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History of Pakistani cities

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  1. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    History of Pakistani cities

    Every person has an emotional bond with a certain place, whether it is a favourite city or your hometown. This can be multi-dimensional and cannot be explained simply through a cause and effect relationship. Instead, it depends on personal experiences, life milestones, and occurrences of personal growth, rather than more hard-edged economic factors. People experience stronger attachments to places that they can identify with or otherwise feel proud to be a part of.

    Memories of places and individual preferences for specific places both change over time. Adults tend to focus on the emotions, meanings, and contextual implications of feelings in association with places. Children, however, focus on physical aspects of environments and what can be performed in various environments. Consequently, childhood memories of places are typically oriented around heavily emotional, intense, or euphoric events. Nevertheless, East or West home is the best.

    Pride of Pakistan aggregates information about places from various sources and combines them to provide you with a first impression. The purpose is to combine these resources and provide people with an idea of what Pakistan is truly like.



    .Bahawalnagar city

    Bahawalnagar city is situated in the south east region in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The town of Bahawalnagar is the headquarters of the district and tehsil as well. Old name of Bahawalnagar was Rojanwali / Ubbha. It was named Bahawalnagar in 1904 after Bahawal Khan V, the ruler of the Bahawalpur state comprising the present districts of Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan. It is 192 miles south of Lahore and about 120 miles east of Bahawalpur. River Sutlej passes on the northern side at a distance of about 6 miles.

    History

    Bahawalnagar originally known as Rojhanwali was a small settlement consisting of few huts and shacks. This village Rojhanwali is still in existence at a distance of about 1.5 miles north of the Railway Station. In the year 1895, a railway station was established and was named as Rojhanwali Railway Station. It was a junction between Bahawalnagar and Bathinda at distance of 113 miles, now linking branch lines Amrooka and Fort Abbas. Before partition it was very busy junction. Trains used to run from Karachi to Delhi and vice versa via Bahawalnagar. Passenger trains also used to run from Bahawalnagar to Fazilka, Ferozpur. There was a loco shed and two institutes meant for recreation.

    In 1904 when Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi IV, who originally ruled over Bahawalpur State visited Rojhanwali, the people asked him that with His permission they want to rename the city on the name of Nawab, The Nawab allowed them with pleasure and since then the city is named as Bahawalnagar. With the advent of railways, 40–50 shops with a population of 100 dwelling units developed at existing railway bazar. Though this site was not fit for flourishing as the topographical features were not favourable and drinking water was unfit for health. With the introduction of canal system, it has become fertile area. The real achievement was Fordwah Canal which brought almost the entire district under the command of irrigation system. The town developed as colony town south of railway station.

    In the year 1900–1901, first police station post was established and in 1902–1903 the first primary school was established. In the year 1906 a panchayat committee consisting of nominated members was composed. 1914 Bahawalnagar was recommended as Tehsil and the police post Jweka was shifted to Bahawalnagar. A regular municipal committee was constituted in year 1922 along with many members. The Assistant Commissioner and Tehsildar were then appointed as Mir Majlis and Naib Mir Majlis.

    Bahawalnagar was formerly part of Bahawalpur and was set up as new district in January, 1953. After that, city got some importance and started some development.

    Railways station

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    The Bahawalnagar railway station played a key role in development of former Bahawalpur State, especially of Bahawalnagar district which was established in 1952–53, while the rail section set up in 1894 was named as Rojhanwali Railway Station. Later, the station was renamed by Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan as Bahawalnagar Railway Junction in 1901. But now, it wears a deserted look as no train is running now-a-days. The only train which had been running through these tracks for years from Samasata to Amrooka was suspended on July 26, 2011.

    Moreover, railway assets are being stolen and land being grabbed. Beside, most of the Railway quarters and officers accommodation have been occupied by influential persons. The rail service was originally introduced by the Southern Punjab Railway Company among Delhi on 257 kilometres track. The west part of the rail track was laid between Samasata and Amrooka section at the Pakistan-India border. It linked Baghdad-ul-Jadeed, Khairpur, Tamewali, Qaimpur, Hasilpur, Chishtian, Bahawalnagar and Mandi Sadiq Ganj railway stations to Ferozpur and Amrooka stations through various lines. Likewise, the second railway track was laid down between Bathinda and Hindumalkote railway station of Indian state.

    Before partition of the subcontinent, the rail line was of great importance for connecting Dehli and Karachi. It was utilized for transportation of staff and their belongings in 1947 from India to Karachi. State railway lines were named as Darbar Lines and all their expenditures were borne by the respective states. It was running under the control of the Northern Western Railways. The 112 km Darbar line of the then Bahawalpur state was laid down between Bahawalnagar and Fort Abbas in 1928. On the track, new grain markets of Khichiwala, Faqirwali, Haroonabad and Donga Bonga were established. But unfortunately, the rail service on the track had been suspended since long, while a renowned Mandi Dhab Sanateka railway station has been submerged with filthy water.

    The Bahawalnagar Railways Junction was at its climax in 1935. Then, dozens of rails among Karachi, Delhi and Lahore by Ferozepur, Amrooka, Bahawalnagar to Samma Satta, particularly freight trains from Quetta to Delhi used to run regularly. Hustle and bustle of passengers on the station round-the-clock was a permanent feature and it was considered one of the important railways junctions of the subcontinent at that time.

    In 1938, a power substation was set up which generated DC power with the help of diesel engine, while today, the railway section has been deprived of electricity supply due to non-payment. After the partition, the well-equipped junction continued its reputation as business centre till 1980. It was more important than the town. It was given final shape in 1935 and 1938, when five hundred quarters for staff were constructed including the railway-officers accommodations, railway hospital, DC electricity power station, dak bungalow, playgrounds, graveyard, dance club, workshop and Railway police. With the completion of the all railway requirements, it turned into a beautiful location. At its climax, hundreds of workers discharge their duties. A beautiful overhead bridge of the junction was unique for its visitors. Unfortunately, such a glorious railway junction had fallen prey to corruption.

    Education sector

    The literacy rate of Bahawalnagar is less than 25% and unemployment rate is much higher than 25%. As the literacy rate of this city is not quite enough but the government owned institutions are offering their services to increase the literacy rate. The sub-Campus of Islamia University is also located in Bahawalnagar from which the students are getting the higher education with up to date syllabus. The students from Government College of Commerce Bahawalnagar normally attain top 10 positions in Islamia University and Punjab Board of Technical Exams.


    Educational Institutes

    The sub-campus of Islamia University is located here. Presently this sub campus is offering limited subjects for postgraduate education and graduation while there is only one post-graduation degree college for boys with an area nearly equal to 75 acres, formed in 1945 while one for girls.


    Sports ground

    Haider Stadium is the biggest stadium of Bahawalnagar City as well as Bahawalnagar District.


    Demographics

    The population of the Bahawalnagar, according to the 1998 Census of Pakistan, was 2,061,000.

    Languages

    According to the national census of 1998, the predominant first language in the district was Punjabi, spoken by 94.6% of the population, followed by Urdu at 3.7% and Saraiki at 1.2%.

    Administration

    Bahawalnagar is the administrative centre of Bahawalnagar District. The district is spread over an area of 8,878 square kilometres comprising five tehsils and 118 Union Councils.

    District boundaries

    The boundaries of Bahawalnagar in the east and south touches the Indian territory while Bahawalpur district lies on its west and river Sutlej flows on its northern side.


    Climate

    Bahawalnagar has a hot desert climate with hot summers and mild winters. Precipitation mostly falls in the monsoon season from June to August, although some rain also falls from February to April. Over the years, global climate change has affected Bahawalnagar as well as any other place on Earth and below comparison charts from Weatherbase and NOAA show the difference in rainfall and low temperatures between 1990 and 2015.

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    Last edited: May 28, 2019
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  2. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Gilgit city

    Gilgit city is a major tourist destination in northern Pakistan, which is located in a small valley near the confluence of the Gilgit River and Hunza River. It is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan province of Pakistan and serves as a hub for mountaineering expeditions in the Karakoram Range. Gilgit city was an important stop on the ancient Silk Road, and today serves as a major junction along the Karakoram Highway with road connections to China, Skardu, Chitral, and Islamabad.


    Etymology

    Gilgit city's ancient name was Sargin, later to be known as Gilit, and it is still referred to as Gilit or Sargin-Gilit by local people. In the Burushaski language, it is named Geelt and in Wakhi and Khowar it is called Gilt.


    History

    Brogpas trace their settlement from Gilgit into the fertile villages of Ladakh through a rich corpus of hymns, songs, and folklore that have been passed down through generations. The Dards and Shinas appear in many of the old Pauranik lists of people who lived in the region, with the former also mentioned in Ptolemy's accounts of the region.

    Buddhist era

    Gilgit was an important city on the Silk Road, along which Buddhism was spread from South Asia to the rest of Asia. It is considered as a Buddhism corridor from which many Chinese monks came to Kashmir to learn and preach Buddhism. Two famous Chinese Buddhist pilgrims, Faxian and Xuanzang, traversed Gilgit according to their accounts.

    According to Chinese records, between the 600s and the 700s, the city was governed by a Buddhist dynasty referred to as Little Balur or Lesser Bolü. They are believed to be the Patola Sahi dynasty mentioned in a Brahmi inscription, and are devout adherents of Vajrayana Buddhism.

    In mid-600s, Gilgit came under Chinese suzerainty after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate due to Tang military campaigns in the region. In late 600s CE, the rising Tibetan Empire wrestled control of the region from the Chinese. However, faced with growing influence of the Umayyad Caliphate and then the Abbasid Caliphate to the west, the Tibetans were forced to ally themselves with the Islamic caliphates. The region was then contested by Chinese and Tibetan forces, and their respective vassal states, until the mid-700s. Chinese record of the region last until late-700s at which time the Tang's western military campaign was weakened due to the An Lushan Rebellion.

    The control of the region was left to the Tibetan Empire. They referred to the region as Bruzha, a toponym that is consistent with the ethnonym "Burusho" used today. Tibetan control of the region lasted until late-800s CE.


    Gilgit manuscripts

    This corpus of manuscripts was discovered in 1931 in Gilgit, containing many Buddhist texts such as four sutras from the Buddhist canon, including the famous Lotus Sutra. The manuscripts were written on birch bark in the Buddhist form of Sanskrit in the Sharada script. They cover a wide range of themes such as iconometry, folk tales, philosophy, medicine and several related areas of life and general knowledge.

    The Gilgit manuscripts were nominated in 2006 to be included on the UNESCO Memory of the World register, but without success. The Gilgit manuscripts are among the oldest manuscripts in the world, and the oldest manuscript collection surviving in Pakistan, having major significance in the areas of Buddhist studies and the evolution of Asian and Sanskrit literature. The manuscripts are believed to have been written in the 5th to 6th centuries AD, though some more manuscripts were discovered in the succeeding centuries, which were also classified as Gilgit manuscripts.


    Pre-Trakhàn

    The former rulers had the title of Ra, and there is a reason to suppose that they were at one time Hindus, but for the last five centuries and a half they have been Muslims. The names of the Hindu Ras have been lost, with the exception of the last of their number, Shri Ba'dut. Tradition relates that he was killed by a Mohammedan adventurer, who married his daughter and founded a new dynasty, since called Trakhàn, from a celebrated Ra named Trakhan, who reigned about the commencement of the fourteenth century. The previous rulers, of whom Shri Ba'dut was the last ruler, were called Shahreis.


    Trakhàn Dynasty

    Gilgit was ruled for centuries by the local Trakhàn Dynasty, which ended about 1810 with the death of Raja Abas, the last Trakhàn Raja. The rulers of Hunza and Nager also claim origin with the Trakhàn dynasty. They claim descent from a heroic Kayani Prince of Persia, Azur Jamshid also known as Shamsher, who secretly married the daughter of the king Shri Badat.

    She conspired with him to overthrow her cannibal father. Sri Badat's faith is theorised as Hindu by some and Buddhist by others. However, considering the region's Buddhist heritage, with the most recent influence being Islam, the most likely preceding influence of the region is Buddhism. Though the Sanskrit titular Sri and the name Badat could denote a Hindu origin of this rule, adherents to Buddhism frequently employed Sanskrit in the use of Buddhist texts.

    Prince Azur Jamshid succeeded in overthrowing King Badat who was known as the Adam Khor (literally man-eater), often demanding a child a day from his subjects, his demise is still celebrated to this very day by locals in traditional annual celebrations. In the beginning of the new year, where a Juniper procession walks along the river, in memory of chasing the cannibal king Sri Badat away.

    Azur Jamshid abdicated after 16 years of rule in favour of his wife Nur Bakht Khatùn until their son and heir Garg, grew of age and assumed the title of Raja and ruled, for 55 years. The dynasty flourished under the name of the Kayani dynasty until 1421 when Raja Torra Khan assumed rulership. He ruled as a memorable king until 1475. He distinguished his family line from his stepbrother Shah Rais Khan (who fled to the king of Badakshan, and with whose help he gained Chitral from Raja Torra Khan), as the now-known dynastic name of Trakhàn. The descendants of Shah Rais Khan were known as the Ra'issiya Dynasty.

