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History of Pakistan Army.

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An Aerial View Of Kohat Fort, 1932 (c).

Constructed - 1853, Used by - Great Britain, Now Pakistan, Also known As: Fort Mackeson, Kohat Fort. Conflict In Which It Participated Various Colonial Miniscuffles.

Royal Air Force Aerial Reconnaissance On The North West Frontier Of India, 1919 - 1939 (c)

Oblique Aerial Photograph Taken By a Type F.8 Aerial Camera - 60 Sqaurdon Royal Air Force.

© Imperial War Museum



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The meeting of Emir Mohammad Yaqub Khan and Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari before the Treaty of Gandamak, May 1879.

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Photograph of the meeting of Emir Mohammad Yaqub Khan (1849-1923) and Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari (1841-79) before the Treaty of Gandamak. Sir Cavagnari, the British representative, and another uniformed officer are mounted on horses in a lane in the foreground, their backs to the camera. The Emir and followers are mounted facing them. On the hillside to the right there is large group of mounted British soldiers.

Mountains extend into the distance behind them. The Treaty of Gandamak ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-80). Afghanistan conceded territory to British control and Sir Cavagnari became the British representative in Kabul. He was killed by Afghan forces a few months later and fighting resumed. This photograph was taken by John Burke, who travelled with the Peshawar Valley Field Force during the war.

The photographer John Burke travelled with the Peshawar Valley Field Force during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-80), one of a series of conflicts between Britian and Russia over control of Afghanistan. His images from the war capture landscapes, key strategic sites and significant figures involved in the conflict.

© John Burke / Royal Collection Trust
 

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5th (Bombay) Mountain Battery saluting whilst marching past the Commander in Chief, General Sir Robert Archibald Cassels.

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Havildar Major Ali Akhbar leads the march past, which took place near Bichle Kashkai in Waziristan (KPK). The figure standing behind the Commander-in-Chief is Brigadier Noyes.
Date: 1937
Source /Copyright:: National Army Museum UK.
 

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1st; Punjab regiment on the march in majestic Waziristan in November 1934.


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Lord Wavell (Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell
Former Governor-General of India), chatting to British and native officers of the Khyber Rifles, North-West Frontier, 1945 (c).

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The Khyber Rifles were one of several paramilitary police units recruited from the tribesmen of the North-West Frontier. They served as auxiliaries to the regular Indian Army. Recruited from Afridi Pathan tribesmen, the Rifles were commanded by British officers on secondment from regular Indian regiments.

When Pakistan won its independence in 1947 the Rifles became part of the new country's Frontier Corps and continued to police the unruly tribal districts.

From an album of 317 photographs relating to the Indian Army service of Capt, later Brig, John R Booth, 4th Bn 14th Punjab Regiment, 1936 to 1947.

© National Army Museum
 

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Gen Sir Douglas Gracey, C-in-C Pakistan Army, reviewing the 1st #Bahawalpur Infantry at Dera Nawab, 1948


There are some accounts which shows that General Gracey was a Black Sheep commanding Pak Army at that time who ignored the Quid E Azam's orders to send Pak Army troops to Kashmir and later he sabotaged the KPK volunteers mission by informing the India about their possible response to the Maharaja's illegal effort of merging the Kashmir with India.
 

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Punjab Regiment (Pakistan)








The Punjab Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army. It was raised in its current form in 1956, following the amalgamation of the 1st, 14th, 15th and 16th Punjab regiments that were inherited by the Dominion of Pakistan from the British Indian Army upon the Partition of India. Since then, the regiment has expanded in size to 74 battalions.

It is the oldest regiment in the Pakistan Army, tracing its lineage to as far back as 1751, during the reign of the Mughal Empire. The regiment's battalions have a distinguished record of military service, spanning the rise and decline of British colonial rule in South Asia, both World War I and World War II, as well as post-independence Pakistan.

Early history

General Arthur Wellesley, later Duke of Wellington, directing the 2/12th Madras Native Infantry (10/1st Punjab), at the Battle of Assaye, 1803. Painting by JC Stadler c. 1815.



General Arthur Wellesley, later Duke of Wellington, directing the 2/12th Madras Native Infantry (10/1st Punjab), at the Battle of Assaye, 1803. Painting by JC Stadler c. 1815.

The Punjab Regiment of Pakistan traces its origins back to the Madras Army of the British East India Company. The senior-most battalion of the 1st Punjab Regiment (which existed separately before 1956) was raised in 1759 as the 3rd Battalion of Coast Sepoys, and became the oldest-surviving infantry battalion of the erstwhile British Indian Army.

