Saikh are not Brahmins but Baniyas. Keep your facts string.Ranjit Singh should be discussed. He's Punjabi as well. Keep your religion aside please. Thanks.
How was the Punjabi nation formed? Origin and history?
This is a very difficult question to answer as there is no consensus on this and studies are still being done to determine the genetic history of Punjabis. Unlike Sindhis, Baloch and Pashtuns who have a common genetic background, culture and history, Punjabis are unique in that they're not exactly "one nation" but rather a collection of people who share a similar culture and language. Punjabis represent a complex admixture of ethnic castes and groups unlike any other in Pakistan. Before moving on to describing Punjabi people, we first need to define what Punjab actually is.
~ Punjab ~
What we know as Punjab today is not actually the historic Punjab. The modern-day borders of the Province of Punjab are based on the borders of British Punjab. This was done when the British captured Punjab in 1845 and hastily made the provincial borders with complete disregard to language, culture and history. For example the State of Bahawalpur was completely absorbed into British Punjab, despite the fact Bahawalpur had very limited ties to Punjab. The actual historic Punjab consists of regions around Lahore. These regions include Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Okara, Kasur, Faisalabad along with Amritsar, Ludhiana, Bathinda and Jallandar in East Punjab. This is where the traditional tribes and clans of Punjab come from (ie. Punjabi people) and where Punjabi culture emerged from. Even still, within this geographical area, the cultures and people differ among one another. The rest of what we know as Punjab is not actually Punjab...it is populated by Pashtuns, Baloch, Potohar/Hindkowan people and Seraiki people. North and northwestern Punjab (the Potohar Plateau ie. Talagang, Chakwal, Mianwali, Taxila, Rawalpindi etc.) has a culture of its own (a mix of Punjabi+Pashtun culture) and they speak Potohari/Pahari language or Hindko. South and southwestern Punjab (ie. Seraikistan) has a culture of its own (a mix of Punjabi+Baloch+Sindhi cultures) and they speak either Seraiki or Balochi.
~ Punjabis ~
In October of this year, I posted a lengthy study entitled the "Genetic Journey of Pakistanis" which details who Pakistanis actually are genetically. In regards to Punjabis, I mentioned that Punjabi-speaking individuals from Punjab represented a complex admixture of ethnic castes and groups and would be analyzed separately. At present, these these studies are still being analyzed. However, we do know some basic information. Punjabis can generally be broken down into four sub-tribes:
~~ Arain ~~
Origin: Sindh? Persia? Central Asia?
Groups: Mian, Mehar Dhankhar
The origin of the Arain community is uncertain, with some members of the community claiming a connection with the Rajputs. Others, with whom the historian and political scientist Christophe Jaffrelot agrees, believe that they are displaced farming communities who moved to Punjab from Sindh and Multan as Arab Muslim armies encroached (similar to the Jats). Jaffrelot also believes the community to be related to the Kamboja Vedic tribe. Ishtiaq Ahmed, who is a political scientist like Jaffrelot and also a member of the Arain community, acknowledges that some early Arain texts ascribe a Persian origin and others a Rajput descent. The Arain claims of Arab descent however are largely based on myth.
~~ Jat ~~
Groups: Aulakh, Bajwa, Chaudhary, Chohan, Dhankhar, Gill, Kharal, Khokhar, Khullar, Randhawa, Sandhu, Sidhu, Sial, Sodhi, Sohal, Virk, Jatt
Jat is an elastic label applied to a wide-ranging, traditionally non-elite community which had its origins in pastoralism in the lower Indus Valley of Sindh. Between the eleventh and the sixteenth centuries, Jat herders migrated up along the Indus River and its tributaries into Punjab, which had not been cultivated in the first millennium. Many took up tilling in regions stretching between the Rivers Jhelum, Chenab and Ravi of Punjab.
~~ Gujjar ~~
Origin: Caucasus range? Ganges plain?
Historians and anthropologists differ on issue of Gujjar origin. According to one view, Gurjars came from Central Asia via Georgia near the Caspian Sea; that sea's alternate name of Bahr-e-Khizar caused the tribe to be known as Khizar, Guzar, Gujur, Gurjara, or Gujjar. According to this view, Gurjars came in multiple waves of migration and they were initially accorded status as high-caste warriors in the Indus Vedic civilization.
~~ Rajput ~~
Groups: Bais, Butta, Bhatti, Chib, Janjua, Parmar, Ranial, Shaktawat, Sohlan, Mair, Minhas
Rajputs are said to be descendants of Indo-Scythians, who were a Central Asian tribe (called the Scythians or Sakas), who migrated into the Indus Valley during Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek rule in around 150 BC, eventually taking control of the Indus Valley by establishing several small kingdoms in the region between 110 BC to 95 AD. However, there is not solid evidence linking the two at present time.