    Baltit Fort or Balti Fort is an ancient fort in the Hunza valley in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Founded in the 1st CE, since 2004, it has been on the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative list.

    1800s

    The period of greatest prosperity was probably under the Shin Ras, whose rule seems to have been peaceable and settled. The whole population, from the Ra to the poorest subject lived by agriculture. According to tradition, Shri Buddutt's rule extended over Chitral, Yassin, Tangir, Darel, Chilas, Gor, Astor, Hunza, Nagar and Haramosh all of which were held by tributary princes of the same family.

    The area had been a flourishing tract but prosperity was destroyed by warfare over the next fifty years, and by the great flood of 1841 in which the river Indus was blocked by a landslip below the Hatu Pir and the valley was turned into a lake. After the death of Abas, Sulaiman Shah, Raja of Yasin, conquered Gilgit. Then, Azad Khan the cheater, Raja of Punial, killed Sulaiman Shah, taking Gilgit and then Tahir Shah, Raja of Buroshall or Nagar, took Gilgit and killed Azad Khan.

    Tair Shah's son Shah Sakandar inherited, only to be killed by Gohar Aman, Raja of Yasin of the Khushwakhte Dynasty when he took Gilgit. Then in 1842, Shah Sakandar's brother, Karim Khan, expelled Yasin rulers with the support of a Sikh army from Kashmir. The Sikh general, Nathu Shah, left garrison troops and Karim Khan ruled until Gilgit was ceded to Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846 by the Treaty of Amritsar, and Dogra troops replaced the Sikh in Gilgit.

    Nathu Shah and Karim Khan both transferred their allegiance to Gulab Singh, continuing local administration. When Hunza attacked in 1848, both of them were killed. Gilgit fell to the Hunza and their Yasin and Punial allies but was soon reconquered by Gulab Singh's Dogra troops. With the support of Raja Gohar Aman, Gilgit's inhabitants drove their new rulers out in an uprising in 1852. Raja Gohar Aman then ruled Gilgit until his death in 1860, just before new Dogra forces from Ranbir Singh, son of Gulab Singh, captured the fort and town.

    In the 1870s Chitral was threatened by Afghans, Maharaja Ranbir Singh was firm in protecting Chitral from Afghans, the Mehtar of Chitral asked for help. In 1876 Chitral accepted the authority of Jammu Clan and in reverse get the protection from the Dogras who have in the past took part in many victories over Afghans during the time of Gulab Singh Dogra.


    British Raj and Gilgit Agency

    In 1877, in order to guard against the advance of Russia, the British India Government, acting as the suzerain power of the princely state of Jammu Kashmir, established the Gilgit Agency. The Agency was re-established under control of the British Resident in Jammu and Kashmir. It comprised the Gilgit Wazarat; the State of Hunza and Nagar; the Punial Jagir; the Governorships of Yasin, Kuh-Ghizr and Ishkoman, and Chilas.

    In 1935, the British India government demanded from the Jammu and Kashmir state to lease them Gilgit town plus most of the Gilgit Agency and the hill-states Hunza, Nagar, Yasin and Ishkoman for 60 years. The Maharaja Hari Singh leases it for Rs. 75,000. The leased region was then treated as part of British India, administered by a Political Agent at Gilgit responsible to Delhi, first through the Resident in Jammu and Kashmir and later a British Agent in Peshawar.

    Jammu and Kashmir State no longer kept troops in Gilgit and a mercenary force, the Gilgit Scouts, was recruited with British officers and paid for by Delhi. In April 1947, Delhi decided to formally retrocede the leased areas to Hari Singh Jammu and Kashmir State as of 15 August 1947. The transfer was to formally take place on 1 August. However, the Gilgit Scouts rebelled against this action, and under the guidance of Major WA 'Willie' Brown, ceded to the newly founded state of Pakistan.

    Abdullah Sahib was an Aryan and belonged to Chamkaur Sahib Village of Ambala district Punjab, British India. Abdullah Sahib was the first Muslim governor of the Gilgit in British time period and was close associate of Maharaja Partap Singh. Khan Bahadur Kalay Khan, a Mohammed Zai Pathan, was the Governor of Gilgit Hunza and Kashmir before partition.


    1947 Kashmir war

    On 26 October 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, faced with a tribal invasion by Pakistan, signed the Instrument of Accession, joining India. Gilgit's population did not favour the State's accession to India. Sensing their discontent, Major William Brown, the Maharaja's commander of the Gilgit Scouts, mutinied on 1 November 1947, overthrowing the Governor Ghansara Singh. The bloodless coup d'état was planned by Brown to the last detail under the code name Datta Khel. A provisional government was established by the Gilgit locals with Raja Shah Rais Khan as the president and Mirza Hassan Khan as the commander-in-chief.

    However, Major Brown had already telegraphed Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan asking Pakistan to take over. The Pakistani political agent, Khan Mohammad Alam Khan, arrived on 16 November and took over the administration of Gilgit. Historian Yaqub Khan Bangash concludes that the people of Gilgit, Chilas, Koh Ghizr, Ishkoman, Yasin, Punial, Hunza and Nagar joined Pakistan by their own choice.

    The Gilgit-Baltistan Legislative Assembly, a 33-seat unicameral legislative body was formed as part of the Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order, 2009 which granted the region self-rule and an elected legislative assembly. Prior to this, the region had been directly ruled from Islamabad.


    Demographics

    About 100% of the population of Gilgit is Muslim, with 70% being Twelver Shia Muslims, 12% being Ismaili Shia Muslims and 18% being Sunni Muslims.

    Geography

    Gilgit is situated amongst some of the world's most dramatic mountain scenery, a valley formed by the confluence of the Indus River, Hunza River and Gilgit River.

    Climate

    Gilgit experiences a cold desert climate. Weather conditions for Gilgit are dominated by its geographical location, a valley in a mountainous area, southwest of Karakoram Range. The prevalent season of Gilgit is winter, occupying the valley eight to nine months a year.

    Gilgit lacks significant rainfall, averaging in 120 to 240 millimetres (4.7 to 9.4 in) annually, as monsoon breaks against the southern range of Himalayas. Irrigation for land cultivation is obtained from the rivers, abundant with melting snow water from higher altitudes.

    The summer season is brief and hot. Strong sunshine occasionally raises temperatures to 40 °C, though it typically is cooler in the shade. As a result of this extremity in the weather, landslides and avalanches are frequent in the area.


    Tourism

    Gilgit city is one of the two major hubs for all mountaineering expeditions in Gilgit-Baltistan. Almost all tourists headed for treks in Karakoram or Himalaya Ranges depart from Gilgit. There are several tourist attractions relatively close to Gilgit: Naltar Valley with Naltar Peak, Hunza Valley, Nagar Valley, Fairy Meadow in Raikot, Shigar town, Skardu Valley, Haramosh Valley in Karakoram Range, Bagrot Valley, Deosai National Park in Skardu, Astore Valley, Phunder village, Ghizer Valley, The Land Of Lakes, Yasin Valley, Thoi Valley, Kargah Valley and Nomal Valley.


    Transportation

    Jeeps are the best means of travel in Gilgit-Baltistan.

    Air

    Gilgit is served by the nearby Gilgit Airport, with direct flights to Islamabad.

    Road

    Gilgit is located approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Karakoram Highway (KKH). The roadway is being upgraded as part of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor. The KKH connects Gilgit to Chilas, Dasu, Besham, Mansehra, Abbottabad and Islamabad in the south. Gilgit is connected to Karimabad (Hunza) and Sust in the north, with further connections to the Chinese cities of Tashkurgan, Upal and Kashgar in Xinjiang. Gilgit is also linked to Chitral in the west, and Skardu to the east. The road to Skardu will be upgraded to a 4-lane road at a cost of $475 million.

    Transport companies such as the Silk Route Transport Pvt, Masherbrum Transport Pvt and Northern Areas Transport Corporation (NATCO), offer passenger road transport between Islamabad, Gilgit, Sust, and Kashgar and Tashkurgan in China. The Astore-Burzul Road, linking Gilgit to Srinagar was closed in 1978.

    Rail

    Gilgit is not served by any rail connections. Long-term plans for the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor call for construction of the 682 kilometre long Khunjerab Railway, which is expected to be completed in 2030, that would also serve Gilgit.

    Education

    The most renowned institutes, Public Schools and Colleges in the Gilgit-Baltistan Region are;

    Karakoram International University Gilgit, Public Schools and Colleges Jutial Gilgit, Aga Khan Higher Secondary School Gilgit, Army Public School and College Jutial Gilgit, Al Mustafa Public School and College Majini Muhallah Gilgit and Al Karim Model School Normal Gilgit.

    Media

    The Media of Gilgit is evolving as Gilgit Baltistan becomes a separate province of Pakistan so it is an important to have a growing media in the city of Gilgit. There are number of newspapers in Gilgit Baltistan such as Daily Mahasib, daily Domel, Daily Shamal, K2 etc.

    Health care

    Gilgit city has following healthcare facilities; DHQ Hospital Gilgit, CMH Gilgit, Aga Khan Medical Centre, Gilgit.

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  3. Tamiyah

    Tamiyah FULL MEMBER

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    Faisalabad?
     
  4. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Abbottabad

    Abbottabad is a city in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, in north-eastern Pakistan. It is 110 kilometres (68 mi) north of the capital Islamabad, 130 kilometres (81 mi) from Rawalpindi and 150 kilometres (93 mi) northeast of Peshawar at an altitude of 1,260 metres (4,134 ft) and is the capital of the Abbottabad District. Kashmir lies to the east.

    The city Abbottabad is well known throughout Pakistan for its pleasant weather, high-standard educational institutions and for hosting the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul. Abbottabad is also the regimental headquarters for the Frontier Force Regiment, the Baloch Regiment and Pakistan Army Medical Corps. It remains a popular hill station attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists every year.

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    History:

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    Abbottabad was founded and named after Major James Abbott in January 1853 as the headquarters of Hazara District during the British Raj after the annexation of Punjab. He remained the first Deputy Commissioner of the Hazara district from 1849 until April 1853. Major Abbott is noted for having written a poem titled Abbottabad, before his return to Britain, in which he wrote of his fondness for the town and his sadness at having to leave it.

    In the early 20th century, Abbottabad became an important military cantonment and sanatorium, serving as the headquarters of a brigade in the Second Division of the Northern Army Corps. The garrison consisted of four battalions of native infantry, of the Frontier Force (including the 5th Gurkha Rifles) and two native mountain batteries.

    In 1901, the population of the town and cantonment was 7,764 with an average income of Rs. 14,900. This increased to Rs. 22,300 in 1903, mainly derived from local tax. During this time major public institutions were built such as the Albert Victor Unaided Anglo-Vernacular High School, the Municipal Anglo-Vernacular High School and the government dispensary. In 1911, the population had risen to 11,506 and the town contained four battalions of Gurkhas. In June 1948, the British Red Cross opened a hospital in Abbottabad to deal with thousands of injured being brought in from Kashmir.

    1938

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    2005 Kashmir earthquake:


    In October 2005 Abbottabad was devastated by the Kashmir earthquake. Although most of Abbottabad survived, many older buildings were destroyed or severely damaged.

    Geography:

    The city is bounded at all four sides by the hills, from which residents and tourists can see breathtaking views of the region and city. The location of the city and the hills allow Abbottabad to experience pleasant weather in the summer and cold winters. The river Dor flows south of Abbottabad through the town of Harnol, eventually reaching Tarbela Dam, west of Abbottabad. Neighbouring districts are Mansehra to the north, Muzaffarabad to the east, Haripur to the west and Islamabad Capital Territory to the south.

    Topography:

    Abbottabad is in the Orash Valley lying between 34°92′N latitude and 73°13′E longitude at an altitude of 4,120 feet (1,260 m). To the north is the picturesque Kaghan Valley.

    Climate:

    Abbottabad has a humid subtropical climate, with mild to warm temperatures during the spring and autumn months, hot temperatures during June and July, and cool to mild temperatures during the winter. The temperature can rise as high as 38 °C (100 °F) during the mid-summer months and drop below −5 °C (23 °F) during the extreme cold waves. Snowfall occurs occasionally in December and January, though it is sparse, while heavy rainfall occurs during the monsoon season stretching from July to September that frequently causes flooding in lower lying parts of the city.

    Economy:

    Like much of the mountainous Northern Areas, Abbottabad economy is largely based on tourism. In the summer when temperatures rise to around 45 degrees Celsius in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a large number of tourists travel to Abbottabad.

