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History of Pakistani cities

ghazi52

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ghazi52

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Munro

Munro is a hill station, located at a height of 6,470 feet above sea level in Dera Ghazi Khan. It attracts many people for short stays during the hot summer. It is around 85 kilometres from Dera Ghazi Khan city, Punjab, Pakistan and about 185 kilometres from Multan in Sulaiman Mountain range. The people of Fort Munro are nomads, especially of the Leghari tribe.

The town was founded by Robert Groves Sandeman in the later part of the 19th century and named Fort Munro after Colonel Munro who was commissioner of the Derajat Division.

c. 1890s: View of Fort Munro - Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab

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alikazmi007

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Faisalabad

Thanks for doing my city!

Faisalabad (Lyallpur until 1979) (Punjabi and Urdu: ضلع فیصل آباد‎) is one of the districts of Punjab province, in the Rechna Doab upland. . According to the 1998 census of Pakistan it had a population of 3,029,547 of which almost 42% were in Faisalabad City. It is the third largest city of Pakistan after Karachi and Lahore.

The city, the district headquarters, is a distributing centre centrally located in the Punjab plain and connected by road, rail, and by air with major cities. When founded in 1890, it was named for Sir Charles James Lyall, lieutenant governor of the Punjab. It became headquarters of the Lower Chenab colony and in 1898 was incorporated as a municipality. Industries produce chemical fertilizer, synthetic fibres, drugs and pharmaceuticals, canned products, ghee (clarified butter), oil, soap, textiles, hosiery, sugar, and flour. It is also a wholesale market for cloth and grain. Amenities include two parks, several schools, the Agricultural University (established 1961), and a number of universities and colleges .

After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muslim refugees from Eastern Punjab and Haryana settled in the Faisalabad District. It initially lacked industry, hospitals and universities. Since independence, there has been industrial growth, and the city's population is continually growing. Notable industry in the district include but not limited to Textile (spinning, weaving, printing, dying, stitching), Chemicals (acids, caustics, industrial gases, potash, chlorides etc), consumer goods (soaps, vegetable oil, detergents), Engineering (light electrical equipment, engineering goods), Metals & Metallurgy (steels, alloys) and Power (power equipment, power production).

Initially a part of Jhang District, it gained the status of a separate district in 1904. In 1982 Toba Tek Singh District (until then a tehsil of Faisalabad) was created as a separate district from Faisalabad. As of 2006 it is a city district consisting of the city of Faisalabad.

According to the 1998 census, Punjabi is the first language of 98% of the population, and Urdu of 1.2% Urdu as the national language and English as the official language is taught in all schools.

The surrounding region consists of a fertile plain between the Chenab and Ravi rivers that is irrigated by the Lower Chenab Canal. The chief crops are wheat, cotton, and sugarcane. Pop. (2007 est.) urban agglom., 2,617,000.

Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh born September 27, 1907, Faisalabad—died March 23, 1931, Lahore, revolutionary hero of the independence movement.

Milkha Singh
Milkha Singh, Indian track-and-field athlete who became the first Indian male to reach the final of an Olympic athletics event when he placed fourth in the 400-metre race at the Rome 1960 Olympic Games. Orphaned during the partition of India, Singh moved to India from Pakistan in 1947.

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Pakistani singer who is considered one of the greatest performers of qawwali, a Sufi Muslim devotional music characterized by simple melodies, forceful rhythms, and energetic improvisations that encourage a state of euphoria in the listener.

Life around Clock Tower / Ghanta Ghar
1947-50s:




1910s: View of Railway Station Lyallpur





1910s: Victoria Clock Tower (Ghanta Ghar), Lyallpur (now Faisalabad)

The foundation of majestic Clock Tower was laid on 14 November 1903 by the British lieutenant governor of Punjab Sir Charles Riwaz and the biggest local landlord belonging to the Mian Family of Abdullahpur. The fund was collected at a rate of Rs. 18 per square of land. The fund thus raised was handed over to the Municipal Committee which undertook to complete the project.