~~ Sheikhs ~~
Origin: Members of the Shaikh community are Punjabi Hindus who converted to Islam from different Brahmin castes of Punjab.
Groups: Arora, Brahmins, Bali, Chawla, Datt, Mohan, Mohyal, Qureshi, Khatri, Ahuja, Babbar, Bedi, Chopra, Khukhrain, Kohli, Malhotra, Malik, Oberoi, Paracha, Roshan, Sabharwal, Sahni, Sehgal, Sethi, Siddiqui and Vohra
Several other groups are present in Punjab who have not completely adopted Punjabi culture, but have integrated into Punjabi society. These include:
~~ Sayyid ~~
Groups: Hasani, Husaini, Zaidi, Rizvi, Naqvi, Syed
The Sayyids of Punjab belong to the Hasani (descendants of Hasan), Husaini (descendants of Husayn), Zaidi (descendants of Zayd ibn Ali, grandson of Husayn), Rizvi, (descendants of Ali al-Ridha), and Naqvi (descendants of Ali al-Hadi). Sayyids are by definition a branch of the Banu Hashim, a clan from the tribe of Quraish that traces its lineage to Adnan and therefore it is directly descended from Ishmael, as well as being collaterally descended from his paternal half brother Isaac, the sons of Abraham. Sayyids often include the following titles in their names to indicate the figure from whom they trace their descent. A study of Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from the by Elise M. S. Belle, Saima Shah, Tudor Parfitt and Mark G. Thomas showed that "self-identified Sayyids" had no less genetic diversity than those non-Sayyids from the same regions, suggesting that there is no biological basis to the belief that self-identified Sayyids in this part of the world share a recent common ancestry. However, self-identified Sayyids belonging to the ‘Islamic honorific lineages’ (Syeds, Hashemites, Quraysh and Ansari) show a greater genetic affinity to Arab populations—despite the geographic distance.
~~ Kashmiris ~~
Origins: Kashmir Valley
Groups: Butt, Dar, Mir, Lone
These are people who arrived in Punjab in two waves. The first was during a major famine in Kashmir during the early 1800s which forced many Kashmiris to migrate to Punjab. The second was during the 1947 Kashmir conflict, where by Dogra soldiers forced many Muslim Kashmiris to flee to Pakistan...namely settling in Punjab. Although they have adopted Punjabi language and some aspects of Punjabi culture, they still identify as Kashmiris.
Other groups also exist, but since I cannot 100% ascertain origins of those groups, I've decided to not include them. I don't like spreading myths, but rather facts or theories. Until a full study is completed, we won't know for certain about the true origins of Punjabis. Until then, we can only guess and make assumptions.
My facebook post
Muqarrab Khan also fought alongside Ahmed Shah Durrani, as did other Gakhar tribals of Potohar:Mukarrab Khan
A powerful chieftain of nothern Punjab who fought alongside Nader Shah during his conquests of the Mughal Empire. He was awarded the title of Nawab for his efforts and was allowed to retain control of his kingdom. He then expanded it to include much of nothern Pakistan before being defeated by the Sikh Empire. Even then, his people continued to rebel against the Sikhs.
There are such places in many areas of Punjab these are remains of some old towns or villages just like harapa and mohenjo daroWhich village?
Actually no one ruled these areasFor those who say Punjabis never ruled over ourselves:
Punjabi is a language spoken in Punjab but those people who never attended school don't call it Punjabi they just call it hamari boli or the boli we speak or jatki boli in Punjabi jat means kisan or agriculture labourerSo is punjabi an ethinicity?
Ye sari zindagi aisay hi rahain gayTill they convince each other that they are all humans and Pakistanis first.
Ye log baal ki khaal nikaal kar usper kyon larte jigharte hain? Isse mulk ko nuqsaan hota haiPunjabi is a language spoken in Punjab but those people who never attended school don't call it Punjabi they just call it hamari boli or the boli we speak or jatki boli in Punjabi jat means kisan or agriculture labourer
People of Punjab look similar speak same language or different dialects of same language from narowal to Raheem Yar khan to dg khan to attock to narowal
than why they can't be considered an ethnic group any reason
pashtun nationalism isn't pashtun ancestry nationalism but is Pashto language nationalism because people like Imran Khan niazi Attaullah niazi Shafaullah rokhri aren't considered pashtuns by pashtun nationalists
similarly people like shireen mazari zulfiqar khosa are not considered baloch by Baloch nationalists despite of some khosas and mazaris being bilingual
But who cares about such things
Mehmod Khan achakzai sa kaho na apni land cruiser bech Kar kisi ghareeb pashtun ki madad karday Sara nationalism nikal Jaye ga
Ye sari zindagi aisay hi rahain gay