    Tourism:

    Abbottabad has been attracting tourists to the city since the colonial era, as it is a major transit point to all major tourist regions of Pakistan such as Nathiagali, Ayubia and Naran. The city is picturesquely situated at the southern corner of the Rash (Orash) plain, 4,120 feet (1,260 m) above the sea. Harnoi, a famous picnic spot 10 km from city.

    It is known for its shady gardens, church bells and wide streets in the Old Cantonment which evoke the British colonial era. Est. in 1864, St. Luke's Church, Abbottabad is a historical church and remains a popular site for tourists.

    The Karakoram Highway, which traces one of the paths of the ancient Silk Road, starts from Hasan Abdal on the N5 and heads north passing through the city, eventually reaching Khunjerab Pass. The Karakorum Highway is a major attraction itself for its views. The Karakoram, Himalayas and the Hindu Kush ranges can be approached from Abbottabad, and it continues to be a transit city for tourists, serving as a base for visiting nearby places, such as Hunza, Gilgit, Skardu and Indus Kohistan, of the Karakoram Range.

    Abbottabad is popular with those looking to relocate. Its weather, peaceful reputation and the perceived security of a garrison have drawn many from other cities to work or educate their children. There was an influx of migrants from Azad Kashmir after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, another from the Swat District during military operations against militants in 2009 and 2010, and from Waziristan after the army launched major operations against the Taliban in 2009. There is an under construction about three billion rupees amusement park in the city on a 50-acre site, which includes a zoo, adventure sports facilities, restaurants and artificial waterfalls.

    Some popular tourist destinations in and around Abbottabad include:

    Ayubia National Park, Bara Gali, Dor River Valley (at Harnoi/Harnol), Dunga Gali, Harnoi, Ilyasi Mosque, Khaira Gali, Nathia Gali, Shimla Hill, Thandiani, Kukmang, Raees Khana Bazar, Sangimaira / Tharyati, Barra Hottar, Boi-Marhes, Kunhar River Spot-Boi and Boi Bazar-Kashmir-Point.

    Mandian:

    Mandian is the northern part of Abbottabad city and is also known as Missile Chowk, because a Ghori missile is installed there. The population of this area is 100,000. The word mandian means fruit or vegetable markets: It is a center of commerce with markets and businesses. Today Mandian is a busy hub of the city and has a small industrial estate, which promotes medium- and small-scale industries and provides employment to hundreds of people.

    Many renowned schools and colleges are in Mandian like Brook Montessori and School System, Government Postgraduate College Mandian, Army Burn Hall College, Wisdom House Public School, Pakistan International Public School and College (PIPS) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa University of Engineering & Technology Abbottabad Campus. Ayub Medical College and COMSAT Institute of Information Technology Abbottabad campus is 1 km away to the north from Mandian on main Karakoram Highway in Mirpur and Abbottabad Public School, Abbottabad International Medical College and Frontier Medical College is 5 km away on the same highway from Mandian, in the northern end of Abbottabad city.

    List of educational institutions in Abbottabad:

    Abbottabad has one of the country's highest literacy rates with 67% in 2007, and 87% in 2011 ranking first in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and second overall in Pakistan. The city has a young demographic (ages 15–30) due to the large number of students who have come from across the country to study in its schools, for example PIPS, Army Burn Hall College, Army Public College and Abbottabad Public School.

    The city has a wide variety of post-secondary institutions, such as Ayub Medical College, Frontier Medical College, COMSATS University of Science and Technology, and the University of Engineering & Technology.

    Abbottabad is home to the Pakistan Military Academy, a four-year coeducational federal service military academy that provides training to the officers of the Pakistan Army. The academy has three training battalions and 12 companies. Another 2,000 guests each year, from over 34 countries, receive some training at PMA.

    Media:

    Electronic and Print media is actively playing its role in Abbottabad. Cable Net Hazara is the largest cable operators of the region providing Pakistani channels to the masses. Kay 2 TV is the Hindkoh channel of the area.

    There are daily newspapers published in Abbottabad. Some of the newspapers are Roznama AAJ, Roznama Shamal, Kay 2 Times, Roznama Pine, Weekly Manzar and the Hindko newspaper Chaita. The Daily Mahasib, published since 1997, is a local newspaper.

    With the boom of social media websites like HCP are active in providing news to people of the region and is the first online portal of the Hazara Division.

    Sports:

    The Abbottabad Falcons are the professional cricket team of Abbottabad who plays in the national Twenty 20 and List A cricket tournaments. Apart from cricket, field hockey and taekwondo are the other popular sports.

    Sports facilities in the city include:

    Abbottabad Cricket Stadium, Abbottabad Hockey Stadium, Jalal Baba Cricket Stadium Malik Pura, Abasin Karate & Martial Arts Training Center, Jansher Khan Squash Complex, AMC-PCB Ground, Kunj Football Stadium, Nawanshehr Football Ground, Dhamtour Football Ground, Banda Lamba Football Ground, Kakul Ground and Barrahottar Cricket Stadium.

    Transportation:

    Abbottabad main public transport consists of modified taxis: pick-up Suzukis vans, which can accommodate anywhere from 1 to 14 people at one time. Taxis are available as well as wagons that connect Abbottabad to surrounding cities and towns (ex. Nawanshahr, Nathiagali, Sherwan, Dhamtour, Haripur, Mansehra) in the region.

    Abbottabad is also served by Daewoo Express and Niazi Express, the NATCO, Skyways and many other bus services. Pakistan Railways does not serve Abbottabad. However, a PR Reservation Office is in Fawara Chowk in the city centre. The nearest railway station is in Havelian, which is the last and most northern station on the Pakistan Railway network. The station is approximately thirty minute drive south from Abbottabad city centre.

    Hotels:

    Abbottabad is a haven for expatriates, and in order to cater for the large community, the city has some of the finest 3-star, 4-star and 5-star hotels in the country.

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    Last edited: May 28, 2019
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  5. Shahzaz ud din

    Shahzaz ud din SENIOR MEMBER

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    Okara!!!
     
  6. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Abbottabad 1890

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  7. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Okara

    Location - Punjab.

    Coordinates: ;30.801380°N 73.448334° E

    Okara is a district of Sahiwal Division in Punjab, Pakistan. The Multan Road connects the district capital, Okara with Lahore 110 km away and Faisalabad is 100 km by passing away Ravi River. Okara began[when?] as a small town about 40 km from the city of Sahiwal. It later[when?] become a city in its own right. According to the 1998 census, the district had a population of 2,232,992 of which 12.84% were urban. The postal code of Okara is 56300.

    Geography

    Okara District shares boundary on the South Bahawalnagar,on the South-West by Pakpattan, on the west by Sahiwal, on the north by the districts of Faisalabad and Nankana Sahib, on the Near-East & Far-North by Kasur, on the South-East by Fazilka (India). Okara District lies on Radcliffe line/Indo-Pakistani border, therefore its geographic importance for defence is high. Okara Cantonment is a beautiful Cantt of Pakistan.

    History

    Okara region was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Okara was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

    In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of northern Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.

    After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire invaded and occupied Sahiwal. The Muslims faced restrictions during the Sikh rule.[citation needed] During the period of British rule there was a forest of Okaan where the city has been built. The city is a relatively new agricultural city. The word "Okara" for this district was actually originated from word "Okan" (a lush green tree with needle like leaves). The tree Okan gave birth to word Okanwali (Land of Okan)which ultimately finalized into Okara. During British rule the area was part of Montgomery District and contained a large saltpeter refinery. At partition one of the two textile mills that Pakistan got was in Okara. The mill was known as Sutlej textile mill and belonged to Aditya Birla Group. It was Asia's biggest textile mill at that time but at present it lies in ruins. In 1982 the city became the headquarters of the newly created Okara District. Okara has had a railway line since 1892.

    Okara District was previously part of Montgomery District which included Pakpattan, Sahiwal, Okara, districts, of Punjab. The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Okara district. Babu Rajab Ali the great Kavishari (a genre of Punjabi traditional poem) writer also belonged to this district.

    Agriculture

    Okara District is famous for its fertile lands, peaceful natural environment and green fields of Potato, tomato, sugarcane, wheat, rice and maize crops. Oranges and Mangoes orchards are famous. The area of district Okara is the gold mine for history seekers, spiritual and curious travellers. One can find archaeological remains of different dynasties of prehistory, Indus civilization, Persians, Sultanates, the Mugal Empire, the Sikh Confederacy and the British Raj.

    There is a central ridge, in the centre of Okara District, which marks the old river bed of the Beas, and the boundary b/w the eastern and western half of the district. The ridge descends from Kasur, all the way to Chunian, and then Shergarh in Okara. As you go west of the ridge, into Okara & Renala Khurd, the subsoil water is brackish, therefore the area is dependent on canals for irrigation. However, after you cross the ridge east into Depalpur Tehsil, the subsoil water is sweet and good for agriculture.

    Okara District is also famous for the lemon, guava & grapefruit orchards, belonging to the food processing company, Mitchell's Fruit Farms Limited. The orchard runs for about 6 miles, along the LBDC, from Renala Khurd all the way up to the Okara bypass.

    Language

    Most of the people of the district speak Punjabi Language in Standard (Majhi) and Jaangli (Rachnavi) dialects but the other major language is 'Haryanvi" speak Ranghari/??????.

    Livestock

    Okara is also famous for its cattle breed known as Sahiwal and a water buffalo breed known as Nili-Ravi/Niliravi. It is very rich in livestock population and production. The Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadar Nagar Farm is a very large Government farm near Okara city. The farm has large number of cows, buffalos, bulls (for reproduction), goats and sheep.

    Infrastructure

    Okara have all the basic physical and organizational structures, services and facilities needed and necessary in a city. There are two stadiums of Okara district, in which one of them includes Football ground, Basketball court and Swimming pool for Sports. A new international hockey stadium is being constructed in Renala khurd Tehsil of Okara, which would be completed by 2013. This stadium will develop a strong infrastructure for hockey in the country.

    There are also many small and considerable big parks for general public. The three main recreational parks are Ladies Park, Bagh-e-Jinnah and District Park.

    Educational institutes include Education University, Cadet College, Government College for Boy, two Government Colleges for Women. There are also many privately owned colleges and schools, which are nationally recognised, well built, big and their standard of education is also high as compared nationally. The District Public School and College, Okara (DPSC Okara) is a well known institute in the City, province and also the Country. These institutes include Modern science and computer labs, libraries, playgrounds and canteens.

    There are various numerous public & private hospitals and clinics providing the health services. The popular and well equipped hospitals are District Government hospital, surgical hospital and C.M.H Okara Cantt. There is also a Social welfare health society which is being operated under the Government of Punjab. Every hospital has more than two ambulances. Located in the village of Rehmpur the Rosary Christian Hospital also provides medical services to Okara and surrounding areas.[6]

    The 1122 Rescue Government organization is also offering their services in Okara city. There is also a separated Fire station, located in the centre of city, which have several old and also latest fire engines for safety services.

    Okara also have a vast Railway station, which contain several platforms, where almost every train going from Islamabad to Karachi makes stop. There are two railway underpasses and one flyover which helps in smooth flow of traffic.

    On 31 May 2005, the Ex-President General Pervez Musharraf inaugurated the Okara Bypass (30.786887° 73.459238°), length of 12.7 km, on GT road (N-5). This project was commenced on 5 September 2003, due to the great demand of the people of the area. It was completed at the cost of 62.817 Crore Rupees. This interchange proved very helpful in the smooth flow of national highway traffic, particularly between Lahore and Multan and to reduce the national traffic in the city. This bypass connects the Karachi-Lahore-Peshawar national highway which is the economic lifeline of Pakistan.

    Surroundings

    Nearby cities are Sahiwal, Pakpattan, Depalpur, Basirpur, Renala Khurd and Haveli Lakha. There is a Famous Shrine of SUFI of Hazrat Syed Shabbir Hussain Shah Gilani Situated in village "47/2-L (RAJPUTAN)at the tarivling of only 10 Minutes on depalpur road OKARA.. About a distance of 25 km from Depalpur, on Haveli Lakha-Hujra Shah Muqeem road, there is a famous shrine of sufi "Baba Wali Roshan Shah" situated in village "Bunga Saleha". Every year on 27th of Harr(Desi Month), Mela is celebrated with great joyous. Another well known shrine near Depalpur is that of Hazrat Syed Daud Bandagi Kirmani, located in the town of Shergarh, which is about 12 miles from Depalpur and 7 miles from Hujra Shah Muqeem. His urs is held in the middle of March, and is attended by thousands from all over Punjab and beyond. In the west of Okara city, the Ravi goes winding along the borders of Faisalabad and Sheikhupura districts.

