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History of Punjabis

Taimur Khurram

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We've got one for Pashtuns, so I am making one for Punjabis.

I will start off with some historical Punjabi figures:

Porus

220px-Porus_alexander_coin.png


A Punjabi king who fought bravely against Alexander of Macedon. Defeating him was one of Alexander's most difficult conquests, and out of respect for Porus he employed him as a satrapy over the area. The difficulty of the battle also seems to have caused the Macedonian soldiersoldier's reluctancy to fight any further, to the point where they almost started a mutiny. This resulted in Alexander being forced to end his campaign of expansion.

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Porus

Kautilya

A famous philosopher from Taxila who tutored Chandragupta Maurya, and held a key position in the Mauryan Empire. He is often compared to Aristotle and Plato.

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Kautilya

Sarang Khan

He was a powerful ruler of Nothern Punjab who fought alongside Babur during his conquests of Hindustan. He obtained the title of Sultan for his efforts. When Sher Shah Suri usurped Babur's son Humayun, Sarang fought against him bravely, and Sher Shah Suri was never able to subdue his people even after skinning Sarang himself.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan_Sarang_Khan

Wazir Khan

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A Punjabi who acted as Shah Jahan's physician. He was also a Mughal noble and chief Qazi of Lahore for quite some time during Mughal rule. He founded Wazirabad and Wazir Khan Masjid is named after him.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wazir_Khan_(Lahore)

Shahbaz Khan

A Punjabi who fought as a general under Akbar. He participated in some of the most difficult battles during Akbar's reign, and annexed large amounts of Hindustan. He was also a highly religious Muslim, keeping a long beard and regularly praying.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shahbaz_Khan_Kamboh

Abdullah Bhatti

He rebelled against Mughal emeperor Akbar, and is often compared to Robin Hood due to his social banditry. Many folklore tales speak highly of his deeds. When he was hung, his last words that were uttered were "No honourable son of Punjab will ever sell the soil of Punjab".

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulla_Bhatti

Fateh Muhammad

Worked as a commander in Aurangzeb's army. He was also the father of Hyder Ali, who was the father of Tipu Sultan.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fath_Muhammad

Mukarrab Khan

Muqarrab-1131AH.jpg


A powerful chieftain of nothern Punjab who fought alongside Nader Shah during his conquests of the Mughal Empire. He was awarded the title of Nawab for his efforts and was allowed to retain control of his kingdom. He then expanded it to include much of nothern Pakistan before being defeated by the Sikh Empire. Even then, his people continued to rebel against the Sikhs.

http://firdosh101.blogspot.co.uk/2009/05/history-of-gakhars.html?m=1

Allama Iqbal

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An Urdu/Farsi poet as well as a philosopher who is also considered the spiritual father of Pakistan.

http://historypak.com/allama-muhammad-iqbal-1877-1938/

Rehmat Ali

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One of Pakistan's founding fathers. He came up with the name of Pakistan and was the author of the Pakistan declaration.

http://historypak.com/choudhry-rahmat-ali-1895-1951/

Faiz Ahmed Faiz

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One of Urdu's most celebrated poets. He won numerous awards for his poetry, such as the Lenin Peace Prize and Nishan-e-Imtiaz. He was also nominated for a Nobel Prize in Literature.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faiz_Ahmad_Faiz

Shabbir Sharif

262168_2164952090416_1445057935_2616339_3480499_n.jpg


The most decorated soldier to ever serve the Pakistani army. During 1971, he and his men destroyed several Hindustani tanks and kept two Hindustani battalions at bay by killing over 40 of their troops and capturing almost 30 of them as POW's. He also defeated a Hindustani company commander who challenged him to hand-to-hand combat. He won both Nishan-e-Haider and Sitara-e-Jurat for his efforts.

http://www.pakarmymuseum.com/exhibits/second-lieutenant-shabbir-sharif/

Tikka Khan

kallar-syedan-Tikka-khan.jpg


Fought against Erwin Rommel in WW2 as part of Britain's Africa campaign. He also served in the Pakistani army, participating in the Battle of Chawinda (2nd largest tank battle in history) and lead the army to great victories in the Rann of Kutch. He eventually became a general, and crushed Bengali and Baluchi insurgencies with a heavy hand. He's also my PDF profile picture.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikka_Khan
 
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Indus Pakistan

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One of ancient histories great characters - Pakistani's and in particular those who are of Punjabi extraction need to celebrate this chap and 'own' him. All too often aborginals from Gangadesh claim him as theirs. Porus put up a fight against the world conquerer Alexander the "Great" that he had not faced anywhere else. What a epic battle and people from Jhelum should be proud that they almost brought the mighty Greek army on it's knees.





Having defeated the Pukhtuns in Bajaur and Swat, Alexander the Macedonian came upon the Sindhu River — at the village we today know as Hund. It lies on the west bank of the Sindhu, some ways north of the city of Jehangira on the Grand Trunk Road. Here, Alexander crossed the river to reach Taxila. It was April in the year 326 BCE.