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History of Lyallpur



Lyallpur also known as Chenab Colony and sandalbar and know it is known as Faisalabad .is the third- most populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab. It was once part of ancient district of Jhang and Sandalbar, a 5,000 square kilometres area consisting mainly of thick forests and inhabited by nomadic tribes. The tract from Shahdara to Shorkot,Sangla Hill to Toba Tek Singh, was traditionally called Sandalbar.

From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated the eastern divisions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the dynasty established by his father, Sultan Sabuktagin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of some western Punjab region. Eastern regions of Punjab from Multan to Rawalpindi (including region of present-day Faisalabad) remained under Rajput rule until 1193. It was then brought under the control of the Delhi Sultanate and then the Mughal Empire. Faisalabad slowly developed and many Muslim Sufi missionaries converted the local population to Islam.

During the reign of the Mughal Empire the population and cultivation of the land increased. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire invaded and occupied the region from 1765 to 1846. The Muslims faced restrictions during Sikh rule and there are countless reports that Muslim community suffered during these times. Faisalabad was also the site of where two major battles took place between the British Empire and the Sikh armies. On the 22 February 1849 the British declare victory in Punjab and Faisalabad came into the control of the British Empire.

In the 1870s the colonial Punjab government decided to increase the cultivated land by making barrages and canals to meet the demand at European markets. This led to the canal based irrigation of the areas now comprising the district of Faisalabad. In 1880, a colonial officer, Captain Poham Young, with the support of Sir James Broadwood Lyall, proposed a new town. The design was based on the Union Jack, with eight roads radiating from a large clock tower in the centre. The eight roads developed into eight separate bazaars. The construction of artificial canals allowed the surrounding areas to be irrigated. The town grew rapidly as farmers settled on newly irrigated land. A large number of settlers came from different areas of Punjab especially from Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Ambala on the promise of large agricultural lands. With the extensively planned distribution of land the canal irrigated areas of Sandal Bar soon became populated. This led to a rapid transformation of the nomadic environment of the Bar into a more agriculture based one.

In 1892 the British Raj decided to join Faisalabad (then Lyallpur) with a rail link to major rail network to transport agricultural surplus to the ports to be shipped to European markets. In 1895 the rail link between Wazirabad and Lyallpur was completed. In 1896, Lyallpur was given the status of a tehsil of the Jhang District, and its administration was carried on in tents on the old Theh (Mound) of Pucca Mari near Tariqabad. The majestic Clock Tower was constructed out of the funds raised by the landowners, who collected it at a rate of Rs. 18 per square of land. The fund thus raised was handed over to the Town Committee, which undertook to complete the project.

By 1902 the population of the town exceeded 4,000, including the new Sialkot Jats, particularly Bajwas, Kalloos, Cheema's and Chattas came to establish the agriculture land of Chenab (called Chena bar). Houses and shops had been constructed to cater to the ordinary needs of the population. In 1903 it was decided to establish an agricultural college. In 1904 the new district of Lyallpur was constituted, composed of the tehsils of Lyallpur, Samundri and Toba Tek Singh, with a sub tehsil at Jaranwala which later became a full tehsil. By 1906, the district headquarters began to function in Lyallpur and all the bazaars and settlements within the bounds of a ring road were nearing completion. The city began to spread outside the circular road. The Town Committee was upgraded to a Municipal Committee in 1909 and the Deputy Commissioner was appointed as its first chairman. In 1916, the grain market saw its shops surging with customers. In the same year the civil hospital was expanded. With the advent of World War II, there was an increase in political awareness across the city. Revolutionary meetings were held, fiery speeches made, and slogans written on walls.

The first colonisation officer Aurangzeb Khan made sure that no individual in this district owned more than 25 squares 625 acres of land. The merit or method of allotting the land was to check each individual's hand who was applying for some land, and if the hands showed that individual had worked hard in the past, only then was land given to him, which has led to a district where there aren't any big land owners, as the land has been equally distributed amongst hard working men and it is their hard work that has led to Faisalabad becoming the third richest district in Pakistan.