    The Main Towns of the district are:

    Depalpur
    Okara
    Renala Khurd
    And some minor towns of the district are:

    Ahmadabad
    Akhtarabad
    Bama Bala
    Bama Kohla
    Basirpur
    Chuchaq
    Gogera
    Haveli Lakha
    Karmanwala
    Kot Gujjaran
    Hujra Shah Muqeem
    Pull Jorian
    Mouza Meerak
    Jandraka
    Lasharian
    Bhela Gulab Singh
    Satghara
    Shergarh
    Rajowal
    Moza nowl plot
    Rehmpur Chak No.6/4-L
    Jabboka
    Renala Khurd

    Renala Khurd
    is a growing city of Okara District in the north east of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The city is the headquarters of Renala Khurd Tehsil - an administrative subdivision of the district. Its approximate height above sea level is about 570 feet (170 m). It is located at 30°52'60N 73°35'60E[2] and is about 117 km from Lahore and 10 km from the district capital Okara city towards south-west of Lahore on national highway (GT Road) and on Lahore Karachi main railway line. Eastern time zone of Renala Khurd is UTC+5+6DT.

    It is mainly known for a famous fruit products company Mitchell's Fruit Farms Limited. It has orchards of guava & citrus running b/w the lower bari doab canal and the Multan Road, for about 8 miles all the way up to Okara bypass. This region is also well known as a major producer of sugarcane & rice. These crops can be cultivated due to abundance of water supplied by the lower bari doab canal & smaller water channels.

    At Renala Khurd, one may visit still operational, Renala Hydro Power Station, situated on Canal Loar-Bari-Doo-Aab. Its capacity is 1 MW. Sir Ganga Ram (1851–1927), a civil engineer and leading philanthropist of his time, established Renala Hydel Power Station in 1925. In 1873, after a brief Service in Punjab P.W.D, he devoted himself to practical farming. He obtained on lease from the government 50,000 acres (200 km2) of barren, unirrigated land in Montgomery District, and within three years converted that vast desert into smiling fields, irrigated by water lifted by a hydroelectric plant and running through a thousand miles of irrigation channels, all constructed at his own cost. This was the biggest private enterprise of the kind, unknown and unthought of in the country before. Sir Ganga Ram earned millions, most of which he gave to charity. In the words of Sir Malcolm Hailey, the Governor of Punjab at the time, "he won like a hero and gave like a Saint".

    A part of Renala Khurd is naturally deprived of the underground sweet water. People in this part rely on canals as the main source of irrigation, as tube -wells, unlike other parts of the district, only pour out salty water which nothing but spoils the land.

    Shergarh

    Shergarh (literally 'Lion's Den'), is a town located 10 miles away from Renala Khurd on the Hujra Shah Muqeem road, and is a union council of Depalpur Tehsil. It is a very historic town.[7] It was named by the 16th century governor of Multan, Fateh Jang Khan, in honour of the present Afghan ruler of India, Sher Shah Suri. This fact is documented by Abbas Khan Sarauni in his book, Tarikh-e Sher Shah Suri.

    It started off as a small police station and was informally known as "Chor Chauki", or "The Police Station". About a decade later, in 1545, a young Syed ascetic named Ibrahim, belonging originally to Kirman of Southern Persia, migrated here from Satghara. After being initiated into the Qadiriyyah order of Sufism, at the hands of Shaikh Hamid Gilani, he established his khanqah in the remote village. At the time, it was sparsely populated, located on the high abandoned bed of the Beas, marking the geographical boundary between the Neeli and the Ganji bars. It was surrounded by jungle from both sides, and was equi-distant from the rivers, Ravi & Satluj. It was also very distant from the main road connecting Lahore to Multan. These factors made the place ideal for a man of his position, as he could worship there in solitude. He spent the remaining thirty years of his life here. It is also documented, that he would sometimes go in the jungle lying between Shergarh and Satghara to meditate, and lose control over his senses. He would stay there for many days until his close friends and relatives would find him deep in the jungle, and bring him back to his home.

    Thus, as people started hearing about this holy man, from a small, minor administrative center, Shergarh started gaining spiritual influence. Many people from all over the country, would come to receive spiritual guidance from the holy man. In 1572, a well known historian of Akbar, `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni, travelled there upon hearing about this fascinating ascetic. He states in his book, Muntakhab-ul Tawarikh (Volume II) that: "Not a day went by in my time there, that I saw less than 50 visitors come to the Shaikh, and recite the Kalimah at his hands". It is believed that the Shaikh converted a total of 35,000 followers to Islam, including 365 disciples to sainthood. He has no books to his credit, and his poetry is only known to his descendants. He even forbade his spiritual successor, Shah Abul Maali (also his nephew and son-in law) to write anything about him. He was a man who despised worldly power, wealth, fame, materialism & publicity.

    The saint passed away in 1575, after which his successor had a beautiful large mausoleum erected for his grave. The pinnacle of its dome was added in 1580. This mausoleum is now the major landmark of Shergarh and can be seen from afar, lying in the heart of the town. It is grand from the outside, yet graceful and charming from the inside with beautiful calligraphy and rare tilework in the 'naqshi' style. The mazar itself also contains 7 or 8 graves of the gaddi nashins, including his son's, Abdullah Naurang Noor and other descendants such as Said Mustafa, Baqa Ali Shah, Syed Abu'l Baqa Muhammad, Pir Nadir Ali Shah, Pir Mohd. Hussain Shah and many others. The compound is also very large and contains the graves of more recent descendants, and others who have been close to the Shaikh and his family. One of the Shaikh's famous descendants who is buried outside is Mohd. Jaffar Shah. He was a prominent hockey player in the Indian olympic team, and won 2 gold medals.

    Today, the town is home to 20-25,000 people. The main clans are Arain, Chandoor, Syed (Kirmani), Akhund, Baloch, Hans, Joiya, Kharal, Kumhar, Lohar, Machhi, Mirasi, Muslim Shaikh, Nai, Sial, Tarkhan & Wattu. It is well developed and soling is common. All in all, Shergarh is the joining point of roads from six towns, namely Akhtarabad (7 miles away), Chunian (17 miles away), Depalpur (12 miles away), Hujra Shah Muqeem (7 miles away), Renala Khurd (10 miles away), & Wan Radha Ram (11 miles away). The old bed of the Beas is still intact, and agriculture is practiced on both sides. The western side and the town itself is dependent on canals for irrigation, as the sub-soil water is brackish. This side is known as uttar. The eastern, low lying side has sweet subsoil water fit for agriculture, thus tubewells can be used. This side is known as hithar. The main crops cultivated in the region, are rice, maize, potato, cotton & wheat.

    The town attracts curious travellers, artists and calligraphers on a year round basis, as well as the usual murids. It is particularly crowded in the month of March, when thousands travel from all over the Punjab & beyond, to attend the annual urs of the Shaikh

    Hazrat Karmanwala Sharif

    The Sufi dargah noble mausoleum (mazar-i-sharif) (also formally known as "Darbar Mubarak") of Syed Ismael Ali Shah Bukhari (formally: Ghose-e-Zaman Hazrat Sahib Pak Karmanwala), is situated on GT road Okara in the direction of Renala Khurd leading to Lahore. This mausoleum is formally known as 'Aastana Aalia Hazrat Karmanwala Sharif'. Along with the dargah (tomb) or mazar-e-sharif (shrine), there is a main Mosque, Masjid, both of which were constructed under the supervision and according to the guidance of Hazrat Syed Mohammed Ali Shah Bukhari Naqshbandi Sahib, in honour of their late mentor, master, spiritual and biological father, Hazrat Syed Mohammed Ismail Ali Shah Bukhari, Naqshbandi Sahib, who is respectfully referred to as "Hazrat Sahib Pak Karmanwala".

    Date of Urs: The main Urs Mubarak is held annually on 26-27–28 February, and on & 10,11,12 of Islamic month of Rabi-Ul-Awwal Sharif, annually, Salana (yearly) Khatam Sharif of Ahl-e-bait on 10 Muharram (every year) and program of AITEKAF on every last 10 days of Ramzan al Kareem.

    Wisaal Mubarak: Syed Muhammad Ismael Ali Shah Bukhari Naqshbandi Sahib, known as Hazrat Sahib Pak Karmanwala - 27 Ramzan 1385 Hijri, Syed Usman Ali Shah Bukhari Naqshbandi Sahib - 15 July 1978 and Syed Mohammed Ali Shah Bhukari, Naqshbandi sahib, 1st Sajjada Nasheen 10 June 1993[8]

    Satghara

    Satghara is a town and union council of Okara District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.[9] It is located at 30°55'0N 73°31'0E with an altitude of 164 metres (541 feet)[10] and is also the location of the tomb of Baloch folk hero, Mir Chakar Rind. Many of his descendants as well as sub tribes of Balochi descent predominate in the district.

    More than half of the town is inhabited by Syeds. They also have a family graveyard where many great spiritual leaders including Syed Qaim Ali Shah Gilani who was also known as Pir Bodian Wala(Head of this lineage of the descendents of Abdul Qadir Gilani (Hazrat Ghous Al Azam) of Baghdad Sharif in Satghara), Syed Ahmed Shah Gilani who was lately known as Pir Bodian Wala was the eldest son, Syed Shams-Ud-Din, Syed Fateh Ali Shah Gilani, Syed Mubarik Ali Shah Gilani, Syed Ahmed Ali Shah Gilani(Chan Pir), Syed Jaffir Hussain Gilani, Syed Ali Bahadur Gilani, Syed Sher Shah Gilani and Syed Khadim Hussain Gilani(Peer Sahib) are lying in peace. Their shrines are built in the graveyard and are visible even from a great distance.

    Mounds of brick debris at Satghara mark the site of a forgotten town, the coins found at Satghara prove that it was inhabited in the time of the Kushan dynasty.[11]

    The name of this town "Satghara" is commonly believed to drive its name from words (Saat or Seven) (Ghara or pitchers) or seven ghars seven homes. Another sound historical folklore is narrated that some injured soldiers of Alexander the Great (belonging to ancient town of Stageira of Macedonia) resided their and they named this ancient town as Stagira now corrupted as Satghara.

    Chak Number 48/3-R

    Chak number 48/3-R is one of the famous villages of okara. Many successful entrepreneurs, Lawyers, and IT professionals have been arisen from that for last fifty years. Some of the most successful entrepreneurs and business groups include, Neemat group of industry, HAji siddiq trading company and Haji & Company. These all business groups have achieved many successful milestones. All these groups are icons in their relative fields. Other than these, there are some poultry business groups have also arisen. All these groups are working and making possible for the betterment of their District and for country.

    Akhtarabad

    Akhtarabad is one of the towns in Okara district. It is located 25 km away from Okara city on the N-5 National Highway (Multan to Lahore section, also known as G.T road). Its sugar market (shaker mandi) is famous all over Pakistan. Gujjar, Rajput, Kamyana, Kamboh, Arain and Khokhar are main tribes of the area.

    Kot Kamyana o Gujjaran

    Kot Kamyana o Gujjaran is one of the towns in Okara district. It is located 26 km away from Okara city on the N-5 National Highway (Multan to Lahore section, also known as G.T road). Its livestock market (Milk Market) is famous all over Okara. Gujjar and Kamyana are main castes of this town. The Famous people of Kot Kamyana o Gujjaran are Mian Muhammad Yousaf Kamyana (Farmer), Rizwan Farooque (ACMA, CSCP, APA), Chaudary Abdul Sattar (AVP MCB Bank) and Chaudhry Imran Farooque Gujjar (WAPDA). Kot Kamyana o Gujjaran is also famous for sweat water and friendly people.

    Thatta Ghulamka Dheroka

    A few kilometres from Okara on the Okara-Faisalabad road there is a village Thatta Ghulamka Dheroka. For going too the village you pass through Gogera—a place where Rai Ahmed Khan Kharral broke famous jail during War of Independence of 1857 and British Extra Assistant Commissioner (Lord) Berkley was defeated and killed by the resilient locals.

    The unique claim of the village to international fame is the dolls and toys made by village women that are collectors delight all over the world. Dolls made in the village have travelled to International Dolls Museum in Amsterdam and also have been put on display ithe "Theme-park" at EXPO 2000 in Hanover (Germany) as one of the 767 worldwide projects – an example of thinking for 21st century. Earlier, the dolls participated in International Toy Fair in Nuremberg. These dolls show how culture goes beyond simple work of art and becomes collaboration among applied and natural sciences as well as other forces that affect our lives. Mauza Akbar is named after the name Akbar the Great (Mughal). Satghara remained the capital during the period of Baluch leader Mir Chaker Rind.

    Naul Plot

    Located 25 km away from Okara City, on Jandraka Naul Plot Road, is the police station Ravi. It is a main junction between Faisalabad, Jaranwala and Pattoki. This is mainly an agricultural area. Located in this area is a famous Dairy Farm, which supplies the best milk you have ever tasted! In the main village there is the family of Mr Ch. Habib Ur Rehman a retired police officer, who now currently owns the Famous Dairy Farm. From this village Ch. Shafiq Ur Rehman, son of Ch. Habib Ur Rehman went for higher education to the United Kingdom.

