggest looking at the eurpean elite during the dark ages when Muslim world was shining. Marco Polo was caught stealing the then Trade secrets but hey China is bad for doing it. But, I may not know enough about it so do not take my words at face value. But, I do believe we need to create our society from the grounds up.