The main roads in and out of the city were kept 1-acre (4,000 m2) wide; since the independence of Pakistan a lot of roads have been taken over by land mafia. Some industrial areas were kept on the East of the main canal which is present-day People's Colony and Madina town. The urban areas were kept to the west of the canal, as sweet ground water flowed from the canal to the river Chenab, the consequence of changing former industrial area into urban areas has been a lack of proper drinkable water for those living in peoples colony and Madina town. Another industrial area was developed at the west end of town, now around the road towards the central Punjab town of Sargodha.

These earlier development of industrial areas led to industrialization of the city of Faisalabad right from its inception. Initial industrial setup were related to cotton and basic textiles, still the most dominant industry of the city with more value added products. Besides textiles food processing, grain crushing and small chemical industry was established in the pre-second World War era.

In 1943, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah came to Lyallpur and addressed a gathering of over 2 million in Dhobi Ghat Grounds.


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After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Faisalabad district. Muslims refugees from East Punjab, Haryana, Jammu started arriving and crossed the border into Pakistan; many were given land in Faisalabad District to settle. After independence, the city of Lyallpur enjoyed considerable development, and became a major commercial and industrial centre. The population grew quickly past one million. There was an expansion of the provision of health and education in the city. In 1977, the name of the city was changed to "Faisalabad", in honour of the late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, who was held in high regard in Pakistan. In 1985, the district was upgraded to a division with the new districts of Faisalabad, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh.
 

ghazi52

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A rare photograph of Mazar-e-Quaid during construction in 1967.
Picture taken by Ch. Abdul Majeed (late).
 

ghazi52

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Elphinstone' Street - Karachi 1918

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Zaibunnisa (Zebunnissa, Zaib-un-Nissa) Street is a street in Karachi, Pakistan. Located in the neighbourhood of Saddar (the heart of the city), it is one of Karachi's oldest and most historic streets.

It was originally known as Elphinstone Street in honour of Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779–1859), a British official, who played an important role in the colonization of India. Elphinstone was the first British ambassador to Afghanistan and helped defeat the Peshwas in Maharashtra before 1820. He served as Governor of Bombay Presidency, of which Karachi was a part until the 1930s. In 1970, the street's name was changed to 'Zaibunnisa Street' by the government of Karachi in honour of Zaib-un-Nissa Hamidullah, an influential Pakistani journalist and writer.

Zaibunnisa Street is one of Karachi's most popular shopping districts. A few consulates and hotels are also found on the street as well. It is one of the city's treasures; as such, it is subjected to copious amounts of pollution from transport. Before the population and pollution explosions in Karachi it was called 'Karachi's Piccadilly Circus' by foreigners as it shows historic colonial buildings from the British Raj era.

Since Saddar does not house a sizable residential population, it has suffered financially due to the development of other shopping districts in areas that have a large residential population. As a result, people no longer have to travel to Saddar in order to purchase goods. Jewellery and the men's footwear markets have been particularly affected, since these commodities make up most of Zaibunnisa Street's shops. Despite this, major stores of Karachi, such as Bata, Chottani Jewelers, English Boot House, Sputnik Footwear and Fitrite continue to have a presence in the market, although business has been on the decline. Many Karachiites feel that the city administration of Karachi should utilize the historical architecture of Zaibunnisa Street as leverage in order to revive the market. Shopkeepers feel that the city's administrators should give the street's severely deteriorating architecture some much needed attention. They must implement and organize a marketing campaign in order to attract people back to Karachi's cultural shopping district and support the economy.

This important road and surrounding areas suffer from persistent traffic. This too has discouraged former shoppers from visiting Saddar since it has become nearly impossible to find parking spots. Local businessmen have requested the city planners to either organize parking in nearby areas or to make Zaibunnisa Street a pedestrian-only zone, which could help re-attract customers nearby. they were mostly eating corn and bannanas in the west africa.
Photo courtsey: Albert Newday ( british journalist )

Text courtesy: Old Karachi
 

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Paradise Cinema Karachi 1943.