    Shrines

    The honour of the city, shrine of Hazrat Sufi Manzoor Ahmad Sabri is situated in Mohalla Ghaziabad in Okara which is serving the humanity by showing real picture of spending life.A project of charity work, free maternity home serving poor women there at Dargah sharif. new project of free education free food and library is under consideration.

    Moreover, the shrines of Syed Shabbir Ali Shah and Baba Karmanwalli Sarkar have also gained popularity among the people.
     
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  8. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Okara in 1969

    The city is a relatively new agricultural city; during the period of British rule there was a jungle of Okaan where the city has been built, and from this the name of the city was derived. During British rule, the area was part of Montgomery District and contained a large saltpeter refinery. A large number of textile mills are located in Okara. In 1982, the city became the headquarters of the newly created Okara District. Okara has had a railway line since 1892. Okara is famous for its cattle breed known as Sahiwal and a water buffalo breed known as Nili-Ravi. It is very rich in livestock population and production. Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadar Nagar Farm is a very large government farm near Okara.


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    Camel train at Okara. 1969

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  9. Tamiyah

    Tamiyah FULL MEMBER

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    Faisalabad???
     
  10. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Faisalabad

    Faisalabad (Lyallpur until 1979) (Punjabi and Urdu: ضلع فیصل آباد‎) is one of the districts of Punjab province, in the Rechna Doab upland. . According to the 1998 census of Pakistan it had a population of 3,029,547 of which almost 42% were in Faisalabad City. It is the third largest city of Pakistan after Karachi and Lahore.

    The city, the district headquarters, is a distributing centre centrally located in the Punjab plain and connected by road, rail, and by air with major cities. When founded in 1890, it was named for Sir Charles James Lyall, lieutenant governor of the Punjab. It became headquarters of the Lower Chenab colony and in 1898 was incorporated as a municipality. Industries produce chemical fertilizer, synthetic fibres, drugs and pharmaceuticals, canned products, ghee (clarified butter), oil, soap, textiles, hosiery, sugar, and flour. It is also a wholesale market for cloth and grain. Amenities include two parks, several schools, the Agricultural University (established 1961), and a number of universities and colleges .

    After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muslim refugees from Eastern Punjab and Haryana settled in the Faisalabad District. It initially lacked industry, hospitals and universities. Since independence, there has been industrial growth, and the city's population is continually growing. Notable industry in the district include but not limited to Textile (spinning, weaving, printing, dying, stitching), Chemicals (acids, caustics, industrial gases, potash, chlorides etc), consumer goods (soaps, vegetable oil, detergents), Engineering (light electrical equipment, engineering goods), Metals & Metallurgy (steels, alloys) and Power (power equipment, power production).

    Initially a part of Jhang District, it gained the status of a separate district in 1904. In 1982 Toba Tek Singh District (until then a tehsil of Faisalabad) was created as a separate district from Faisalabad. As of 2006 it is a city district consisting of the city of Faisalabad.

    According to the 1998 census, Punjabi is the first language of 98% of the population, and Urdu of 1.2% Urdu as the national language and English as the official language is taught in all schools.

    The surrounding region consists of a fertile plain between the Chenab and Ravi rivers that is irrigated by the Lower Chenab Canal. The chief crops are wheat, cotton, and sugarcane. Pop. (2007 est.) urban agglom., 2,617,000.

    Bhagat Singh
    Bhagat Singh born September 27, 1907, Faisalabad—died March 23, 1931, Lahore, revolutionary hero of the independence movement.

    Milkha Singh
    Milkha Singh, Indian track-and-field athlete who became the first Indian male to reach the final of an Olympic athletics event when he placed fourth in the 400-metre race at the Rome 1960 Olympic Games. Orphaned during the partition of India, Singh moved to India from Pakistan in 1947.

    Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
    Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Pakistani singer who is considered one of the greatest performers of qawwali, a Sufi Muslim devotional music characterized by simple melodies, forceful rhythms, and energetic improvisations that encourage a state of euphoria in the listener.

    Life around Clock Tower / Ghanta Ghar
    1947-50s:

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    1910s: View of Railway Station Lyallpur

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    1910s: Victoria Clock Tower (Ghanta Ghar), Lyallpur (now Faisalabad)

    The foundation of majestic Clock Tower was laid on 14 November 1903 by the British lieutenant governor of Punjab Sir Charles Riwaz and the biggest local landlord belonging to the Mian Family of Abdullahpur. The fund was collected at a rate of Rs. 18 per square of land. The fund thus raised was handed over to the Municipal Committee which undertook to complete the project.


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    History of Lyallpur



    Lyallpur also known as Chenab Colony and sandalbar and know it is known as Faisalabad .is the third- most populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab. It was once part of ancient district of Jhang and Sandalbar, a 5,000 square kilometres area consisting mainly of thick forests and inhabited by nomadic tribes. The tract from Shahdara to Shorkot,Sangla Hill to Toba Tek Singh, was traditionally called Sandalbar.

    From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated the eastern divisions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the dynasty established by his father, Sultan Sabuktagin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of some western Punjab region. Eastern regions of Punjab from Multan to Rawalpindi (including region of present-day Faisalabad) remained under Rajput rule until 1193. It was then brought under the control of the Delhi Sultanate and then the Mughal Empire. Faisalabad slowly developed and many Muslim Sufi missionaries converted the local population to Islam.

    During the reign of the Mughal Empire the population and cultivation of the land increased. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire invaded and occupied the region from 1765 to 1846. The Muslims faced restrictions during Sikh rule and there are countless reports that Muslim community suffered during these times. Faisalabad was also the site of where two major battles took place between the British Empire and the Sikh armies. On the 22 February 1849 the British declare victory in Punjab and Faisalabad came into the control of the British Empire.

    In the 1870s the colonial Punjab government decided to increase the cultivated land by making barrages and canals to meet the demand at European markets. This led to the canal based irrigation of the areas now comprising the district of Faisalabad. In 1880, a colonial officer, Captain Poham Young, with the support of Sir James Broadwood Lyall, proposed a new town. The design was based on the Union Jack, with eight roads radiating from a large clock tower in the centre. The eight roads developed into eight separate bazaars. The construction of artificial canals allowed the surrounding areas to be irrigated. The town grew rapidly as farmers settled on newly irrigated land. A large number of settlers came from different areas of Punjab especially from Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Ambala on the promise of large agricultural lands. With the extensively planned distribution of land the canal irrigated areas of Sandal Bar soon became populated. This led to a rapid transformation of the nomadic environment of the Bar into a more agriculture based one.

    In 1892 the British Raj decided to join Faisalabad (then Lyallpur) with a rail link to major rail network to transport agricultural surplus to the ports to be shipped to European markets. In 1895 the rail link between Wazirabad and Lyallpur was completed. In 1896, Lyallpur was given the status of a tehsil of the Jhang District, and its administration was carried on in tents on the old Theh (Mound) of Pucca Mari near Tariqabad. The majestic Clock Tower was constructed out of the funds raised by the landowners, who collected it at a rate of Rs. 18 per square of land. The fund thus raised was handed over to the Town Committee, which undertook to complete the project.

    By 1902 the population of the town exceeded 4,000, including the new Sialkot Jats, particularly Bajwas, Kalloos, Cheema's and Chattas came to establish the agriculture land of Chenab (called Chena bar). Houses and shops had been constructed to cater to the ordinary needs of the population. In 1903 it was decided to establish an agricultural college. In 1904 the new district of Lyallpur was constituted, composed of the tehsils of Lyallpur, Samundri and Toba Tek Singh, with a sub tehsil at Jaranwala which later became a full tehsil. By 1906, the district headquarters began to function in Lyallpur and all the bazaars and settlements within the bounds of a ring road were nearing completion. The city began to spread outside the circular road. The Town Committee was upgraded to a Municipal Committee in 1909 and the Deputy Commissioner was appointed as its first chairman. In 1916, the grain market saw its shops surging with customers. In the same year the civil hospital was expanded. With the advent of World War II, there was an increase in political awareness across the city. Revolutionary meetings were held, fiery speeches made, and slogans written on walls.

    The first colonisation officer Aurangzeb Khan made sure that no individual in this district owned more than 25 squares 625 acres of land. The merit or method of allotting the land was to check each individual's hand who was applying for some land, and if the hands showed that individual had worked hard in the past, only then was land given to him, which has led to a district where there aren't any big land owners, as the land has been equally distributed amongst hard working men and it is their hard work that has led to Faisalabad becoming the third richest district in Pakistan.

    The main roads in and out of the city were kept 1-acre (4,000 m2) wide; since the independence of Pakistan a lot of roads have been taken over by land mafia. Some industrial areas were kept on the East of the main canal which is present-day People's Colony and Madina town. The urban areas were kept to the west of the canal, as sweet ground water flowed from the canal to the river Chenab, the consequence of changing former industrial area into urban areas has been a lack of proper drinkable water for those living in peoples colony and Madina town. Another industrial area was developed at the west end of town, now around the road towards the central Punjab town of Sargodha.

    These earlier development of industrial areas led to industrialization of the city of Faisalabad right from its inception. Initial industrial setup were related to cotton and basic textiles, still the most dominant industry of the city with more value added products. Besides textiles food processing, grain crushing and small chemical industry was established in the pre-second World War era.

    In 1943, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah came to Lyallpur and addressed a gathering of over 2 million in Dhobi Ghat Grounds.


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    After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Faisalabad district. Muslims refugees from East Punjab, Haryana, Jammu started arriving and crossed the border into Pakistan; many were given land in Faisalabad District to settle. After independence, the city of Lyallpur enjoyed considerable development, and became a major commercial and industrial centre. The population grew quickly past one million. There was an expansion of the provision of health and education in the city. In 1977, the name of the city was changed to "Faisalabad", in honour of the late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, who was held in high regard in Pakistan. In 1985, the district was upgraded to a division with the new districts of Faisalabad, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh.

     
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  11. Shahzaz ud din

    Shahzaz ud din SENIOR MEMBER

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  12. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Mirpur

    Mirpur is also known as 'Little England'


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    Mirpur, one of the largest cities of Azad Kashmir is situated only a few miles away from the main Peshawar to Lahore Grand Trunk road via Dina, district Jhelum. The building of the new city in late 1960s paved the way for New Mirpur, on the bank of Mangla Lake. In fact, the remains of the old city (Old Mirpur) are under the waters of the Mangla Lake.

    During the winter months, sometime the water level recedes to such an extent that one can travel on motorcycle on the old Mirpur road which still exists. The holy shrines of Syed Abdul Karim and Meeran Shah Ghazi then become visible and so do the remnants of a Sikh gurdwara as well as a Hindu Mandir, possibly dedicated to the Mangla Mata (Mangla mother goddess). The remains of old houses, water wells and graveyards re-appear as well.

    People from surrounding areas visit old Mirpur to pay homage to their ancient land on which they lived and pray on the graveyards of their loved ones. Urs Mubarak of Meeran Shah and Syed Abdul Kareem are also arranged in Mirpur.
    The New Mirpur is also known as 'Little England' due to it's large British Pakistani community. It's connection with Britain has made it a place quite unlike anywhere else in the region. It is well planned and is known for its number of good hotels, restaurants, shopping malls, large bungalows, roads serving each part of the city and other urban facilities, primarily funded through its expatriate community, which comes mainly from Europe (especially the United Kingdom), Hong Kong, the Middle East, and North America.


    History

    The area that is now Mirpur has always been a crossroad for major invasions of the South Asia and has formed part of various empires over time including the role of an outlying region of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Kingdom of Gandhara, the Mauryan empire, the Kushan empire, the Sultanate of Ghazni, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal empire amongst others.

    The Mirpur city itself was founded in around 1640 AD or 1050 AH by the Ghakhar chief Miran Shah Ghazi. The Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Kashmir and Jammu (1909) provides this information about Mirpur history as it is said to have been founded by Miran Shah Ghazi and Sultan Fateh Khan. An alternate view is that the city was founded by Miran Shah Gazi and Gosain Bodhpuri, both regarded as saints. The word 'Mir' was taken from the name of the former while 'Pur’ from the latter.

    In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sabuktagin. In 1005, he conquered the Shahis in Kabul. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot its landscape.

    The area that is now Mirpur has been historically associated with Pothohar. Though modern demarcation of Potohar devised by British excludes Mirpur by using Jhelum River as the eastern boundary. By the end of the 18th century, Gakhar power in Pothohar had declined. Mirpur had become part of Chibb, who ruled the state of Khari Khariyali with capital at Mangla Fort. With the rise of Sikh power in Punjab, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established his supremacy and set his eyes on the Chibh states of Bhimber and Khari Khariyali.

    In 1810, a force was sent against Raja Sultan Khan of Bhimber and was met with fierce resistance. However, in 1812 another Sikh army under Prince Kharak Singh defeated Sultan Khan and the Bhimber state was annexed as Jagir of Kharak Singh. Around the same time, Ranjit Singh acquired Gujrat and invaded Khari Khariyali ruled by Raja Umar Khan. Raja Umar Khan made peace with Ranjit Singh. But before a settlement could be made, he died and the state and Mirpur became part of Ranjit Singh's territories.