Outside the village, by the banks of the river, there sits a monument to Alexander’s greatness and achievements. Such a memorial would have been appropriate in Macedonia or Greece, but failing to see the reason of this celebration in Pakistan, I have judiciously avoided visiting it since it was built back in the mid-1990s. The monument owes itself entirely to the archaeologist Ahmad Hasan Dani.

Again, in the little village of Jalalpur, on the highroad between Serai Alamgir and Pind Dadan Khan, there is another monument, even more elaborate than the one at Hund. Here, we also have a so-called library and research centre. This, too, was ordered by Dani. The funds for both Alexander monuments were supplied by the National Fund for Culture and Heritage, of which Dani was a long-time head.

https://tribune.com.pk/story/97037/alexanders-monument/
 

Taimur Khurram

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One of ancient histories great characters - Pakistani's and in particular those who are of Punjabi extraction need to celebrate this chap and 'own' him. All too often aborginals from Gangadesh claim him as theirs. Porus put up a fight against the world conquerer Alexander the "Great" that he had not faced anywhere else. What a epic battle and people from Jhelum should be proud that they almost brought the mighty Greek army on it's knees.
Many of us certainly are. My father is from Sarai Alamgir (used to be a part of Jhelum district until the late 90's, but it's still within Jhelum's cantonment limits) and he told me about Porus with great pride about his achievements.

Us Pakistanis certainly need to appreciate our history, especially our pre-Islamic one, much more than we currently do. Other than Pashtuns, Baluchis and those who claim ancestry from Islamic nobility, the rest of us really don't care as much as we should about our past prior to Pakistan's independence. This has allowed our eastern neighbour to claim it as their own, to the point where they even named themselves after OUR river.
 

Indus Pakistan

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Sarai Alamgir
A special Salam to you. I have stayed with a friend in Sarai Alamgir. Great, friendly people and some nice looking ladies. Much respect. And as you will know Jhelum along with Rawalpindi and Attock has provided generations of it's young to the army.

Ps. I have walked across the Iron bridge built by British across River Jhelum.
 

Taimur Khurram

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One of ancient histories great characters - Pakistani's and in particular those who are of Punjabi extraction need to celebrate this chap and 'own' him. All too often aborginals from Gangadesh claim him as theirs. Porus put up a fight against the world conquerer Alexander the "Great" that he had not faced anywhere else. What a epic battle and people from Jhelum should be proud that they almost brought the mighty Greek army on it's knees.





Having defeated the Pukhtuns in Bajaur and Swat, Alexander the Macedonian came upon the Sindhu River — at the village we today know as Hund. It lies on the west bank of the Sindhu, some ways north of the city of Jehangira on the Grand Trunk Road. Here, Alexander crossed the river to reach Taxila. It was April in the year 326 BCE.


Outside the village, by the banks of the river, there sits a monument to Alexander’s greatness and achievements. Such a memorial would have been appropriate in Macedonia or Greece, but failing to see the reason of this celebration in Pakistan, I have judiciously avoided visiting it since it was built back in the mid-1990s. The monument owes itself entirely to the archaeologist Ahmad Hasan Dani.

Again, in the little village of Jalalpur, on the highroad between Serai Alamgir and Pind Dadan Khan, there is another monument, even more elaborate than the one at Hund. Here, we also have a so-called library and research centre. This, too, was ordered by Dani. The funds for both Alexander monuments were supplied by the National Fund for Culture and Heritage, of which Dani was a long-time head.

https://tribune.com.pk/story/97037/alexanders-monument/
Speaking of Alexander, his campaign in Pakistan was his most difficult. When writing to his mother, he spoke of the people of the region, saying:



A special Salam to you. I have stayed with a friend in Sarai Alamgir. Great, friendly people and some nice looking ladies. Much respect. And as you will know Jhelum along with Rawalpindi and Attock has provided generations of it's young to the army.

Ps. I have walked across the Iron bridge built by British across River Jhelum.
Walaikum Asalam

Thank you for the compliments.

May I ask which part of Pakistan you come from?

Asalamu Alaikum

What's funny?
 

Indus Pakistan

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Speaking of Alexander, his campaign in Pakistan was his most difficult.
Yep. We Pashtuns/Punjabis of coterminous Pakistan gave Alexander the Great a fight he would learn to respect. It is sad though the aboriginals of Ganga have effectively claimed our heritage. But as you mention that is our fault. I hope future generations in Pakistan learn to stand tall on the heritage of their forefathers from the Islam and pre Islamic period.
 

Taimur Khurram

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Ranjit Singh is also part of Punjabi history if it's not selective recognition.
True, but I prefer to speak of Punjabis that Pakistani-Punjabis would and should admire.

The Sikhs used Masjids as stables and banned the Azaan, with many Punjabi Muslims resisting them fiercely. Some of them even sided with the Durranis when they fought against the Sikhs.
 

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Adina Beg





who became the last Mughal governor of the Punjab.