Their first major engagement saw a decisive victory at the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760, when the British East India Company, led by Sir Eyre Coote, effectively ended French colonial ambitions in South Asia. All of the regiment's battalions subsequently played an important role in the early military campaigns of the East India Company and were actively engaged in the wars against the French, the Mysores and the Marathas.

The numbers and titles of the battalions changed during the successive reorganizations of the Madras Presidency Army, the British Indian Army and the Indian Army during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The names changed from Coast Sepoys to Carnatic Infantry, Madras Native Infantry, Punjabis and finally to the Punjab Regiment. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the new colonial administration applied the martial races concept, following which north Indian soldiers overwhelmingly supplanted the south Indians. The regiment was eventually renamed to the Punjab Regiment. Currently, it has 76 battalions.


British Raj


20th (Punjab) Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry (now 6 Punjab, Pakistan Army), Egypt, 1882.



20th (Punjab) Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry (now 6 Punjab, Pakistan Army), Egypt, 1882.


Following the British Crown's takeover of rule over British India from the East India Company in 1858, the Punjab regiments played a role in numerous conflicts across the world involving the British Empire. Various battalions were deployed to regions of British interest, ranging from modern-day China, Egypt, Burma and erstwhile Abyssinia.

Between 1903 and 1922, the British Indian Army included 28 numbered Punjabi Regiments. In 1922, these were amalgamated into six numbered regiments, namely:



These regiments would all play a prominent role during World War II. From the 14th Punjab Regiment, the 1st and 5th battalions were deployed in Malaya during the opening stages of the Southeast Asian theatre. The 1st Battalion, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel James Fitzpatrick, was overrun by Imperial Japanese forces at Changlun during the Battle of Jitra. With only 270 survivors, the 1st Battalion was not reformed during the rest of the campaign. The 5th Battalion, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Cyril Livesy Lawrence Stokes, performed relatively well in the British invasion of Japanese Thailand in early December 1941.

However, Stokes died in Japanese captivity on 15 February 1942, following the Battle of Slim River.[4] The 5/14th Punjabis was forced to surrender along with the rest of the British Commonwealth forces after the Fall of Singapore to the Empire of Japan on 15 February 1942. However, a number of the Indian troops from both battalions later joined the Japanese-backed Indian National Army, and formed a part of the Hindustan Field Force.

Partition of India and independence

33rd Punjabis Watercolour by Maj AC Lovett, 1910.



33rd Punjabis Watercolour by Maj AC Lovett, 1910.


In 1947, the British Raj announced the independence of British India, which would be split into two separate countries: a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan. Likewise, the British Indian Army was also to be divided between the two states. Out of the six existing Punjab Regiments, the 1st Punjab, 8th, 14th, 15th and 16th were allotted to the newly raised Pakistan Army, while the 2nd went to the Indian Army.

The Punjab Regiment of the Pakistan Army was raised in its present form in 1956, when four of the five Punjab Regiments allocated to Pakistan were merged into a unified unit.


Punjab Regiments allocated to Pakistan in 1947 (now part of the Pakistan Army Punjab Regiment)


The line up for the new regiment was:

Punjab Regiments allocated to India in 1947 (now part of the Indian Army Punjab Regiment)
The 1st Punjab's regimental centre was located in the city of Jhelum. In early September 1947, Pakistani personnel arrived from the 2nd Punjab's regimental centre in Meerut (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India) and Indian personnel were dispatched to either the 11th Sikhs or the 6th Rajputanas regimental centres depending on whether they were Sikhs or Hindu Rajputs.
The Punjab Regiment at its height totalled 58 battalions; however, 11 were transferred in 1980 to the Pakistan Army's newly raised Sind Regiment.

Class and religious composition

Before the Partition of India in 1947, the ethno-religious composition of the Punjab Regiment consisted of: Punjabi Muslims (50%); Punjabi Hindus (40%); Punjabi Sikhs (10%). Following the regiment's transfer to the Pakistan Army, it became largely religiously homogenous, comprising mostly Muslims with around 20% ethnic Pashtuns and 80% Punjabis.