    In 1808, Ranjit Singh annexed Jammu state, which was already a tributary since 1780, and in 1820 awarded Jammu to his commander Gulab Singh who hailed from Jammu and was under the service of Ranjit Singh for the past eight years. Between 1831 and 1839, Ranjit Singh bestowed on Gulab Singh the royalty of the salt mines in northern Punjab, and the northern Punjab towns including Bhera, Jhelum, Rohtas, Mirpur and Gujrat. Gulab Singh kept on expanding his kingdom and in 1840 Baltistan was made subject to Jammu and Gilgit fell to a Sikh force from Kashmir in 1842. The state of Kashmir was annexed by Ranjit Singh in 1819.

    However, the rebellion in Hazara in the beginning of 1846, compelled the country to be transferred to Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu as well. As an aftermath of the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Treaty of Lahore, The Treaty of Amritsar was signed between the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu on March 16, 1846. The British Government sold Kashmir to the Raja of Jammu for 75 lakhs Nanak Shahi Rupees. This treaty transferred him all the hill states between Ravi and Indus. The transfer included Kashmir, Hazara and the southern hill states (including former Khari Khariyali Thus sealing the fate of Mirpur with the new state of Jammu and Kashmir.


    Early Mirpur

    Mirpur was historically a part of the Punjab region. However it became a part of the Jammu division of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in a deal between the rulers of that state and the British. Since Mirpur lies at the point where the Jhelum River breaks out of the heavily forested foothills of the Pir Panjal Mountains into the plains of the largely treeless Punjab. It was an ideal spot for the construction of the boats used to carry goods down the five rivers of the Punjab to the Indus River and onto the seaports in the Indus delta. Traders have been operating from there across the Indian Ocean for over three thousand years. Most of the crew on the boats trading up and down the Punjab and Indus River system were drawn from Mirpur, because training as a boat-builder was a necessary prerequisite for becoming a boatman.


    Dogra rule

    During the time of Dogra Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu, the thriving river trade was decimated due to the construction of railway lines from Bombay and Karachi into the interior of the Punjab. Moving goods by rail was both cheaper and quicker, and hundreds of Mirpuri boatmen founded themselves out of a job.

    At the same time long-distance ocean trade was shifting from sail to steam. There was a huge demand for men who were prepared to work in the hot, dirty and dangerous stokeholds of the new coal-fired steamers. British seamen avoided such jobs whenever they possibly could. They preferred to work on deck. But in the 1870s Mirpuri ex-river boatmen were desperately searching for a new source of income. Although unfamiliar with stoking coal-fired boilers, they were prepared to learn and quickly gained jobs as engine-room stokers on new steamships sailing out of Karachi and Bombay, a position they retained until coal-fired ships were finally phased out of service at the end of the Second World War. Many Mirpuris fought in Burma during the Second World War.


    Indo-Pakistan War of 1947

    In the wake of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, a number of militant campaigns were organised all around the Western mountains of Kashmir and Jammu, including Poonch, Muzaffarabad and Mirpur to forcibly usurp Kashmir from Dogra ruler Maharaja Hari Singh.

    On the Mirpur front, Captain Khan of Mong played a leading role in the campaign with the strategic aim to cut off the India's supply line into the rest of Kashmir. In October 1947, Captain Khan ambushed two Dogra despatch-riders at Purani Hattian on their motorcycle armed with one stain gun. This gun was used to raid Govindpur Police Station a few nights later. This raid provided further supplies and consolidated their position. A number of further attacks ensued leading up to the Battle of Mirpur where five attacks were organised. On 25 November, finding the situation beyond control, Wazir Wazarat, Rao Rattan Singh and Brig Karki from Nepal decided to abandon town at 1400 hours.


    Post war

    After World War II, a new set of opportunities opened up. Britain's economy was just starting what proved to be a long post war boom, and there was an acute short of labour in the foundries of the English Midlands and in the textile mills of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Now it was the turn of ex-seamen to become industrial workers in Britain. In 1960, when the Mangla Dam was about to be constructed, those who were going to be deprived of their agricultural land were afforded the opportunity to migrate to the United Kingdom and to join their relatives, who long established themselves in Britain.

    As a result, Mirpur became one of the principal sources of migration from the State of Azad Kashmir to Europe, especially to Britain, so out of the million migrants from Azad Kashmir and Pakistan, 82% came from Mirpur. Although one major reason for the outflow was the construction of the Mangla Dam, but long before the construction of dam, a sizable Mirpuri community already existed in the UK.


    Language

    The people of the Mirpur speak a language called Mirpuri or Pahari, which is a blend of Punjabi, Dogri, Pothowari, Lahndi, and Gojri. Mirpuri itself is not officially recognized as an independent language. It is generally called Mirpuri Pahari, Mirpuri Pothowari or Mirpuri Punjabi. There are words like kuthay for where, kiyaan for why, miki for I, mara for my, julayan for going etc.

    Other languages spoken include Urdu and English. Although due to the vast immigration to England, English is also becoming popular. Many institutions have started spoken English courses. Mirpur is a part of Kashmir but very little population of it knows Kashmiri language.


    Religion and Belief

    The religion of majority in Mirpur city is Islam. They follow mostly the practices of the Punjabi Pothwari culture due to the closeness with the Potohar plateau. Islamiat is compulsory subject till graduation level. Mirpur has a very famous darbar in Khari Shareef they visit occasionally, that is the shrine of Baba Peer Shah Ghazi and Mian Mohammad Baksh who were famous sufi saints. People of Mirpur have a firm believe that if one wants some prayer or wish to be accepted, he or she must promise to give some money, give a daaig or put a chadar on the shrine of Peer Shah Ghazi once the wish is granted. Not only people of Mirpur but people form Punjab also believe this and visit this place whole heartedly.


    Food

    Mirpuris have the same taste as that of Punjabis. They like the same spicy dishes like biryani, pulao, korma etc. But the most famous and favourite dish of Mirpur is laal lobia with white rice. There are many restaurants, food stalls and stands on road selling this dish by the name “pothi chawal” or “lobia chawal” and people from all social classes be it a lower class person or an elite class chaudry likes being here and eating this dish. Even expats from UK love this dish and try it every time they visit Mirpur.

    Apart from the above, Mirpur has many food centres and restaurants selling fish specialties. In terms of restaurants, there is a variety of food areas from takeaways to high-class restaurants. There is also a Thai restaurant. Some restaurants specialise in local Pothwari/Punjabi dishes.


    Dresses

    Shalwar and Kameez is the basic dress of Mirpur city but due to the huge immigration to England, now jeans have added to the culture of Mirpur too. Many of the girls are now seen wearing jeans with long shirts or kurtas. Some of the elder members of the family wear a turban too and consider it as a part of their culture.


    Events and festivals

    Eid Milad-un-Nabi: This event is celebrated on 12th Rabi ul Awal according to lunar calendar. It is the date of birth of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). In Mirpur this religious festival is celebrated with high enthusiasm. People all over the city decorate their houses with lights and other decoration. Every person from an old man to a school boy participates in it. Young boys decorate their cars with lights. Streets are decorated with garlands, sprig, festoons and colourful shinning papers. Masajid are decorated with lights and there are Naa’ts and Hamds played throughout the city on radios and decks. There are also some peaceful processions in evening.

    Urs celebration of Baba Peer Shah Ghazi: This is another celebration of the people in Mirpur. It is a three day celebration which starts at 20-22nd Zil Hajj according to Islamic calendar. People from all over Mirpur and other small villages near it combine and a procession with dhol and dancing reaches the shrine at 20th, and then this festival continues till the 22nd. There are Naats, poems and kalams for the saint during these days and food is served in huge amount to the people who take part in this urs.

    Elections: This is hard to believe but elections are one of the most exciting events in Mirpur. As it is a small city, almost everyone knows each other. So at the time of election, there are groups of girls and ladies going house to house at time of election and persuading people to vote for their party. They have flag of their party on their arms and they enjoy it very much. Especially the girls have fun in this event as this is the only event when they have full permission to roam around the whole city. One of them also has a loudspeaker in their hand and raises slogans for their parties. And then when the counting is done and result is announced, there is a lot of celebrations by the winning party, they send sweets and gifts to all the people all over and celebrate their winning enthusiastically.


    Traditions and Customs

    Inter family marriages: It is a custom of people in Mirpur to marry their children in their family and if there is no one suitable in family, marriage is to be done in baradari or same cast. It is a very strict custom and people follow it. Even sometimes they do not consider the choice and will of their children and get them engaged at a very small age. It is forbidden strictly to marry their daughters with someone outside their family. Although sometimes the male members marry girls outside family but it is also something they avoid mostly.

    Female education: Females in Mirpur are considered to work at home mostly so there are very less institutions for their education. There are schools, colleges and universities having co-education and some families do not like it so avoid educating their daughters. They also have a perspective that females do not require education but should be taught household chores. Although this point of view has been changing over time but still there is a large population who still has this type of mind set.

    Nepotism: Jobs are mostly given on the basis of family relation rather than abilities, skills and education. An intermediate (FA) pass boy can have a good job in a bank if he has an uncle at high post. This is not only practice in the government sector but also in private and multinational companies operating there.

    Family comes first: People in Mirpur believe that family is the most important asset of their life. They always give first priority to family no matter what. Even if there family is at wrong, still they will be standing with them. They have very strong affiliations with their family be it the ones living in Mirpur or the ones in England.


    Attributes of the Inhabitants

    Mirpur has people who are very loving and kind by nature. They are helpful at time of needs even for their enemies. They consider their guests as 'rahmat and barkat' (good omen). They welcome their guests warmly and treat them with whole heart. Most of the people in Mirpur are lazy and do not want to work hard, so they make malls, shops, bungalows, buy cars and give them on rent which is their source of income. In this way they don’t have to work hard and by sitting at home and doing nothing they earn.


    Agriculture

    Most of the area's bushy landscapes are barren, leaving only a small stretch of fertile land but there is highly-productive land near water. One crop cultivated during the spring/summer season is millet. Also, a few farms grow vegetables and wheat, especially when the dam water subsides during the winter season.


    Industry

    The government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has successfully developed Mirpur industrially and promoted private investment in a diverse economy: foam, polypropylene, synthetic yarn, motorbikes and scooter, textile, vegetable oil (ghee), wood and sawmills, soap, cosmetics, marble, ready-made garments, matches and rosin, turpentine. The economy of Mirpur generated economy of Azad Kashmir. However, much of the infrastructure still needs improvement so that high-quality products can be obtained.

    As part of the relief/compensation package in the wake of Mangla Dam raising, a new city is being developed along the south-eastern outskirts of Mirpur, with the main city of Mirpur being doubled. Much construction occurred around the whole district by Pakistani and Chinese contractors, raising the dam. Four towns in the district have been planned near the new city to resettle the population affected by the project.


    Education

    Previously, the University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir was the only institution for higher studies but in the last couple decades, there have been significant changes in the educational infrastructure. The Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), the Akson College of Health Science (College of Pharmacy) and the Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College have been formed.

    The AJK Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Mirpur is responsible for the studies at lower levels. In addition to the state-run schools and colleges, Mirpur has a well-developed private sector providing the education to all sects of the society such as the following:

    7Cs Professional Institute, Mohi ud Din Islamic Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic Medical College, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College, Mirpur Azad Kashmir, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Punjab College, Mirpur, Kashmir Model College Mirpur (KMC), The Nimble School Mirpur, Roots School System and The City School.

    According to the Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2015, Mirpur is ranked 13 out of 148 districts in terms of education. For facilities and infrastructure, the district is ranked 87 out of 148.


    Media

    Electronic and print media are rapidly increasing in number. A number of media companies are taking interest in Mirpur and launching their newspapers as Mirpur edition. Daily Mahasib started its journey in February 2006. Other newspapers also launched their Mirpur edition like Daily Ausaf, Daily Adalat, Daily Shaheen, Daily Kashmir express. They all provide daily Mirpur news, International news, national news, political news, sports, entertainment, showbiz, commerce and business news etc.


    Sport

    Football, cricket and volleyball are popular in Mirpur. Mirpur has a cricket stadium, Quaid-e-Azam Stadium. There are some registered sports clubs such as A-5 Cricket Club, Al-Siraj Cricket Club, South Asia Cricket Club, Pilot Football Club, Youth Football Club and Kashmir National FC. The district football team of Mirpur take part in the All Azad Jammu and Kashmir football championships.


    Transport

    CNG auto rickshaws are very popular mode of transport for short routes within the city. The city's transport system links it to a number of destinations in Azad Kashmir notably Bhimber, Jatlan, Chakswari, Dadyal, Kotli and Khoi Ratta and to major cities in Pakistan as well as including services to Gujrat, Jhelum, Kharian, Gujranwala, Lahore and Rawalpindi. There is no railway station in Mirpur. The closest station is in Dina. The promise of a rail extension to Mirpur has not been fulfilled.