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From 50s to late 70s, the cinemas in Karachi were spread like a web throughout the city and were not concentrated in a single nook or corner of the metropolis. In 1977, at the height of Karachi’s cinema culture, there were 136 cinemas . People from different areas had different cinemas for themselves. The cinemas of Karachi have a distinct culture and history of their own. Despite their rapid demolition, they remain a part of the golden memories of a whole generation.

Saddar area of karachi was rich with a number of quality cinemas, like Bambino, Lyric, Mayfair, Odeon, Palace , Rex, Paradise, Reagle , Capitol, etc.

There were twin cinemas in saddar Capitol and Paradise, both were belonged to a Zoroastrian Mr Manek Mobed (affectionately called Khan Sahib). With his family Khorshed Mobed and son Danny Mobed formerly lived near Sopariwalla Building, Clarke Street, Saddar, Karachi.

At Paradise and Capitol films distributed by the Empire Talkie Distributors (1931) established in Lahore and the largest importers of American films in Northern and Western India with offices in Delhi, Lahore, Karachi. Both were equipped with RCA sound reproduction equipment. Capitol and Paradise showed those of MGM and Universal Pictures.

Paradise cinema was surrounded on three sides by Abdullah Haroon Road formaly Victoria Road until 1969, Clark Street and Shambhunath Street. Paradise was built in Art Deco Style. Showed specially english language movies. Cinema was well ventilated, airconditioned, clean and well maintained by hounest manager Prem Jee .

Paradise Cinema was a lucky cinema where Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Fatima Jinnah and President Sardar Abdul Rabb Nishtar watched a documentary about the struggle for independence in 1948. In 60s Paradise celebrate Jerry Lewis week daily new film played and after that Norman wisdom week. Czech Film Festival ( Czech Spring 1968) also held here.

Paradise cinema was demolished in late 80s. Now Paradise cloth market and on upper floor paradise hotel.

A brief history of films screened at Paradise_Cinema.
"They Died with Their Boots On" in 1941 American b/w Western film from Warner Bros. Pictures
"Ride 'Em Cowboy" in 1942 comedy film.
"The Desert Song" in 1943 American musical film.
"Two Girls and a Sailor" in 1944 American musical film
"Something for the Boys' in early 1947,a musical comedy film .
"The Sea of Grass" in 1949 an American Western film .
"The Wicked Lady" in 1950 costume drama film, The film had one of the top audiences for a film of its period.
"Kim" in 1950 Technicolor adventure film by MGM.
"Quo Vadis" (Latin for "Where are you going?") in 1951 American drama film made by MGM.
"Ivanhoe" in 1952 British-American historical adventure epic film of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
"Sindbad the Sailor" Indian director Nanabhai Bhatt's hindi picture released in 1952 only for 24 days in Paradise Cinema.

"Dial M for Murder" in 1954 American crime mystery thriller film .
"A House of Wax" in 1954 was the first 3D film of pakistan shown in Paradise Cinema.
"Parwaz" Sabiha Khanum and Yousuf Khan's romantic film released in 1954 at Paradise Cinema. Parwaz was the debut film of Yousaf khan. Film collect low business from Paradise Cinema.
"Ulysses" in 1954 Kirk Douglas fantasy adventure film.
"Rebel Without a Cause" American drama film released in 1956.
"Kala Pani" in 1958 Indian hindi language thriller film, produced by Dev Anand.
"Tom Thumb" in 1958 a fantasy musical film released by MGM.
"Aladin Ka Beta" in 1960 a flop hindi film .
"For Whom the Bell Tolls" American adventure film in 60s.
"Danger Man in Tokyo" in 1960s a thriller action & adventure movie.
"Fantômas" in 1964 French comedy film .
"Von Ryan's Express" in 1965 World War II adventure film.