Modern regiment

The Punjab Regiment is the largest infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army, consisting of 74 battalions; these range anywhere from mechanized to light anti-tank infantry battalions. Its regimental centre is located in Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The current colonel commandant of the regiment is Lieutenant-General Majid Ehsan.[citation needed]
Since the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the Punjab Regiment has seen the appointment of four colonel-in-chiefs;

Recipients of the Nishan-e-Haider

The Nishan-e-Haider is the highest gallantry award awarded by Pakistan to those who show an incredible amount of valour and courage on the battlefield in the face of staunch adversity. To date, only ten soldiers have been awarded this honour, of which four belonged to the Punjab Regiment:
  1. Captain Muhammad Sarwar, 2nd Punjabis (1910 – July 27, 1948)
  2. Major Aziz Bhatti, 17th Punjabis (1928 – September 10, 1965)
  3. Naïk Muhammad Mahfuz, 15th Punjabis (1944 – December 17, 1971)
 

ghazi52

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Native Khasadars And British Officers, Razcol Main Camp, Sararogha, Waziristan, 1926 (c).

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Waziristan dominated events on the North-West Frontier politically and militarily.

After the tribal uprising of 1919-1920, it was decided during the spring of 1922 to locate the main garrison of Waziristan at Razmak. The self-contained cantonment, capable of holding 10,000 men, was established in January 1923.

New roads linking the garrisons and camps in the area were constructed to permit speedier troop movements. The Razmak Movable Column (RAZCOL) consisting of a strong brigade of all arms with all pack transport carried out the first of its many patrols between 1 and 14 June 1924. Sorarogha was a camp situated 24 km south east of Razmak.
 

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The 53rd Sikh Regiment Kohat, Circa 1920/1925.

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Now 5th Battalion FF Regiment.
 

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Col. Rafi Nasim with President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in 1972

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A delightful soul and one of the best known cricket administrators in Pakistan. Born in Lyallpur, January 10, 1931, he did his matriculation at Government High School, Amritsar in 1946. For further studies, he enrolled at Anglo Arabic College in Delhi, where his father was posted in the Government service. Following the partition of the sub-continent in August 1947, the family moved to Lahore and Rafi began his three-year student life at the prestigious Government College and graduating in 1950.
 

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Sepoy Ali Haidar Victoria Cross, 13th Frontier Force Rifles, 13 August 1945.

Photograph, World War II, Italy, Europe, 1945.

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Ali Haidar (1913-1999) was a Pashtun soldier from Kohat who won the VC on 9 April 1945 near Fusigano in Italy during 8th Indian Division's crossing of the River Senio.

According to the 'London Gazette' of 3 July 1945: 'In Italy, during the crossing of the River Senio, near Fusignano, in daylight on 9th April 1945, a Company of the 13th Frontier Force Rifles were ordered to assault the enemy positions strongly dug in on the far bank. These positions had been prepared and improved over many months and were mainly on the steep flood banks, some 25 feet high.

Sepoy Ali Haidar was a member of the left-hand Section of the left-hand Platoon. As soon as the Platoon started to cross, it came under heavy and accurate machine gun fire from two enemy posts strongly dug in about 60 yards away. Sepoy Ali Haidar's Section suffered casualties and only 3 men, including himself, managed to get across. The remainder of the Company was temporarily held up.

Without orders, and on his own initiative, Sepoy Ali Haidar, leaving the other two to cover him, charged the nearest post which was about 30 yards away. He threw a grenade and almost at the same time the enemy threw one at him, wounding him severely in the back. In spite of this he kept on and the enemy post was destroyed and four of the enemy surrendered.

With utter disregard of his own wounds he continued and charged the next post in which the enemy had one Spandau and three automatics, which were still very active and preventing movement on both banks. He was again wounded, this time in the right leg and right arm. Although weakened by loss of blood, with great determination Sepoy Ali Haidar crawled closer and in a final effort raised himself from the ground, threw a grenade, and charged into the second enemy post. Two enemy were wounded and the remaining two surrendered.

Taking advantage of the outstanding success of Sepoy Ali Haidar's dauntless attacks, the rest of the Company charged across the river and carried out their task of making a bridgehead. Sepoy Ali Haidar was picked up and brought back from the second position seriously wounded. The conspicuous gallantry, initiative, and determination combined with a complete disregard for his own life shown by this very brave Sepoy in the face of heavy odds were an example to the whole Company.

His heroism had saved an ugly situation which would - but for his personal bravery - have caused the Battalion a large number of casualties at a critical time and seriously delayed the crossing of the river and the building of a bridge. With the rapid advance which it was possible to make the Battalion captured 3 officers and 217 other ranks and gained their objectives'.

Ali Haidar was invested with his VC by King George VI at Buckingham Palace on 30 October 1945.

© National Army Museum
 

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