    Islamabad Airport which services the Mirpur region is 130 km away. Sialkot International Airport is 110 kilometres away. An international airport has been planned. The location of the airport has not been determined, but possible locations near Mirpur are Mangla, Jatlan and Bhalwhara. In August 2013, the National Assembly and the prime minister approved the airport. It was determined that the airport would be constructed in two years after funding.


    Shopping

    Mirpur is the shopping capital of Azad Kashmir. The shopping area is centred on Chowk Shaheed, Mian Muhammad Road, Purani Hattian, Nangi and Allama Iqbal Road.


    Demographics

    According to the 1998 census, Mirpur had a population of approximately 100,000. Mirpur's original population comprises different tribes similar to that of Punjab. However, since 1947, Pahari people emigrated from the neighbouring Rajouri and Poonch districts of the Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir. The bulk of the Mirpuri diaspora resides in England, United Kingdom.


    Culture

    The Saif Ul Malook Festival takes place annually in April, usually in the city centre. It is an event celebrating the anniversary of Baba Pir-e-Shah Ghazi Qalandar (Damrian Wali Sarkar), who was the spiritual guide/teacher of Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, the Sufi saint and Pothari poet famous for his poem Saif ul Malook.


    Rathoa Mela

    The Rathoa Maila takes place annually in summer in Rathoa Town near the dam front. It is an event celebrating culture value peace and tolerance.

    Pahari Mushahira

    Pahari Mushahira is a literary event in which poets from all over Azad Kashmir present their poems to the general public. It is celebrated regularly in Mirpur, as part of the campaign of Alami Pahari.

    Adabi Sangat for the preservation and rehabilitation of the Pahari language and the culture of Jammu and Kashmir.


    Tourism

    The following places are of interest; Khari Sharif Darbar, Mangla Dam and Ramkot Fort


    Climate

    The average annual temperature is 27.4 °C and the average annual rainfall is 109 mm. Mirpur is the breadbasket of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and has a climate similar to that of the neighbouring Potohar and Punjab. Since it is in the extreme south of Jammu and Kashmir, Mirpur has a climate that is extremely hot and dry during summer, making it very similar to the Pakistani areas of Jehlum and Gujar Khan.


    Notable people

    Baba Shadi Shaheed, Chaudhry Abdul Majid, Sultan Mehmood Chaudhry, Lord Nazir Ahmed, Member of the British House of Lords, Mian Muhammad Bakhsh - Sufi saint and Poet, Afaq Raheem - A first-class Pakistani cricketer, Dr. Moeed Pirzada, a well-known journalist and anchor person, Major General Jamil Rahmat Vance - A serving General in Pakistan army, Moeen Ali – Cricketer in UK and Mohammad Sharif Chattar educationist, botanist, author and poet.

    Twin cities

    London, England - Birmingham, England - Bradford, England
     
  13. Syed Hammad Ahmed

    Syed Hammad Ahmed FULL MEMBER

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    Karachi
     
  14. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Attock

    Attock was named Campbellpur?

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    Attock city is located in Pothohar Plateau of the northern part of the Punjab Province of Pakistan and is the capital of the district. The district was created in April 1904 by the merging tehsils of nearby districts. Today the District consists of 6 tehsils that are Attock, Fateh Jang, Hazro, Hassan Abdal, Jand and Pindi Gheb. Attock district is bordered by Chakwal to its south, Mianwali to its south west, Rawalpindi to its east, Kohat to its west, Nowshera to its north-west and Swabi and Haripur to its north.

    The original name of Attock District was Attock. It was changed to Campbellpur after the name of Commander-in-Chief of British forces Sir Colin Campbell, who re-built the city of Campbellpur on the banks of the River Indus, 80 km (50 mi) from Rawalpindi, 100 km (62 mi) from Peshawar. The name of the district was changed to Attock again as of 1978 again.

    Attock's first oil well was drilled in Khaur in 1915. It has an oil and gas field Dakhini near Jand. Dhurnal & Sadkal in Tehsil Fateh Jang.


    History

    Gandhara was an ancient kingdom extending to the Swat valley and the Pothohar plateau regions of Pakistan as well as the Jalalabad district of north-eastern Afghanistan. Situated astride the middle Indus River, the region had Takshashila and Peshawar as its chief cities. It was conquered by the Persian Empire and later in 327 BC by Alexander the Great. The region occupied by Chandragupta, founder of the Maurya Empire, in the late 4th century BC, and under Ashoka was converted in the mid-3rd century BC to Buddhism. It was part of Bactria from the late 3rd century to the 1st century BC.

    Under the Kushan dynasty (1st century–3rd century AD), and especially under Kanishka, Gandhara developed a noted school of sculpture, consisting mainly of images of the Buddha and reliefs representing scenes from Buddhist texts, but with marked Greco-Roman elements of style. The art form flourished in Gandhara until the 5th century, when the region was conquered by the Huns. The whole region formed part of the Kingdom of Ederatides the Greek, who extended his power over western Punjab. The Indo-Greek kings held the country after him, being at last ousted (about 80 B.C.) by the Indo-Scythians. When the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited the Attock district in 630 A.D. and again in 643 A.D., he reported that Buddhism was declining in the region.

    In the early 11th century, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi launched seventeen expeditions into South Asia. In 1001, he defeated Raja Jayapala of the Hindu Shahi Dynasty of Gandhara in the Battle of Peshawar and marched further into Peshawar and, in 1005, made it the centre for his empire. Attock became part of the Ghaznavid Empire. The Attock fort was completed in 1583 under the supervision of Khawaja Shamsuddin Khawafi, a minister of Emperor Akbar.

    The Battle of Attock took place in April 1758 between Indian Maratha Kingdom and the Durrani Empire. The Marathas under Raghunathrao Ballal Peshwa and Maharaja Tukojirao Holkar Bahadur were victorious in the battle and Attock was captured. In May 1758, the Marathas defeated Durrani forces in the Battle of Peshawar and captured the city of Peshawar. Marathas had now reached the Afghanistan border. Ahmad Shah Durrani got alarmed with this success of Marathas and started planning to recapture his lost territories.

    After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikhs invaded and occupied Attock District. The Sikhs established religious freedom and respected the native Muslims. The Sikh Kingdom (1799–1849) under Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) captured the fortress of Attock in 1813 from the Afghan Kingdom. In 1849, Attock was conquered by the British who created Campbellpur District.

    The city's foundations were laid in 1903, and it was named Campbellpur after Sir Colin Campbell. It was established near Attock fort that had guarded the major routes towards Central Asia. The district was created in April 1904 by the merger of Talagang Tehsil in the Jhelum District with the Pindigheb, Fateh Jang and Attock tehsils from Rawalpindi District of the Punjab province of British Raj.

    The predominantly Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India, while Muslim refugees from India settled in Attock. The Pakistan Government re-named Campbellpur as Attock in 1978.


    Education

    According to the Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2014, Attock is ranked 3 out of 146 districts in Pakistan in terms of the quality of education. For facilities and infrastructure, the district is ranked 17 out of 146. A detailed picture of the district's education performance is also available online.

    Army Public School & College, Noble Grammar, The City School, The Smart School System, and Beaconhouse School are few of the many educational institutes in Attock.


    Demography

    According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the district had a population of 1,274,935 of which 20.45% were urban. The estimated population in 2008 was 1.58 million.

    The predominant first language according to the 1998 census was Punjabi, spoken by 87% of the population. Pashto was the language of 8.3% and Urdu of 1.1%. The Punjabi dialect of the eastern Fateh Jang Tehsil is called Sohai and belongs to the Dhanni dialect group. The dialects of Pindi Gheb Tehsil (called Ghebi) and of Attock (sometimes called Chacchi) have been classified as part of Hindko proper.


    Administrative divisions

    The district of Attock is divided into six tehsils which contain a total of 72 Union Councils.


    Education

    Attock has a total of 1,287 government schools out of which 51 percent (657 schools) are for girl students. The district has an enrolment of 224,487 in public sector schools.
     
  15. ghazi52

    ghazi52 ELITE MEMBER

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    Taxila

    Taxila had one of the earliest universities in the world


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    Considered to be a centre of learning and to have one of the earliest universities in the world, Taxila is an ancient city and important archaeological site. Its ruins were first excavated by John Marshall, who worked at Taxila over a period of twenty years from 1913. By identifying a local site known as Sarai kala (or Sarai Khola) with ancient Taxila, the famous archaeologist Alexander Cunningham re-discovered the ruins of Taxila in the mid-19th century. Prior to that, the location of the ancient city of Taxila, known from literary texts, was uncertain.

    Taxila was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980 in particular for the ruins of the four settlement sites which reveal the pattern of urban evolution on the Indian subcontinent through more than five centuries. The serial site includes a number of monuments and other historical places of note in the area besides the four settlements at Bhir, Saraikela, Sirkap, and Sirsukh. They number 18 in all.

    In a 2010 report, Global Heritage Fund identified Taxila as one of 12 most worldwide sites on the Verge of irreparable loss and damage, citing insufficient management, development pressure, looting, and war and conflict as primary threats. In 2017, it was announced that Thailand would assist in conservation efforts at Taxila, as well as at Buddhist sites in the Swat Valley.

    Situated at the pivotal junction of South Asia and Central Asia, Taxila’s origin as a city goes back to c. 1000 BCE. Some ruins at Taxila date to the time of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE, followed successively by Mauryan, Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian, and Kushan periods. Owing to its strategic location, Taxila has changed hands many times over the centuries, with many empires vying for its control. When the great ancient trade routes connecting these regions ceased to be important, the city sank into insignificance and was finally destroyed by the nomadic Hunas in the 5th century.

    In 2006 Taxila was ranked as the top tourist destination in Pakistan by The Guardian newspaper. In a 2010 report, Global Heritage Fund identified Taxila as one of 12 most worldwide sites on the verge of irreparable loss and damage, citing insufficient management, development pressure, looting, and war and conflict as primary threats.


    Etymology

    Taxila was known in Pali as Takkasila, and in Sanskrit as Takshashila. The Greeks pared the city's name down to Taxila, which became the name that the Europeans were familiar with ever since the time of Alexander the Great.

    Takshashila can also alternately be translated to 'Rock of Taksha' in reference to the Ramayana which states that the city was named in honour of Bharata's son and first ruler, Taksha. According to another derivation, Takshashila is related to Takshaka (Sanskrit for carpenter) and is an alternate name for the Naga, a non-Indo-Iranian people of ancient India.

    The Ramayana describes Takshashila as a magnificent city famed for its wealth which was founded by Bharata, the younger brother of Rama. Bharata, who also founded nearby Pushkalavati, installed his two sons, Taksha and Pushkala, as the rulers of the two cities.

    In the Buddhist Jatakas, Taxila is described as the capital of the kingdom of Gandhara and a great centre of learning with world-famous teachers. The Takkasila Jataka, more commonly known as the Telapatta Jataka, tells the tale of a prince of Benares who is told that he would become the king of Takkasila if he could reach the city within seven days without falling prey to the yakkhinis who waylaid travellers in the forest. According to the Dipavamsa, one of Taxila's early kings was a Kshatriya named Dipankara who was succeeded by twelve sons and grandsons. Kunjakarṇa, mentioned in the Avadanakalpalata, is another king associated with the city.

    In the Jain tradition, it is said that Rishabha, the first of the Tirthankaras, visited Taxila millions of years ago. His footprints were subsequently consecrated by Bahubali who erected a throne and a dharmachakra ("wheel of the law") over them several miles in height and circumference.


    History

    The region around Taxila was settled by the neolithic era, with some ruins at Taxila dating to 3360 BCE. Ruins dating from the Early Harappan period around 2900 BCE have also been discovered in the Taxila area, though the area was eventually abandoned after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

    The first major settlement at Taxila was established around 1000 BCE. By 900 BCE, the city was already involved in regional commerce, as discovered pottery shards reveal trading ties between the city and Puṣkalavati.

    Taxila was founded in a strategic location along the ancient 'Royal Highway' that connected the capital at Pataliputra in Bihar, with ancient Peshawar, Puṣkalavati, and onwards towards Central Asia via Kashmir, Bactria, and Kapisa. Taxila thus changed hands many times over the centuries, with many empires vying for its control.


    Achaemenid

    Archaeological excavations show that the city may have grown significantly during the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE. In 516 BCE, Darius I embarked on a campaign to conquer Central Asia, Ariana and Bactria, before marching onto what is now Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. Emperor Darius spent the winter of 516-515 BCE in the Gandhara region surrounding Taxila, and prepared to conquer the Indus Valley, which he did in 515 BCE, after which he appointed Scylax of Caryanda to explore the Indian Ocean from the mouth of the Indus to the Suez. Darius then returned to Persia via the Bolan Pass. The region continued under Achaemenid suzerainty under the reign of Xerxes I, and continued under Achaemenid rule for over a century.