Adina Beg was born to Channu an Arain of Sharakpur Sharif near Lahore.[1] He was raised by Mughal families in the Doaba region of the Punjab.[1]

Career
He began his career as a sepoy responsible for revenue collection across a handful of villages near Sultanpur. He quickly gained influence across the Doaba. In 1739, he was appointed faujdar of Sultanpur by the Mughal viceroy of the Punjab, Zakariya Khan Bahadur.[2] On his appointment he made his patron Sri Nivas his assistant, and his patron's brother Bhwani Das his superintendent.[2]

That same year, Nader Shah invaded the Mughal Empire. Sultanpur, located on the road from Lahore to Delhi was ravaged by Persian troops. Adina Beg's success in restoring order, providing relief and securing the relief of prisoners enhanced his reputation.[2] Zakariya Khan, learning of his performance, appointed him Subahdar of the Doaba with instructions to halt the rising threat of the Sikh Misls.[2] Soon after his appointment Adina Beg dispatched troops against the Sikhs and carried out a massive slaughter against them.[3] Notably after restoring peace and order in the area, he ignored orders to take decisive steps to crush the Sikhs and instead pursued means of making peace with them.[4]Recognising the decline of his Mughal employers he sought to make alliances with local groups, and granted jagirs to a number of Sikhs whilst also employing many in his armed forces, notably Jassa Singh Ramgarhia.[4][5]

Nader Shah's invasion resulted in widespread looting, and led to Zakariya Khan being unable to pay his soldiers. In an attempt to raise funds he imprisoned the Diwan Lakhpat Rai, whose brother Jaspat Rai then proceeded to demand arrears from all the nazims and faujdars.[2] Adina Beg subsequently found himself imprisoned for being in arrears and was stripped of his position as governor of the Doaba.[2] He gained his release after a year through the aid of his loyal assistants Sri Nivas and Bhwani Das. He then saw his fortunes change again when he was appointed deputy governor of the Doaba under his replacement as governor, Shah Nawaz, the son of the late Zakariya Khan[6]

In 1747, Shah Nawaz forcibly occupied Lahore, and unable to win over support from the Delhi government to make him subahdar of Lahore, invited Ahmad Shah Durrani to invade the Mughal Empire. On hearing of this treachery, the Delhi government hurriedly acquiesced to Shah Nawaz's demands, but were too late to halt Durrani's invasion. Durrani defeated Shah Nawaz at Lahore before marching on Delhi. Adina assisted Mir Mannu in the decisive Mughal victory at the Battle of Manupur which forced Durrani's retreat to Kabul. In return, the newly appointed subahdar of Lahore Mir Mannu reinstated Adina as faujdar of the Doaba. Durrani followed up his initial invasion a year later acquiring more territory to the west of the Indus river. During his third invasion, he defeated Mir Mannu at the Battle of Lahore and established Afghan supremacy in the Punjab although he kept Mir Mannu in place as his governor at Lahore. On Mir Mannu's death in 1753, Adina asserted independence from the Durrani Empire and extended his control of the Doaba as far as Sirhind. In May 1756 he was made subahdar of Lahore and Multan by the Mughal government at Delhi in return for an annual tribute of thirty lakh of rupees. The move incited the Afghans who forced Adina to relinquish his position, and reaffirmed him as faujdar of the Doaba.

In 1757, Adina sought out allies to expel the Afghans from the Punjab. He struck a deal with Sikh leaders Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Sodhi Vadhbhag Singh, and with their help defeated the Afghans at Mahilpur.[7] By March 1758 he had also enlisted the support of Raghunathrao of the Maratha Empire, and together they expelled the Afghans from Lahore. The Punjab now came under Maratha rule, with Adina appointed subahdar of the Punjab in 1758 in return for a yearly tribute of seventy five lakh of rupees. Raghunathrao and Malhar Rao Holkar the two commanders-in-chief of the Maratha forces remained in Lahore for three months after which they retired to the Deccan leaving Adina in sole control.[8]Now in control of the entirety of the Punjab, Adina entrusted Lahore to his son-in-law Khwaja Mirza, and set up his headquarters in Batala nearer to his traditional power base in the Doaba.[9] To entrench his position he sought to eliminate his rivals, and declared his erstwhile allies the Sikhs, outlaws. He pursued two expeditions against the Sikhs, including an abortive siege of the mud fort Ram Rauni.[10]

Death
On 15 September 1758, only a few months after his appointment, Adina Beg passed away at Khanpur near Hoshiarpur.[1] The Maratha's appointed Sabaji Bhonsl to succeed him as the governor of the Punjab.[11] A tomb was erected at his grave in Khanpur.[1] His life is described in an unpublished Persian manuscript, the Ahwal-i-Dina Beg Khan.
 

Taimur Khurram

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Yep. We Pashtuns/Punjabis of coterminous Pakistan gave Alexander the Great a fight he would learn to respect. It is sad though the aboriginals of Ganga have effectively claimed our heritage. But as you mention that is our fault. I hope future generations in Pakistan learn to stand tall on the heritage of their forefathers from the Islam and pre Islamic period.
Inshallah.

We need a nationalist party in Pakistan in order to achieve this goal, and I am hopeful that PDF and websites like it will prop up to breed people who will aspire for such goals.
 

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