"Chakori" Shabana and Nadeem's first film was released in Karachi on May 19, 1967. It did not do business in Paradise Cinema for first few days but then completed 81 weeks and became Pakistan's second Platinum Jubilee film. The film was screened at Paradise Cinema for five consecutive months.

"Where Eagles Dare' in 1968 British Metro color World War II action film , collect record breaking business in Paradise.

"Daagh" in 1969 Nadeem and Shabana's low business film.

"Anjuman" in colour film, was screened at Paradise on 31 July 1970, starring Waheed Murad, Rani and Deeba .The film was released during the hey days of Waheed Murad and became a milestone in Waheed's career. The film was released at the worst possible political situation of the country with Bangladesh war of independence raging in former East Pakistan. Nevertheless, the film became a huge success, with famous tracks by Runa Laila and Ahmed Rushdi. Box office report of Film Anjuman 32/81 weeks with Platinum Jubilee status.

"Umrao Jaan Ada" in 1972 Shahid and Rani's musical drama film, complete 11 super hit months in Paradise cinema . Umrao Jaan Ada was based on the 1905 novel Umrao Jaan Ada written by Mirza Hadi Ruswa.

"Aaina aur Soorat" in 1974 Mohammad Ali and Shabnam's film .

"Kismat" in 1974 Muhammad Ali and Shabnam's film collect golden jublee status with 14/50 weeks.

"Ek Gunah Aur Sahi" in 1975 Muhammad Ali, Sabiha khanam and Rani's film was a super-hit movie at Paradise.
"King Kong" in 1976 American monster adventure film .

"Pehli Nazar" Muhammad Ali , Nadeem and Babra Shareef's super hit, memorable, romantic and historical film hit the screen of Paradise Cinema on Thursday, October 6, 1977.

"Thief of Baghdad" in 1978 with a house full status & a big size hording of Genie at front gate of cinema.

Paradise cinema was demolished in late 80s. Now Paradise cloth market and on upper floor paradise hotel.

Sources: Dawn News, MGM, Empire Talkie Distributors and other historical sources.
 

ghazi52

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QAMAR HOUSE, Karachi 1972

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EFU BUILDING, known as QAMAR HOUSE, is designed in the Art Deco architectural style, by Qamardin Mahomed Hashwani in 1945 and was built on Muhammad Ali Jinnah Road in central Karachi between 1946 and 1955 by Qamardin & Co. It was the tallest building in Karachi until the construction of the Habib Bank Plaza building in 1968, of the AKFED (Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development).

Qamar House was built on Muhammad Ali Jinnah Road across from the Karachi Port Trust Building erected in colonial prepartition times, and in the vicinity of the Merewether Clock Tower another colonial preparation monument in Karachi.

Qamar House was designed by Qamardin Mahomed Hashwani in 1945 in the Art Deco style, and was built in partnership with Qamardin Jaffer Valliani and both their brothers and partners Ahmedali Mahomed Hashwani and Tajdin Jaffer Valliani by their Partnership Qamardin & Others. It has 12 floors, and is 129 feet in height.


While Qamar House was being built its recognition spread beyond Pakistan. On 5 July 1957 Aga Khan III appointed Qamardin Mahomed Hashwani as his Honorary Architect for Pakistan. His appointment for Pakistan was reaffirmed by Aga Khan IV succeeding his grandfather, when he appointed Qamardin as Honorary Architect for life for various projects throughout Pakistan.

From inception in 1948 till 2002 Qamar House was initially owned by four original partners of Qamardin & Others: Qamardin Mahomed Hashwani 25%, Qamardin Jaffer Valliani 25%, Ahmed Ali Mahomed Hashwani 25%, Tajdin Jaffer Valliani 25%; subsequently, original four owners successively gifted of their 25% shares sub-fractionally to members within each of their nuclear families.

Qamar House was acquired by EFU in 2002 to be the head office for Eastern Federal Union, the largest insurance company in Pakistan. Afterwards, it was officially named EFU House.
 

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