    Hellenistic and Mauryan

    Alexander the Great invaded Taxila in 326 BCE, after the city was surrendered by its ruler, king Omphis. Greek historians accompanying Alexander described Taxila as 'wealthy, prosperous, and well governed.'

    Taxila came under the control of Chandragupta Maurya, who turned Taxila into a regional capital. His advisor, Kautilya, was said to have taught at Taxila university. Under the reign of Ashoka, the city was made a great seat of Buddhist learning, though the city was home to a minor rebellion during this time.



    Indo-Greek

    In the 2nd century BCE, Taxila was annexed by the Indo-Greek kingdom of Bactria. Indo-Greeks built a new capital, Sirkap, on the opposite bank of the river from Taxila. During this new period of Bactrian Greek rule, several dynasties (like Antialcidas) likely ruled from the city as their capital. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, to independently control several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city's autonomous coinage. In about the 1st century BCE or 1st century CE, an Indo-Scythian king named Azilises had three mints, one of which was at Taxila, and struck coins with obverse legends in Greek and Kharosthi.

    The last Greek king of Taxila was overthrown by the Indo-Scythian chief Maues around 90 BCE. Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom, conquered Taxila around 20 BCE, and made Taxila his capital. According to early Christian legend, Thomas the Apostle visited Gondophares IV around 46 CE, possibly at Taxila given that that city was Gondophares' capital city.


    Kushan

    In the first century CE, the Greek Neopythagorean philosopher Apollonius of Tyana visited Taxila, which his team described as a fortified city laid out on a symmetrical plan, similar in size to Nineveh. Inscriptions dating to 76 CE demonstrate that the city had come under Kushan rule by this time, after the city was captured from the Parthians by Kujula Kadphises, founder of the Kushan Empire. The great Kushan ruler Kanishka later founded Sirsukh, the most recent of the ancient settlements at Taxila.


    Gupta

    In the mid Fourth Century CE, the Gupta Empire occupied the territories in Eastern Gandhara, establishing a Kumaratya's post at Taxila. The City became well known for its Trade links- including Silk, Sandalwood, Horses, Cotton, Silverware, Pearls, and Spices. It is during this time that the City heavily features in Classical Indian Literature - both as a centre of Culture as well as a militarised border City.

    Taxila's university remained in existence during the travels of Chinese pilgrim Faxian, who visited Taxila around 400 CE. He wrote that Taxila's name translated as "the Severed Head", and was the site of a story in the life of Buddha 'where he gave his head to a man'.


    Decline

    The Kidarites, vassals of the Hephthalite Empire are known to have invaded Taxila in c. 450 CE. Though repelled by the Gupta Emperor Skandagupta, the City would not recover- probably on account of the strong Hunnic presence in the area, breakdown of trade as well as the three-way war between Persia, the Kidarite State, and the Huns in Western Gandhara.

    The White Huns swept over Gandhara and Punjab around 470 CE, causing widespread devastation and destruction of Taxila famous Buddhist monasteries and stupas, a blow from which the city would never recover. From 500 CE to 540 CE, the City fell under the control of the Hunnic Empire in India and languished.

    Xuanzang visited India between 629 to 645 CE. Taxila which was desolate and half-ruined was visited by him in 630 CE, and found most of its sangharamas still ruined and desolate with the state having become a dependency of Kashmir with the local leaders fighting amongst themselves for power. Only a few monks remained there. He noted that it had some time previously been a subject of Kapisa. By the ninth century, it became a dependency of the Kabul Shahis.


    Centre of learning

    By some accounts, Taxila was considered to be one of the earliest (or the earliest) universities in the world. Taxila became a noted centre of learning (including the religious teachings of Buddhism) at least several centuries BCE, and continued to attract students from around the old world until the destruction of the city in the 5th century. It has been suggested that at its height, Taxila exerted a sort of intellectual suzerainty over other centres of learning in India and its primary concern was not with elementary, but higher education.

    Generally, a student entered Taxila at the age of sixteen. The ancient and the most revered scriptures, and the Eighteen Silpas or Arts, which included skills such as archery, hunting, and elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law school, medical school, and school of military science. Students came to Taxila from far-off places such as Kashi, Kosala and Magadha, in spite of the long and arduous journey they had to undergo, on account of the excellence of the learned teachers there, all recognised as authorities on their respective subjects.


    Notable students and teachers

    Taxila had great influence on Hindu culture and the Sanskrit language. It is perhaps best known for its association with Chanakya, also known as Kautilya, the strategist who guided Chandragupta Maurya and assisted in the founding of the Mauryan Empire. Chanakya's Arthashastra (The knowledge of Economics) is said to have been composed in Taxila itself. The Ayurvedic healer Charaka also studied at Taxila. He also started teaching at Taxila in the later period. Paṇini, the grammarian who codified the rules that would define Classical Sanskrit, has also been part of the community at Taxila.

    The institution is significant in Buddhist tradition since it is believed that the Mahayana branch of Buddhism took shape there. Jivaka, the court physician of the Magadha emperor Bimbisara who once cured the Buddha, and the Buddhism-supporting ruler of Kosala, Prasenajit, are some important personalities mentioned in Pali texts who studied at Taxila.

    No external authorities like kings or local leaders subjected the scholastic activities at Taxila to their control. Each teacher formed his own institution, enjoying complete autonomy in work, teaching as many students as he liked and teaching subjects he liked without conforming to any centralised syllabus. Study terminated when the teacher was satisfied with the student's level of achievement. In general, specialisation in a subject took around eight years, though this could be lengthened or shortened in accordance with the intellectual abilities and dedication of the student in question. In most cases the schools were located within the teachers' private houses, and at times students were advised to quit their studies if they were unable to fit into the social, intellectual and moral atmosphere there.

    Knowledge was considered too sacred to be bartered for money, and hence any stipulation that fees ought to be paid was vigorously condemned. Financial support came from the society at large, as well as from rich merchants and wealthy parents. Though the number of students studying under a single Guru sometimes numbered in the hundreds, teachers did not deny education even if the student was poor; free boarding and lodging was provided, and students had to do manual work in the household. Paying students, such as princes, were taught during the day, while non-paying ones were taught at night.

    Gurudakshina was usually expected at the completion of a student's studies, but it was essentially a mere token of respect and gratitude - many times being nothing more than a turban, a pair of sandals, or an umbrella. In cases of poor students being unable to afford even that, they could approach the king, who would then step in and provide something. Not providing a poor student a means to supply his Guru's Dakshina was considered the greatest slur on a King's reputation.

    Examinations were treated as superfluous, and not considered part of the requirements to complete one's studies. The process of teaching was critical and thorough- unless one unit was mastered completely, the student was not allowed to proceed to the next. No convocations were held upon completion, and no written degrees were awarded, since it was believed that knowledge was its own reward. Using knowledge for earning a living or for any selfish end was considered sacrilegious.

    Students arriving at Taxila usually had completed their primary education at home (until the age of eight), and their secondary education in the Ashrams (between the ages of eight and twelve), and therefore came to Taxila chiefly to reach the ends of knowledge in specific disciplines.


    Ruins

    The sites of a number of important cities noted in ancient Indian texts were identified by scholars early in the 19th century. The lost city of Taxila however, wasn't one of them. Its identification was made difficult partly due to errors in the distances recorded by Pliny in his Naturalis Historia which pointed to a location somewhere on the Haro river, two days march from the Indus. Alexander Cunningham, the founder and the first director-general of the Archaeological Survey of India, noticed that this position did not agree with the descriptions provided in the itineraries of Chinese pilgrims and in particular, that of Xuanzang, the 7th-century Buddhist monk. Unlike Pliny, these sources noted that the journey to Taxila from the Indus took three days and not two. Cunningham's subsequent explorations in 1863–64 of a site at Shah-dheri convinced him that his hypothesis was correct.

    Now as Hwen Thsang, on his return to China, was accompanied by laden elephants, his three days' journey from Takhshasila to the Indus at Utakhanda, or Ohind, must necessarily have been of the same length as those of modern days, and, consequently, the site of the city must be looked for somewhere in the neighbourhood of Kala-ka-sarai. This site is found near Shah-dheri, just one mile to the north-east of Kala-ka-sarai, in the extensive ruins of a fortified city, around which I was able to trace no less than 55 stupas, of which two are as large as the great Manikyala tope, twenty eight monasteries, and nine temples.

    The vast archaeological site includes neolithic remains dating to 3360 BCE, and Early Harappan remains dating to 2900–2600 BCE at Sarai Kala. Taxila, however, is most famous for ruins of several settlements, the earliest dating from around 1000 BCE. It is also known for its collection of Buddhist religious monuments, including the Dharmarajika stupa, the Jaulian monastery, and the Mohra Muradu monastery.

    The main ruins of Taxila include four major cities, each belonging to a distinct time period, at three different sites. The earliest settlement at Taxila is found in the Hathial section, which yielded pottery shards that date from as early as the late 2nd millennium BCE to the 6th century BCE. The Bhir Mound ruins at the site date from the 6th century BCE, and are adjacent to Hathial. The ruins of Sirkap date to the 2nd century BCE, and were built by the region's Greco-Bactrian kings who ruled in the region following Alexander the Great's invasion of the region in 326 BCE. The third and most recent settlement is that of Sirsukh, which was built by rulers of the Kushan Empire, who ruled from nearby Purushapura (modern Peshawar).


    Modern Taxila

    Approximately 549 metres (1,801 ft) above sea level, modern Taxila is a city in Rawalpindi District situated about 32 km (20 mi) north-west of twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, along the historic Grand Trunk Road, near the important Sikh pilgrimage centre of Hasan Abdal, and the Mughal-era Wah Gardens.


    Education

    Taxila is home to many secondary educational institutes including CIIT Wah Campus, and HITEC University. The University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila was established in 1975 as a campus of the University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, and offers bachelor, master, and doctoral degrees in engineering.


    Culture

    Modern Taxila is a mix of relatively wealthy urban, and poorer rural environs. Urban residential areas are general in the form of planned housing colonies populated by workers of the heavy mechanical complex & heavy industries, educational institutes and hospitals that are located in the area.


    Museums

    Taxila Museum has one of the most significant and comprehensive collections of stone Buddhist sculpture from the first to the seventh centuries in Pakistan (known as Gandharan art. The core of the collection comes from excavated sites in the Taxila Valley, particularly the excavations of Sir John Marshall. Other objects come from excavated sites elsewhere in Gandhara, from donations such as the Ram Das Collection, or from material confiscated by the police and custom authorities.


    Tourism

    Taxila is one of northern Pakistan's most important tourist destinations, and is home to the Taxila Museum which holds a large number of artifacts from Taxila's excavations. Though the number of foreign visitors to the site drastically declined following the start of an Islamist insurgency in Pakistan in 2007, visitor numbers began to noticeably improve by 2017, after the law and order situation in the region had greatly improved following the start of the 2014 Zarb-e-Azb campaign launched by the Pakistani Army against radical Islamist militants.

    In 2017, the Pakistani government announced its intention to develop Taxila into a site for Buddhist religious pilgrimage. As part of the efforts, it announced that an exhibition on the Buddhist heritage of the region would be held in Thailand, and that the Thai government would assist in conservation efforts at the site. Relics from Taxila were also sent to Sri Lanka for the 2017 Vesak holiday as part of an effort to showcase the region's Buddhist heritage. The Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation also announced in 2017 that a tour bus service would be launched between the Taxila Museum and Islamabad.

    In addition to the ruins of ancient Taxila, relics of Mughal gardens and vestiges of historical Grand Trunk Road are also found in Taxila. Nicholson's Obelisk, named in honour of Brigadier John Nicholson who died in during the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, is a monument from the British era that welcomes travellers arriving from Rawalpindi / Islamabad.


    Climate

    Taxila features a humid subtropical climate.


    Industry

    Taxila is home to Heavy Industries Taxila, a major Pakistani defence, military contractor, engineering conglomerate. The city's economy is also closely linked to the large Pakistan Ordnance Factories at nearby Wah Cantt, which employs 27,000 people. Cottage and household industries include stoneware, pottery and footwear.


    Transportation

    Rail

    Taxila is served by the Taxila Cantonment Junction railway station. Taxila Junction is served by the Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line, and is the southern terminus of the Khunjerab Railway, which connects Taxila to the Havelian railway station. A planned extension of the railway will eventually connect Taxila to China's Southern Xinjiang Railway in Kashgar, as part of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Road
    The ancient Grand Trunk Road is designated as N-5 National Highway, and connects the city to the Afghan border, and northern Punjab. The Karakoram Highway's southern terminus is in nearby Hasan Abdal, and connects Taxila to the Chinese border near the Hunza Valley. The city is linked to Peshawar and Islamabad by the M-1 Motorway, which in turn offers wider motorway access to Lahore via the M-2 Motorway, and Faisalabad via the M-4 Motorway.
     
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